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In the 10th edition of ''Systema Naturae'',
Carl Linnaeus Carl Linnaeus (; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his Nobility#Ennoblement, ennoblement as Carl von Linné#Blunt, Blunt (2004), p. 171. (), was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, taxonomist, and physician who formalised binomia ...
classified the
arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a Segmentation (biology), segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euarthropoda,Reference showing that Euarthropoda is a phylum: ...
s, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta". He described the Arthropod, Insecta as:
A very numerous and various class consisting of small animals, breathing through lateral spiracles, armed on all sides with a bony skin, or covered with hair; furnished with many feet, and moveable antennae (or horns), which project from the head, and are the probable instruments of sensation.
Linnaean Characteristics *Heart: 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, pus-like blood. *Spiracles: lateral pores *Jaw: lateral *Penis: penetrates *Organs of Sense: tongue, eyes, antennae on head, no brain, no ears, no nostrils *Covering: a bony coat of mail *Supports: feet, and in some, wings. Skips on dry ground and buzzes


Orders

Linnaeus divided the class Insecta into seven orders, based chiefly on the form of the insect wing, wings. He also provided a identification key, key to the orders: *4 wings :*pairs dissimilar ::*forewings fully hardened: Coleoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Coleoptera ::*forewings partly hardened: Hemiptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Hemiptera :*pairs similar ::*wings covered with flat scales: Lepidoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Lepidoptera ::*wings membranous :::*Tail unarmed: Neuroptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Neuroptera :::*Tail bearing a sting: Hymenoptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Hymenoptera *2 wings: Diptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Diptera *0 wings: Aptera in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Aptera Despite this key, however, Linnaeus grouped insects together that shared other affinities. His genus ''Coccus'', containing the scale insects, he placed among the 4-winged Hemiptera, along with aphids and other plant-attacking insects, even though females have no wings, and males have two wings. Similarly, the sheep ked ''Hippobosca ovina'' (now ''Melophagus ovinus'') was correctly placed among the Diptera, despite being wingless.


Genera

*Coleoptera: ''Scarabaeus'' (Scarabaeidae, scarab beetles), ''Dermestes'' (Dermestidae, larder beetles), ''Hister'' (Histeridae, clown beetles), ''Attelabus'' (Attelabidae, leaf-rolling weevils), ''Curculio'' (Curculionidae, true weevils), ''Silpha'' (Silphidae, carrion beetles), ''Coccinella'' (Coccinellidae, ladybirds or ladybugs), ''Cassida'' (tortoise beetles), ''Chrysomela'' (leaf beetles), ''Meloe'' (blister beetles), ''Tenebrio'' (darkling beetles), ''Mordella'' (Mordellidae, tumbling flower beetles), ''Staphylinus'' (rove beetles), ''Cerambyx'' (longhorn beetles), ''Cantharis'' (soldier beetles), ''Elater'' (click beetles), ''Cicindela'' (ground beetles), ''Buprestis'' (Buprestidae, jewel beetles), ''Dytiscus'' (Dytiscidae), ''Carabus'', ''Necydalis'' (Necydalinae, necydaline beetles), ''Forficula'' (earwigs), ''Blatta'' (cockroaches) and ''Gryllus'' (other orthopteroid insects) *Hemiptera: ''Cicada'' (cicadas), ''Notonecta'' (Notonectidae, backswimmers), ''Nepa'' (Nepidae, water scorpions), ''Cimex'' (Bed bug (insect), bedbugs), ''Aphis'' (aphids), ''Chermes'' (Adelgidae, woolly aphids), ''Coccus'' (scale insects) and ''Thrips'' (thrips) *Lepidoptera: ''Papilio'' (Butterfly, butterflies), ''Sphinx'' (Sphingidae, hawk moths), ''Phalaena'' (moths) *Neuroptera: ''Libellula'' (Dragonfly, dragonflies and Damselfly, damselflies), ''Ephemera'' (Mayfly, mayflies), ''Phryganea'' (Caddisfly, caddisflies), ''Hemerobius'' (Neuroptera, lacewings), ''Panorpa'' (Mecoptera, scorpionflies) and ''Raphidia'' (Snakefly, snakeflies) *Hymenoptera: ''Cynips'' (Gall wasps), ''Tenthredo'' (Sawfly, sawflies), ''Ichneumon'' (Ichneumonoidea, ichneumon wasps), ''Sphex'' (Sphex, digger wasps), ''Vespa'' (hornets), ''Apis'' (bees), ''Formica'' (ants) and ''Mutilla'' (Mutillidae, velvet ants) *Diptera: ''Oestrus'' (Botfly, botflies), ''Tipula'' (Crane fly, crane flies), ''Musca'' (Housefly, house flies), ''Tabanus'' (Horse-fly, horse flies), ''Culex'' (mosquitoes), ''Empis'' (Empididae, dance flies), ''Conops'' (Conopidae, thick-headed flies), ''Asilus'' (Asilidae, robber flies), ''Bombylius'' (Bombyliidae, bee flies) and ''Hippobosca'' (Hippoboscidae, louse flies) *Aptera: ''Lepisma'' (silverfish), ''Podura'' (springtails), ''Termes'' (termites), ''Pediculus'' (Louse, lice), ''Pulex'' (fleas), ''Acarus'' (mites and ticks), ''Phalangium'' (Opiliones, harvestmen), ''Aranea'' (spiders), ''Scorpio'' (scorpions), ''Cancer'' (crabs, lobsters and kin), ''Monoculus'' (water fleas and kin), ''Oniscus'' (Woodlouse, woodlice), ''Scolopendra'' (centipedes) and ''Julus'' (millipedes)


References

{{Linnaeus1758 Systema Naturae Insects described in 1758, Systema Naturae, Insecta Taxa named by Carl Linnaeus, Systema Naturae, Insecta