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Instructions per second (IPS) is a measure of a computer's processor speed. Many reported IPS values have represented "peak" execution rates on artificial instruction sequences with few branches, whereas realistic workloads typically lead to significantly lower IPS values. Memory hierarchy
Memory hierarchy
also greatly affects processor performance, an issue barely considered in IPS calculations. Because of these problems, synthetic benchmarks such as Dhrystone are now generally used to estimate computer performance in commonly used applications, and raw IPS has fallen into disuse. The term is commonly used in association with a numeric value such as thousand/kilo instructions per second (TIPS/KIPS), million instructions per second (MIPS), and billion instructions per second (GIPS).

Contents

1 Computing

1.1 IPs per cycle

2 Thousand instructions per second (TIPS/KIPS) 3 Millions of instructions per second (MIPS) 4 Timeline of instructions per second 5 See also 6 References

Computing[edit] IPS can be calculated using this equation:[1]

IPS

=

sockets

×

cores socket

×

clock

×

IPs cycle

displaystyle text IPS = text sockets times frac text cores text socket times text clock times frac text IPs text cycle

IPs per cycle[edit] See "Instructions per cycle" (IPC for various processors). Thousand instructions per second (TIPS/KIPS)[edit] Before standard benchmarks were available, average speed rating of computers was based on calculations for a mix of instructions with the results given in kilo Instructions Per Second (kIPS). The most famous was the Gibson Mix,[2] produced by Jack Clark Gibson of IBM
IBM
for scientific applications. Other ratings, such as the ADP mix which does not include floating point operations, were produced for commercial applications. The thousand instructions per second (kIPS) unit is rarely used today, as most current microprocessors can execute at least a million instructions per second. Millions of instructions per second (MIPS)[edit] Not to be confused with MIPS architecture. The speed of a given CPU depends on many factors, such as the type of instructions being executed, the execution order and the presence of branch instructions (problematic in CPU pipelines). CPU instruction rates are different from clock frequencies, usually reported in Hz, as each instruction may require several clock cycles to complete or the processor may be capable of executing multiple independent instructions simultaneously. MIPS can be useful when comparing performance between processors made with similar architecture (e.g. Microchip branded microcontrollers), but they are difficult to compare between differing CPU architectures.[3] This led to the term "Meaningless Indices of Performance" being popular amongst technical people by the mid-1980s.[4] For this reason, MIPS has become not a measure of instruction execution speed, but task performance speed compared to a reference. In the late 1970s, minicomputer performance was compared using VAX MIPS, where computers were measured on a task and their performance rated against the VAX
VAX
11/780 that was marketed as a 1 MIPS machine. (The measure was also known as the VAX
VAX
Unit of Performance or VUP.) This was chosen because the 11/780 was roughly equivalent in performance to an IBM
IBM
System/370
System/370
model 158-3, which was commonly accepted in the computing industry as running at 1 MIPS. Many minicomputer performance claims were based on the Fortran
Fortran
version of the Whetstone benchmark, giving Millions of Whetstone Instructions Per Second (MWIPS). The VAX
VAX
11/780 with FPA (1977) runs at 1.02 MWIPS. Effective MIPS speeds are highly dependent on the programming language used. The Whetstone Report has a table showing MWIPS speeds of PCs via early interpreters and compilers up to modern languages. The first PC compiler was for BASIC
BASIC
(1982) when a 4.8 MHz 8088/87 CPU obtained 0.01 MWIPS. Results on a 2.4 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo (1 CPU 2007) vary from 9.7 MWIPS using BASIC
BASIC
Interpreter, 59 MWIPS via BASIC
BASIC
Compiler, 347 MWIPS using 1987 Fortran, 1,534 MWIPS through HTML/Java to 2,403 MWIPS using a modern C/ C++
C++
compiler. For the most early 8-bit and 16-bit microprocessors, performance was measured in thousand instructions per second (1000 KIPS = 1 MIPS). zMIPS refers to the MIPS measure used internally by IBM
IBM
to rate its mainframe servers (zSeries, IBM
IBM
System z9, and IBM
IBM
System z10). Weighted million operations per second (WMOPS) is a similar measurement, used for audio codecs. Timeline of instructions per second[edit]

Processor / System Dhrystone MIPS or MIPS, and frequency Instructions per clock cycle (IPS / clock cycles per second) Instructions per clock cycle per core (IPS / clock cycles per second / cores) Year Source

UNIVAC I 0.002 MIPS at 2.25 MHz 0.0008 0.0008 1951

[5]

IBM
IBM
7030 ("Stretch") 1.200 MIPS at 3.30 MHz 0.364 0.364 1961 [6][7]

CDC 6600 10.00 MIPS at 10.00 MHz 1 1 1965 [8][9]

Intel 4004 0.092 MIPS at 0.740 MHz (Not Dhrystone) 0.124 0.124 1971 [10]

IBM
IBM
System/370
System/370
Model 158 0.640 MIPS at 8.696 MHz 0.0736 0.0736 1972 [11]

Intel 8080 0.290 MIPS at 2.000 MHz 0.145 0.145 1974 [12]

Cray 1 160.0 MIPS at 80.00 MHz 2 2 1975 [13]

MOS Technology 6502 0.430 MIPS at 1.000 MHz 0.43 0.43 1975 [14]

Intel 8080A 0.435 MIPS at 3.000 MHz 0.145 0.145 1976 [12]

Zilog Z80 0.580 MIPS at 4.000 MHz 0.145 0.145 1976 [14]

Motorola 6809 0.420 MIPS at 1.000 MHz 0.42 0.42 1977 [14]

Motorola 6802 0.500 MIPS at 1.000 MHz 0.5 0.5 1977 [15]

IBM
IBM
System/370
System/370
Model 158-3 0.730 MIPS at 8.696 MHz 0.0839 0.0839 1977 [11]

VAX-11/780 1.000 MIPS at 5.000 MHz 0.2 0.2 1977 [11]

Intel 8086 0.330 MIPS at 5.000 MHz 0.066 0.066 1978 [12]

Fujitsu
Fujitsu
MB8843 2.000 MIPS at 2.000 MHz (Not Dhrystone) 1 1 1978 [16]

Intel 8088 0.750 MIPS at 10.00 MHz 0.075 0.075 1979 [12]

Motorola 68000 1.400 MIPS at 8.000 MHz 0.175 0.175 1979 [14]

Zilog Z8001/Z8002 1.5 MIPS at 6 MHz 0.25 0.25 1979 [17]

Intel 8035/8039/8048 6 MIPS at 6 MHz (Not Dhrystone) 1 1 1980 [18]

Fujitsu
Fujitsu
MB8843/MB8844 6 MIPS at 6 MHz (Not Dhrystone) 1 1 1980 [16]

Zilog Z80/Z80H 1.16 MIPS at 8 MHz 0.145 0.145 1981 [14][19]

Motorola 6802 1.79 MIPS at 3.58 MHz 0.5 0.5 1981 [15][20]

Zilog Z8001/Z8002B 2.5 MIPS at 10 MHz 0.25 0.25 1981 [17]

MOS Technology 6502 2.522 MIPS at 5.865 MHz 0.43 0.43 1981 [14][20]

Intel 286 1.28 MIPS at 12 MHz 0.107 0.107 1982 [11]

Motorola 68000 2.188 MIPS at 12.5 MHz 0.175 0.175 1982 [14]

Motorola 68010 2.407 MIPS at 12.5 MHz 0.193 0.193 1982 [21]

NEC V20 4 MIPS at 8 MHz 0.5 0.5 1982 [22]

LINKS-1 Computer
Computer
Graphics System (257-processor) 642.5 MIPS at 10 MHz 2.5 0.25 1982 [23]

Texas Instruments TMS32010 5 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.25 0.25 1983 [24]

NEC V30 5 MIPS at 10 MHz 0.5 0.5 1983 [22]

Motorola 68010 3.209 MIPS at 16.67 MHz 0.193 0.193 1984 [21]

Motorola 68020 4.848 MIPS at 16 MHz 0.303 0.303 1984 [25]

Hitachi HD63705 2 MIPS at 2 MHz 1 1 1985 [26][27]

Intel i386DX 2.15 MIPS at 16 MHz 0.134 0.134 1985 [11]

Hitachi-Motorola 68HC000 3.5 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.175 0.175 1985 [14]

Intel 8751 1 MIPS at 12 MHz 0.083 0.083 1985 [28]

Sega System 16
Sega System 16
(4-processor) 16.33 MIPS at 10 MHz 4.083 0.408 1985 [29]

ARM2 4 MIPS at 8 MHz 0.5 0.5 1986

Texas Instruments TMS34010 6 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.12 0.12 1986 [30]

NEC V70 6.6 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.33 0.33 1987 [31]

Motorola 68030 9 MIPS at 25 MHz 0.36 0.36 1987 [32][33]

Gmicro/200 10 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.5 0.5 1987 [34]

Texas Instruments TMS320C20 12.5 MIPS at 25 MHz 0.5 0.5 1987 [35]

Analog Devices
Analog Devices
ADSP-2100 12.5 MIPS at 12.5 MHz 1 1 1987 [36]

Texas Instruments TMS320C25 25 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.5 0.5 1987 [35]

Motorola 68020 10 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.303 0.303 1988 [25]

Motorola 68030 18 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.36 0.36 1988 [33]

Namco System 21 (10-processor) 73.927 MIPS at 25 MHz 2.957 0.296 1988 [37]

Intel i386DX 4.3 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.13 0.13 1989 [11]

Intel i486DX 8.7 MIPS at 25 MHz 0.348 0.348 1989 [11]

NEC V80 16.5 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.5 0.5 1989 [31]

Intel i860 25 MIPS at 25 MHz 1 1 1989 [38]

Atari Hard Drivin' (7-processor) 33.573 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.671 0.0959 1989 [39]

NEC SX-3 (4-processor) 680 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.7 0.425 1989 [40]

Motorola 68040 44 MIPS at 40 MHz 1.1 1.1 1990 [41]

Namco System 21 (Galaxian³) (96-processor) 1,660.386 MIPS at 40 MHz 41.51 0.432 1990 [42]

AMD Am386 9 MIPS at 40 MHz 0.225 0.225 1991 [43]

Intel i486DX 11.1 MIPS at 33 MHz 0.336 0.336 1991 [11]

Intel i860 50 MIPS at 50 MHz 1 1 1991 [38]

Intel i486DX2 25.6 MIPS at 66 MHz 0.388 0.388 1992 [11]

Alpha 21064 86 MIPS at 150 MHz 0.573 0.573 1992 [11]

Alpha 21064 135 MIPS at 200 MHz 0.675 0.675 1993 [11][44]

MIPS R4400 85 MIPS at 150 MHz 0.567 0.567 1993 [45]

Gmicro/500 132 MIPS at 66 MHz 2 2 1993 [46]

IBM-Motorola PowerPC
PowerPC
601 157.7 MIPS at 80 MHz 1.971 1.971 1993 [47]

SGI Onyx
SGI Onyx
RealityEngine2 (36-processor) 2,640 MIPS at 150 MHz 17.6 0.489 1993 [48]

Namco Magic Edge Hornet Simulator (36-processor) 2,880 MIPS at 150 MHz 19.2 0.533 1993 [45]

ARM7 40 MIPS at 45 MHz 0.889 0.889 1994 [49]

Intel DX4 70 MIPS at 100 MHz 0.7 0.7 1994 [12]

Motorola 68060 110 MIPS at 75 MHz 1.33 1.33 1994

Intel Pentium 188 MIPS at 100 MHz 1.88 1.88 1994 [50]

Microchip PIC16F 5 MIPS at 20 MHz 0.25 0.25 1995 [51]

IBM-Motorola PowerPC
PowerPC
603e 188 MIPS at 133 MHz 1.414 1.414 1995 [52]

ARM 7500FE 35.9 MIPS at 40 MHz 0.9 0.9 1996

IBM-Motorola PowerPC
PowerPC
603ev 423 MIPS at 300 MHz 1.41 1.41 1996 [52]

Intel Pentium
Intel Pentium
Pro 541 MIPS at 200 MHz 2.7 2.7 1996 [53]

Hitachi SH-4 360 MIPS at 200 MHz 1.8 1.8 1997 [54][55]

IBM-Motorola PowerPC
PowerPC
750 525 MIPS at 233 MHz 2.3 2.3 1997

Zilog eZ80 80 MIPS at 50 MHz 1.6 1.6 1999 [56]

Intel Pentium
Intel Pentium
III 2,054 MIPS at 600 MHz 3.4 3.4 1999 [50]

Sega Naomi
Sega Naomi
Multiboard (32-processor) 6,400 MIPS at 200 MHz 32 1 1999 [57]

Freescale MPC8272 760 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.9 1.9 2000 [58]

AMD Athlon 3,561 MIPS at 1.2 GHz 3.0 3.0 2000

Silicon Recognition ZISC 78 8,600 MIPS at 33 MHz 260.6 260.6 2000 [59]

ARM11 515 MIPS at 412 MHz 1.25 1.25 2002 [60]

AMD Athlon XP
AMD Athlon XP
2500+ 7,527 MIPS at 1.83 GHz 4.1 4.1 2003 [50]

Pentium 4
Pentium 4
Extreme Edition 9,726 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 3.0 3.0 2003

Microchip PIC10F 1 MIPS at 4 MHz 0.25 0.25 2004 [61][62]

ARM Cortex-M3 125 MIPS at 100 MHz 1.25 1.25 2004 [63]

Nios II 190 MIPS at 165 MHz 1.13 1.13 2004 [64]

MIPS32 4KEc 356 MIPS at 233 MHz 1.5 1.5 2004 [65]

VIA C7 1,799 MIPS at 1.3 GHz 1.4 1.4 2005 [66]

ARM Cortex-A8 2,000 MIPS at 1.0 GHz 2.0 2.0 2005 [67]

AMD Athlon FX-57 12,000 MIPS at 2.8 GHz 4.3 4.3 2005

AMD Athlon 64
Athlon 64
3800+ X2 (2-core) 14,564 MIPS at 2.0 GHz 7.3 3.6 2005 [68]

ARM Cortex-R4 450 MIPS at 270 MHz 1.66 1.66 2006 [69]

MIPS32 24K 604 MIPS at 400 MHz 1.51 1.51 2006 [70]

PS3 Cell BE (PPE only) 10,240 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 3.2 3.2 2006

IBM
IBM
Xenon CPU (3-core) 19,200 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 6.0 2.0 2005

AMD Athlon FX-60 (2-core) 18,938 MIPS at 2.6 GHz 7.3 3.6 2006 [68]

Intel Core 2 Extreme
Intel Core 2 Extreme
X6800 (2-core) 27,079 MIPS at 2.93 GHz 9.2 4.6 2006 [68]

Intel Core 2 Extreme
Intel Core 2 Extreme
QX6700 (4-core) 49,161 MIPS at 2.66 GHz 18.4 4.6 2006 [71]

MIPS64 20Kc 1,370 MIPS at 600 MHz 2.3 2.3 2007 [72]

P.A. Semi PA6T-1682M 8,800 MIPS at 1.8 GHz 4.4 4.4 2007 [73]

Qualcomm Scorpion (Cortex A8-like) 2,100 MIPS at 1 GHz 2.1 2.1 2008 [60]

Intel Atom
Intel Atom
N270 3,846 MIPS at 1.6 GHz 2.4 2.4 2008 [74]

Intel Core 2 Extreme
Intel Core 2 Extreme
QX9770 (4-core) 59,455 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 18.6 4.6 2008 [71]

Intel Core i7 920 (4-core) 82,300 MIPS at 2.93 GHz 28.089 7.022 2008 [75]

ARM Cortex-M0 45 MIPS at 50 MHz 0.9 0.9 2009 [76]

ARM Cortex-A9 (2-core) 7,500 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 5.0 2.5 2009 [77]

AMD Phenom II
Phenom II
X4 940 Black Edition 42,820 MIPS at 3.0 GHz 14.3 3.5 2009 [78]

AMD Phenom II
Phenom II
X6 1100T 78,440 MIPS at 3.3 GHz 23.7 3.9 2010 [75]

Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 980X (6-core) 147,600 MIPS at 3.33 GHz 44.7 7.46 2010 [79]

ARM Cortex A5 1,256 MIPS at 800 MHz 1.57 1.57 2011 [67]

ARM Cortex A7 2,850 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 1.9 1.9 2011 [60]

Qualcomm Krait (Cortex A15-like, 2-core) 9,900 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 6.6 3.3 2011 [60]

AMD E-350 (2-core) 10,000 MIPS at 1.6 GHz 6.25 3.125 2011 [80]

Nvidia Tegra 3
Tegra 3
(Quad core Cortex-A9) 13,800 MIPS at 1.5 GHz 9.2 2.5 2011

Samsung Exynos
Exynos
5250 (Cortex-A15-like 2-core 14,000 MIPS at 2.0 GHz 7.0 3.5 2011 [81]

Intel Core i5-2500K 4-core 83,000 MIPS at 3.3 GHz 25.152 6.288 2011 [82]

Intel Core i7 875K 92,100 MIPS at 2.93 GHz 31.4 7.85 2011 [83]

AMD FX-8150 (8-core) 90,749 MIPS at 3.6 GHz 25.2 3.15 2011 [84]

Intel Core i7 2600K 117,160 MIPS at 3.4 GHz 34.45 8.61 2011 [85]

Intel Core i7 Extreme Edition 3960X (6-core) 176,170 MIPS at 3.3 GHz 53.38 8.89 2011 [86]

AMD FX-8350 97,125 MIPS at 4.2 GHz 23.1 2.9 2012 [84][87]

AMD FX-9590 115,625 MIPS at 5.0 GHz 23.1 2.9 2012 [75]

Intel Core i7 3770K 106,924 MIPS at 3.9 GHz 27.4 6.9 2012 [84]

Intel Core i7 3630QM 113,093 MIPS at 3.2 GHz 35.3 8.83 2012 [88]

Intel Core i7 4770K 133,740 MIPS at 3.9 GHz 34.29 8.57 2013 [84][87][89]

Intel Core i7 5960X 238,310 MIPS at 3.0 GHz 79.4 9.92 2014 [90]

Raspberry Pi
Raspberry Pi
2 4,744 MIPS at 1.0 GHz 4.744 1.186 2014 [91]

Intel Core i7 6950X 317,900 MIPS at 3.0 GHz 106 10.6 2016 [92]

Intel Core i5 7300U 53,840 MIPS at 2.6 GHz 20.7 10.4 2016 [93]

Intel Core i7 7500U 49,360 MIPS at 2.7 GHz 18.3 9.1 2016 [94]

Intel Core i5 8250U 65,770 MIPS at 1.6 GHz 41.1 10.3 2017 [95]

AMD Ryzen
Ryzen
7 1800X 304,510 MIPS at 3.6 GHz 84.6 10.6 2017 [96]

Processor / System Dhrystone MIPS / MIPS D IPS / clock cycles per second D IPS / clock cycles per second / cores per die Year Source

See also[edit]

Computer
Computer
Science portal

TOP500 FLOPS - floating-point operations per second SUPS Benchmark (computing) BogoMips (measurement of CPU speed made by the Linux kernel) Instructions per cycle Cycles per instruction Dhrystone (benchmark) - DMIPS integer benchmark Whetstone (benchmark) - floating-point benchmark Million service units (MSU) Orders of magnitude (computing) Performance per watt

References[edit]

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IBM
Systems Development Division.  ^ Ted MacNeil. "Don't be Misled by MIPS". IBM
IBM
magazine.  ^ "The Best of Both Worlds: Mac II vs. IBM
IBM
PS/2 Model 80". PC Magazine. November 24, 1987. p. 105.  ^ US Steel News. 15-20. Industrial Relations Department of The United States Steel Corporation of Delaware. 1950–1955. p. 29.  ^ Padua, David (2011-09-08). Encyclopedia of Parallel Computing. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9780387097657.  ^ Meagher, R.E. (May 9, 1961). "STRETCH Report" (PDF). Computer History.  ^ "Control Data Corporation, CDC-6600 & 7600". ed-thelen.org. Retrieved 2017-05-25.  ^ "Control Data 6600: The Supercomputer Arrives". Dr. Dobb's. Retrieved 2017-05-25.  ^ "MCS4 > IntelP4004".  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Cost of CPU Performance Through Time 1944-2003". Archived from the original on 2014-10-09.  ^ a b c d e "Intel Processors". 24 April 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-04-24.  ^ "History of Computers and Computing, Birth of the modern computer, Electronic computer, Cray computers of Seymour Cray". history-computer.com. Retrieved 2017-05-25.  ^ a b c d e f g h Drolez, Ludovic. "Lud's Open Source Corner".  ^ a b 2 cycles per instruction [1] ^ a b 1 instruction per cycle [2][permanent dead link] ^ a b 4 cycles per instruction [3] Archived 2015-06-09 at the Wayback Machine. = 0.25 instructions per cycle ^ "intel :: dataSheets :: 8048 8035 HMOS Single Component 8-Bit Microcomputer DataSheet 1980".  ^ "Sega G80 Hardware Reference". 25 October 1997. Archived from the original on 2012-02-19.  ^ a b "System 16 - Irem M27 Hardware (Irem)".  ^ a b 10% faster [4] than 68000 (0.175 MIPS per MHz [5]) ^ a b NEC V20/V30: 250 nanoseconds per instruction @ 8 MHz ^ LINKS-1 Computer
Computer
Graphics System: 257× Zilog Z8001 [6] at 10 MHz [7] (2.5 MIPS [8] Archived 2015-06-09 at the Wayback Machine.) each ^ "TMS320C1x DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSORS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-06.  ^ a b "32-Bit Microprocessor-NXP".  ^ "ZTAT (ZeroTurnAroundTime) Microcomputers" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 6, 2014.  ^ http://www.datasheetarchive.com/dlmain/Datasheets-13/DSA-246134.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ 1 instruction per cycle [9] ^ Sega System 16: Hitachi- Motorola 68000
Motorola 68000
@ 10 MHz (1.75 MIPS), NEC- Zilog Z80
Zilog Z80
@ 4 MHz (0.58 MIPS) [10] [11], Intel 8751 @ 8 MHz [12] (8 MIPS [13]), Intel 8048 @ 6 MHz "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-01-25. Retrieved 2016-08-08.  (6 MIPS [14]) ^ Inc, InfoWorld Media Group (23 January 1989). "InfoWorld". InfoWorld Media Group, Inc. – via Google Books.  ^ a b http://ipsj.ixsq.nii.ac.jp/ej/?action=pages_view_main&active_action=repository_view_main_item_detail&item_id=59745&item_no=1&page_id=13&block_id=8 ^ Inc, Ziff Davis (24 November 1987). "PC Mag". Ziff Davis, Inc. – via Google Books.  ^ a b "Enhanced 32-Bit Processor-NXP".  ^ "TRON VLSI CPU Introduction".  ^ a b "060 1987 Drivers Eyes + 1989 Winning Run" (PDF). The history of racing games. June 2007.  ^ " Analog Devices
Analog Devices
- datasheet pdf" (PDF).  ^ Namco System 21 hardware: 5× Texas Instruments TMS320C20 @ 25 MHz (62.5 MIPS [15]), 2× Motorola 68000
Motorola 68000
@ 12.288 MHz [16] (4.301 MIPS [17]), Motorola 68020
Motorola 68020
[18] @ 12.5 MHz (3.788 MIPS [19]), Hitachi HD63705 @ 2.048 MHz [20] (2.048 MIPS [21][permanent dead link]), Motorola 6809
Motorola 6809
@ 3.072 MHz [22] (1.29 MIPS [23]) ^ a b "Intel i860-based Bus Boards". Archived from the original on 2013-06-25.  ^ Atari Hard Drivin' hardware: [24] Motorola 68000
Motorola 68000
@ 7 MHz (1.225 MIPS [25]), Motorola 68010
Motorola 68010
@ 7 MHz (1.348 MIPS [26]), 3× Texas Instruments TMS34010
TMS34010
@ 50 MHz (18 MIPS [27]), Analog Devices ADSP-2100 @ 8 MHz (8 MIPS [28]), Texas Instruments TMS32010 @ 20 MHz (5 MIPS "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-09-17. ) ^ "SUPERCOMPUTER". 13 (4). doi:10.1515/piko.1990.13.4.205.  ^ "(Including EC, LC, and V)-NXP".  ^ Namco System 21 (Galaxian³) hardware: [29] 80× Texas Instruments TMS320C25 @ 40 MHz (1600 MIPS [30]), 5× Motorola 68020
Motorola 68020
@ 24.576 MHz (37.236 MIPS [31]) Motorola 68000
Motorola 68000
@ 12.288 MHz (2.15 MIPS [32]), 10× Motorola 68000
Motorola 68000
@ 12 MHz (21 MIPS [33]) ^ Enterprise, I. D. G. (25 March 1991). "Computerworld". IDG Enterprise – via Google Books.  ^ Digital's 21064 Microprocessor, Digital Equipment Corporation[permanent dead link] (c1992) accessdate=2009-08-29 ^ a b "System 16 - Namco Magic Edge Hornet Simulator Hardware (Namco)".  ^ Uchiyama, Kunio; Arakawa, Fumio; Narita, Susumu; Aoki, Hirokazu; Kawasaki, Ikuya; Matsui, Shigezumi; Yamamoto, Mitsuyoshi; Nakagawa, Norio; Kudo, Ikuo (1 September 1993). "The Gmicro/500 Superscalar Microprocessor
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Sega Naomi
Multiboard hardware: [35] [36] 16× Hitachi SH-4 at 200 MHz (5760 MIPS [37]), 16× ARM7
ARM7
at 45 MHz (640 MIPS [38]) ^ Freescale Semiconductor - MPC8272 PowerQUICC
PowerQUICC
II Processor Family ^ "ZISC78 datasheet & application note - Datasheet Archive".  ^ a b c d Shimpi, Anand Lal. "ARM's Cortex A7: Bringing Cheaper Dual-Core & More Power Efficient High-End Devices".  ^ "PIC10F200 - 8-bit PIC Microcontrollers".  ^ "Microchip Redirect". Archived from the original on 2014-10-06.  ^ "Cortex-M3 Processor - ARM".  ^ Nios II Performance Benchmarks ^ "MIPS Architecture Enabling Growing List of Mobile Application Processors".  ^ "mini-itx.com - epia px 10000 review".  ^ a b "Cortex-A Series - ARM".  ^ a b c "Charts, benchmarks CPU Charts 2007, Synthetic SiSoft Sandra XI CPU".  ^ "Cortex-R4 Processor - ARM".  ^ 24K ^ a b "Tom's Hardware Articles - Find and Filter Our Latest Articles".  ^ "Semiconductor IP Cores Companies".  ^ Merritt, Rick (5 February 2007). "Startup takes PowerPC
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vs Cortex A8 vs Cortex A9 - Netbooks processors EEE PC, MSI Wind, HP, Acer Aspire, ARM Cortex vs Intel Atom". Archived from the original on 2011-07-19.  ^ "The Phenom II
Phenom II
List of Overclocks - Page 21".  ^ "OC3D :: Review :: Intel 980x Gulftown :: Synthetic Benchmarks".  ^ "Benchmark Results: Sandra 2011 - ASRock's E350M1: AMD's Brazos Platform Hits The Desktop First". 14 January 2011.  ^ "Samsung Semiconductor Global Official Website".  ^ "Core i5 2500K and Core i7 2600K review".  ^ "Charts, benchmarks Desktop CPU Charts 2010, ALU Performance: SiSoftware Sandra 2010 Pro (ALU)".  ^ a b c d "Test: Sandra Dhrystone (MIPS) for i7-4770K, i7-3770K, FX-8350, FX-8150".  ^ "Benchmark Results: SiSoftware Sandra 2011 - The Intel Core i7-990X Extreme Edition Processor Review". 25 February 2011.  ^ "HardOCP - Synthetic Benchmarks".  ^ a b "AMD FX-8350 Black Edition vs Intel Core i7-4770K - Compare CPUs".  ^ " Intel Core i7 3630QM Notebook Processor".  ^ "Intel Core i7-4770K Desktop Processor".  ^ Rob Williams (August 29, 2014). "Core i7-5960X Extreme Edition Review: Intel's Overdue Desktop 8-Core Is Here". Techgage.  ^ By (2015-02-05). "Benchmarking The Raspberry Pi
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CPU technologies

Architecture

Turing machine Post–Turing machine Universal Turing machine Quantum Turing machine Belt machine Stack machine Register machine Counter machine Pointer machine Random access machine Random access stored program machine Finite-state machine Queue automaton Von Neumann Harvard (modified) Dataflow TTA Cellular Artificial neural network

Machine learning Deep learning Neural processing unit (NPU)

Convolutional neural network Load/store architecture Register memory architecture Endianness FIFO Zero-copy NUMA HUMA HSA Mobile computing Surface computing Wearable computing Heterogeneous computing Parallel computing Concurrent computing Distributed computing Cloud computing Amorphous computing Ubiquitous computing Fabric computing Cognitive computing Unconventional computing Hypercomputation Quantum computing Adiabatic quantum computing Linear optical quantum computing Reversible computing Reverse computation Reconfigurable computing Optical computing Ternary computer Analogous computing Mechanical computing Hybrid computing Digital computing DNA computing Peptide computing Chemical computing Organic computing Wetware computing Neuromorphic computing Symmetric multiprocessing
Symmetric multiprocessing
(SMP) Asymmetric multiprocessing
Asymmetric multiprocessing
(AMP) Cache hierarchy Memory hierarchy

ISA types

ASIP CISC RISC EDGE (TRIPS) VLIW (EPIC) MISC OISC NISC ZISC Comparison

ISAs

x86 z/Architecture ARM MIPS Power Architecture
Power Architecture
(PowerPC) SPARC Mill Itanium
Itanium
(IA-64) Alpha Prism SuperH V850 Clipper VAX Unicore PA-RISC MicroBlaze RISC-V

Word size

1-bit 2-bit 4-bit 8-bit 9-bit 10-bit 12-bit 15-bit 16-bit 18-bit 22-bit 24-bit 25-bit 26-bit 27-bit 31-bit 32-bit 33-bit 34-bit 36-bit 39-bit 40-bit 48-bit 50-bit 60-bit 64-bit 128-bit 256-bit 512-bit Variable

Execution

Instruction pipelining

Bubble Operand forwarding

Out-of-order execution

Register renaming

Speculative execution

Branch predictor Memory dependence prediction

Hazards

Parallel level

Bit

Bit-serial Word

Instruction Pipelining

Scalar Superscalar

Task

Thread Process

Data

Vector

Memory

Multithreading

Temporal Simultaneous (SMT) (Hyper-threading) Speculative (SpMT) Preemptive Cooperative Clustered Multi-Thread (CMT) Hardware scout

Flynn's taxonomy

SISD SIMD
SIMD
(SWAR) SIMT MISD MIMD

SPMD

Addressing mode

CPU performance

Instructions per second (IPS) Instructions per clock (IPC) Cycles per instruction (CPI) Floating-point operations per second (FLOPS) Transactions per second (TPS) Synaptic Updates Per Second (SUPS) Performance per watt Orders of magnitude (computing) Cache performance measurement and metric

Core count

Single-core processor Multi-core processor Manycore processor

Types

Central processing unit
Central processing unit
(CPU) GPGPU AI accelerator Vision processing unit (VPU) Vector processor Barrel processor Stream processor Digital signal processor
Digital signal processor
(DSP) I/O processor/DMA controller Network processor Baseband processor Physics processing unit
Physics processing unit
(PPU) Coprocessor Secure cryptoprocessor ASIC FPGA FPOA CPLD Microcontroller Microprocessor Mobile processor Notebook processor Ultra-low-voltage processor Multi-core processor Manycore processor Tile processor Multi-chip module
Multi-chip module
(MCM) Chip stack multi-chip modules System on a chip
System on a chip
(SoC) Multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC) Programmable System-on-Chip
System-on-Chip
(PSoC) Network on a chip (NoC)

Components

Execution unit (EU) Arithmetic logic unit
Arithmetic logic unit
(ALU) Address generation unit
Address generation unit
(AGU) Floating-point unit
Floating-point unit
(FPU) Load-store unit (LSU) Branch predictor Unified Reservation Station Barrel shifter Uncore Sum addressed decoder (SAD) Front-side bus Back-side bus Northbridge (computing) Southbridge (computing) Adder (electronics) Binary multiplier Binary decoder Address decoder Multiplexer Demultiplexer Registers Cache Memory management unit
Memory management unit
(MMU) Input–output memory management unit
Input–output memory management unit
(IOMMU) Integrated Memory Controller (IMC) Power Management Unit (PMU) Translation lookaside buffer
Translation lookaside buffer
(TLB) Stack engine Register file Processor register Hardware register Memory buffer register (MBR) Program counter Microcode
Microcode
ROM Datapath Control unit Instruction unit Re-order buffer Data buffer Write buffer Coprocessor Electronic switch Electronic circuit Integrated circuit Three-dimensional integrated circuit Boolean circuit Digital circuit Analog circuit Mixed-signal integrated circuit Power management integrated circuit Quantum circuit Logic gate

Combinational logic Sequential logic Emitter-coupled logic
Emitter-coupled logic
(ECL) Transistor–transistor logic
Transistor–transistor logic
(TTL) Glue logic

Quantum gate Gate array Counter (digital) Bus (computing) Semiconductor device Clock rate CPU multiplier Vision chip Memristor

Power management

APM ACPI Dynamic frequency scaling Dynamic voltage scaling Clock gating

Hardware security

Non-executable memory (NX bit) Memory Protection Extensions (Intel MPX) Intel Secure Key Hardware restriction (firmware) Software Guard Extensions (Intel SGX) Trusted Execution Technology Trusted Platform Module
Trusted Platform Module
(TPM) Secure cryptoprocessor Hardware security module Hengzhi chip

Related

History of ge

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