New York City - Liaison Office
1 History 2 Structure and function
2.1 General 2.2 Board of Governors 2.3 General Conference 2.4 Secretariat
3.1 Peaceful uses 3.2 Safeguards 3.3 Nuclear safety 3.4 Criticism
4 Membership 5 Regional Cooperative Agreements
5.1 AFRA 5.2 ARASIA 5.3 RCA 5.4 ARCAL
6 List of Directors General 7 See also 8 References
8.1 Notes 8.2 Works cited
9 External links
IAEA headquarters since 1979, Vienna, Austria
In 1953, the President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower,
proposed the creation of an international body to both regulate and
promote the peaceful use of atomic power (nuclear power), in his Atoms
for Peace address to the UN General Assembly. In
September 1954, the United States proposed to the General Assembly the
creation of an international agency to take control of fissile
material, which could be used either for nuclear power or for nuclear
weapons. This agency would establish a kind of "nuclear bank."
The United States also called for an international scientific
conference on all of the peaceful aspects of nuclear power.
By November 1954, it had become clear that the
Structure and function
The IAEA's mission is guided by the interests and needs of Member
States, strategic plans and the vision embodied in the IAEA Statute
(see below). Three main pillars – or areas of work – underpin the
IAEA's mission: Safety and Security; Science and Technology; and
Safeguards and Verification.
The IAEA as an autonomous organisation is not under direct control of
the UN, but the IAEA does report to both the UN General Assembly and
Security Council. Unlike most other specialised international
agencies, the IAEA does much of its work with the Security Council,
and not with the
Board of Governors
Main article: Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy
The Board of Governors is one of two policy making bodies of the IAEA.
The Board consists of 22 member states elected by the General
Conference, and at least 10 member states nominated by the outgoing
Board. The outgoing Board designates the ten members who are the most
advanced in atomic energy technology, plus the most advanced members
from any of the following areas that are not represented by the first
ten: North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe,
Africa, Middle East and South Asia, South East Asia, the Pacific, and
the Far East. These members are designated for one year terms. The
General Conference elects 22 members from the remaining nations to
two-year terms. Eleven are elected each year. The 22 elected members
must also represent a stipulated geographic diversity. The 35 Board
members for the 2018–2019 period are: Argentina,
Armenia, Australia, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China,
Ecuador, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan,
Jordan, Kenya, the Republic of Korea, Morocco, the Netherlands, Niger,
Pakistan, Portugal, the Russian Federation, Serbia, South Africa, the
Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland, the United States of America,
General Conference The General Conference is made up of all 171 member states. It meets once a year, typically in September, to approve the actions and budgets passed on from the Board of Governors. The General Conference also approves the nominee for Director General and requests reports from the Board on issues in question (Statute). Each member receives one vote. Issues of budget, Statute amendment and suspension of a member's privileges require a two- thirds majority and all other issues require a simple majority. Similar to the Board, the General Conference can, by simple majority, designate issues to require a two- thirds majority. The General Conference elects a President at each annual meeting to facilitate an effective meeting. The President only serves for the duration of the session (Statute). The main function of the General Conference is to serve as a forum for debate on current issues and policies. Any of the other IAEA organs, the Director General, the Board and member states can table issues to be discussed by the General Conference (IAEA Primer). This function of the General Conference is almost identical to the General Assembly of the United Nations.
Secretariat The Secretariat is the professional and general service staff of the IAEA. The Secretariat is headed by the Director General. The Director General is responsible for enforcement of the actions passed by the Board of Governors and the General Conference. The Director General is selected by the Board and approved by the General Conference for renewable four-year terms. The Director General oversees six departments that do the actual work in carrying out the policies of the IAEA: Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Safety and Security, Nuclear Sciences and Applications, Safeguards, Technical Cooperation, and Management. The IAEA budget is in two parts. The regular budget funds most activities of the IAEA and is assessed to each member nation (€344 million in 2014). The Technical Cooperation Fund is funded by voluntary contributions with a general target in the US$90 million range.
Missions The IAEA is generally described as having three main missions:
Peaceful uses: Promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy by its member states, Safeguards: Implementing safeguards to verify that nuclear energy is not used for military purposes, and Nuclear safety: Promoting high standards for nuclear safety. Peaceful uses According to Article II of the IAEA Statute, the objective of the IAEA is "to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world." Its primary functions in this area, according to Article III, are to encourage research and development, to secure or provide materials, services, equipment and facilities for Member States, to foster exchange of scientific and technical information and training. Three of the IAEA's six Departments are principally charged with promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The Department of Nuclear Energy focuses on providing advice and services to Member States on nuclear power and the nuclear fuel cycle. The Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications focuses on the use of non-power nuclear and isotope techniques to help IAEA Member States in the areas of water, energy, health, biodiversity, and agriculture. The Department of Technical Cooperation provides direct assistance to IAEA Member States, through national, regional, and inter-regional projects through training, expert missions, scientific exchanges, and provision of equipment.
Safeguards Article II of the IAEA Statute defines the Agency's twin objectives as promoting peaceful uses of atomic energy and "ensur[ing], so far as it is able, that assistance provided by it or at its request or under its supervision or control is not used in such a way as to further any military purpose." To do this, the IAEA is authorised in Article III.A.5 of the Statute "to establish and administer safeguards designed to ensure that special fissionable and other materials, services, equipment, facilities, and information made available by the Agency or at its request or under its supervision or control are not used in such a way as to further any military purpose; and to apply safeguards, at the request of the parties, to any bilateral or multilateral arrangement, or at the request of a State, to any of that State's activities in the field of atomic energy." The Department of Safeguards is responsible for carrying out this mission, through technical measures designed to verify the correctness and completeness of states' nuclear declarations.
Nuclear safety International policy relationships in radiological protection The IAEA classifies safety as one of its top three priorities. It spends 8.9 percent of its 352 million-euro ($469 million) regular budget in 2011 on making plants secure from accidents. Its resources are used on the other two priorities: technical co-operation and preventing nuclear weapons proliferation. The IAEA itself says that, beginning in 1986, in response to the nuclear reactor explosion and disaster near Chernobyl, Ukraine, the IAEA redoubled its efforts in the field of nuclear safety. The IAEA says that the same happened after the Fukushima disaster in Fukushima, Japan. In June 2011, the IAEA chief said he had "broad support for his plan to strengthen international safety checks on nuclear power plants to help avoid any repeat of Japan's Fukushima crisis". Peer-reviewed safety checks on reactors worldwide, organised by the IAEA, have been proposed.
Russian nuclear accident specialist Iouli Andreev is critical of the
response to Fukushima, and says that the IAEA did not learn from the
It recommends safety standards, but member states are not required to
comply; it promotes nuclear energy, but it also monitors nuclear use;
it is the sole global organisation overseeing the nuclear energy
industry, yet it is also weighed down by checking compliance with the
The journal Nature has reported that "the world must strengthen the
ability of the
International Atomic Energy Agency
Member states Membership approved
Membership withdrawn Non-members
Main article: Member states of the International Atomic Energy Agency
The process of joining the IAEA is fairly simple.
Normally, a State would notify the Director General of its desire to
join, and the Director would submit the application to the Board for
consideration. If the Board recommends approval, and the General
Conference approves the application for membership, the State must
then submit its instrument of acceptance of the IAEA Statute to the
United States, which functions as the depositary Government for the
IAEA Statute. The State is considered a member when its acceptance
letter is deposited. The United States then informs the IAEA, which
notifies other IAEA Member States. Signature and ratification of the
Regional Cooperative Agreements There are four regional cooperative areas within IAEA, that share information, and organize conferences within their regions:
AFRA The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA):
Algeria Chad Kenya Morocco South Africa Angola Ivory Coast Lesotho Mozambique Sudan Benin Democratic Republic of the Congo Libya Namibia Tanzania Botswana Egypt Madagascar Niger Tunisia Burkina Faso Eritrea Malawi Nigeria Uganda Burundi Ethiopia Mali Senegal Zambia Cameroon Gabon Mauritania Seychelles Zimbabwe Central African Republic Ghana Mauritius Sierra Leone
ARASIA Cooperative Agreement for Arab States in Asia for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (ARASIA):
Iraq Jordan Lebanon Saudi Arabia Oman Qatar Syria United Arab Emirates Yemen
RCA Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA):
Australia Bangladesh Cambodia China Fiji India Indonesia Japan South Korea Malaysia Mongolia Myanmar Nepal New Zealand Pakistan Palau Philippines Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand Vietnam
ARCAL Cooperation Agreement for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL):
Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Costa Rica Cuba Ecuador El Salvador Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Paraguay Peru Dominican Republic Uruguay Venezuela
List of Directors General
Name Nationality Duration Duration (years)
W. Sterling Cole United States 1 December 1957 – 30 November 1961 4
Sigvard Eklund Swedish 1 December 1961 – 30 November 1981 20
Hans Blix Swedish 1 December 1981 – 30 November 1997 16
Mohamed ElBaradei Egyptian 1 December 1997 – 30 November 2009 12
Yukiya Amano Japanese 1 December 2009 – present 9
European Organization for Nuclear Research
Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism
Institute of Nuclear Materials Management
International Energy Agency
International reaction to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster
Lists of nuclear disasters and radioactive incidents
Nuclear Energy Agency
Proliferation Security Initiative
^ a b "IAEA Offices and Contact Information". International Atomic Energy Agency. International Atomic Energy Agency. n.d. Retrieved 29 November 2018..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em
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Energy Agency: The First Forty Years (PDF). Vienna, Austria:
International Atomic Energy Agency. pp. 2, 108–109.
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^ IAEA Nuclear Knowledge Management Programme
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^ Nuclear Power Infrastructure, the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Group (INIG), International Atomic Energy Agency.
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^ a b IAEA Statute
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^ "Nuclear Techniques for Development and Environmental Protection". IAEA. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
^ "About Technical Cooperation". IAEA. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
^ "What We Do". IAEA. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
^ Jonathan Tirone (9 December 2011). "UN Atomic Agency Funds Anti-Terrorism, Not Safety". Bloomberg.
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^ Michael Shields (15 March 2011). "
^ a b Geoff Brumfiel (26 April 2011). "Nuclear agency faces reform calls". Nature.
^ a b Stephen Kurczy (17 March 2011). "
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^ "NFCIRC/447 – The Withdrawal of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea from the International Atomic Energy Agency" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 21 June 1994. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
^ "The Members of the Agency" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 10 February 2005. Retrieved 3 November 2014.
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^ "Miembros(Members) ARCAL". www.arcal-lac.org (in Spanish). arcal-lac. Retrieved 20 April 2017.
Works cited Board of Governors rules IAEA Primer Pillars of nuclear cooperation 2005 Radiation Protection of Patients External links
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International Atomic Energy Agency
Awards and achievements
Preceded byWangari Muta Maathai
Nobel Peace Prize
Succeeded byGrameen BankandMuhammad Yunus
vte United Nations
António Guterres, Secretary-General
Amina J. Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-General
María Fernanda Espinosa, General Assembly President
vteLaureates of the Nobel Peace Prize1901–1925
1901: Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy
1902: Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat
1903: Randal Cremer
1904: Institut de Droit International
1905: Bertha von Suttner
1906: Theodore Roosevelt
1907: Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault
1908: Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer
1909: A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant
1910: International Peace Bureau
1911: Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried
1912: Elihu Root
1913: Henri La Fontaine
1917: International Committee of the Red Cross
1919: Woodrow Wilson
1920: Léon Bourgeois
1921: Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange
1922: Fridtjof Nansen
1925: Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes
1926: Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann
1927: Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde
1929: Frank B. Kellogg
1930: Nathan Söderblom
1931: Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler
1933: Norman Angell
1934: Arthur Henderson
1935: Carl von Ossietzky
1936: Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1937: Robert Cecil
1938: Nansen International Office for Refugees
1944: International Committee of the Red Cross
1945: Cordell Hull
1946: Emily Balch / John Mott
1947: Friends Service Council / American Friends Service
1949: John Boyd Orr
1950: Ralph Bunche
1951: Léon Jouhaux
1952: Albert Schweitzer
1953: George Marshall
.mw-parser-output .nobold font-weight:normal
BNF: cb11862169n (data)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2184 6337
Coordinates: 48°14′2″N 16°24′58″E / 48.23389°N 16.41611°E / 48