Ingolstadt (German pronunciation:
[ˈɪŋɡɔlˌʃtat] ( listen); Austro-Bavarian
[ˈɪŋl̩ʃtɔːd]) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the
Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the
River Danube, in the centre of Bavaria. As of
31 December 2014[update],
Ingolstadt had 131,002 citizens.
It is part of the
Munich Metropolitan Area, which has a total
population of more than 5 million.
The Illuminati, a Bavarian secret society, was founded in Ingolstadt
in the late 18th century.
Ingolstadt is a setting in the novel
Frankenstein by Mary Shelley,
where the scientist Victor
Frankenstein creates his monster.
It is the site of the headquarters of the German automobile
manufacturer Audi, defence aircraft manufacturer Airbus (formerly
Cassidian Air Systems), and electronic stores
Media Markt and Saturn.
Ingolstadt Central Station has been connected to
Nuremberg by a
high-speed rail link since May 2006.
Ingolstadt also has a second
passenger station at
2 History and culture
4.1 Main sights
4.2 Parks and natural areas
Ingolstadt School of Management
5.2 THI University of Applied Sciences
7 Literary references
8 International relations
9 Organizations and clubs
10 See also
12 External links
Covering an urban area of 133.35 square kilometres
(51.49 sq mi),
Ingolstadt is geographically Bavaria's
fourth-largest city after Munich,
Nuremberg and Augsburg. At its
largest point the city is about 18 km (11 miles) from east to
west and from north to south about 15 km (9 miles). The city
boundary has a length of 70 km (43 miles).
The city boundary is about 14 km (9 mi) away from the
geographic centre of
Bavaria in Kipfenberg. The old town is
approximately 374 metres (1,227 feet) above sea level and the highest
point, located in the district of Pettenhofen, is 410.87 m
(1,348.00 ft). The lowest point of the Schutter confluence with
Danube is at 362 m (1,188 ft) above sea level.
Central European Time
Central European Time as throughout Germany; the
average time lag is 14 minutes.
The city is expanding at the northern and southern banks of the Danube
in a wide flat bowl. The
Ingolstadt basin borders the Jura foothills,
located south and is to the north of the Donau-Isar-Hügelland. In the
southwest is the Donaumoos while in the east the lowland forests of
Danube reach into the urban area. It is the second largest
hardwood floodplain on the Danube. The Sandrach, the former Southern
main branch of the Danube, partly forms the Southern city border. In
the north, the Schutter flows through from the west reaching the
Danube near to the Altstadt.
History and culture
Old City Hall
Church of Our Lady
Ingolstadt was first mentioned in a document of
Charlemagne on 6
February 806 as "Ingoldes stat", the place of Ingold. Circa 1250,
Ingolstadt was granted city status.
Ingolstadt was the capital of the Duchy of
1392 and 1447.
Ingolstadt was then united with Bavaria-Landshut. Louis
VII, Duke of
Bavaria ordered the building of the New Castle, whose
form was strongly influenced by French Gothic architecture.
In 1472 Louis IX, Duke of
Bavaria founded the University of Ingolstadt
which became the Ludwig-Maximilians-University. In 1800 it was moved
Landshut and in 1826 eventually to Munich. The University of
Ingolstadt was an important defender of the Roman Catholic Church
during the Reformation era, led by such notable scholars as Johann
Ingolstadt is where William IV, Duke of
Bavaria wrote and signed the
Reinheitsgebot in 1516.
In the Battle of
Ingolstadt in May 1525, the
Black Company – a unit
of Franconian farmers and knights fighting on the side of the peasants
German Peasants' War
German Peasants' War – took their last stand at
Ingolstadt against the Swabian League, all eventually being defeated
On 30 April 1632, the German field marshal Johann Tserclaes, Count of
Tilly died at
Ingolstadt during a Swedish siege of the city. The field
marshal had been badly wounded in a previous engagement with the
Swedes under King Gustavus Adolphus.
Ingolstadt proved to be the first
Germany that held out for the entire length of the Swedish
siege, and the Swedes eventually withdrew.
The remains of Gustavus Adolphus' horse can be seen in the City
Museum. The horse was shot from under the king by one of the cannons
inside the fortress, a cannon known as "The Fig". When the Swedes
withdrew, the city preserved the remains of the king's horse,
eventually putting the form on display. It has remained thus for
almost 400 years. In 1748, Adam Weishaupt, the founder of the Order of
Illuminati, was born in Ingolstadt. After the French invasion in 1799
the fortress was demolished and the university was relocated to
Originally a fortress city,
Ingolstadt is enclosed by a medieval
defensive wall. The Bavarian fortress (1537–1930) now holds the
museum of the Bavarian army. During World War I, future French
Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle was detained there as a prisoner of war. A
sappers' drill ground lies next to the river, and two military air
bases are located nearby, one used for testing aircraft. The long
military tradition of the city is reflected in today's civil and
cultural life. Former "off-limit" military training areas have been
converted into well-used public parks.
Adolf Scherzer composed the "Bayerischen Defiliermarsch". Mary
Frankenstein was set at the Ingolstädter Alte Anatomie (Old
Anatomy Building), now a museum for medical history. Marieluise
Fleißer set her play
Pioneers in Ingolstadt (1928) in the city.
In 1945, the car manufacturer
Auto Union first arrived in the city.
The company's original factories in
Zwickau (both then in
Soviet controlled East Germany) were shattered during the war, and
were seized by the Russians as reparations.
Auto Union executives
initially started a spare parts operation in
Ingolstadt in the
immediate post war period, with a view to relocating the entire
company to the region. With the help of
Marshall Plan aid, Auto Union
was formally re-founded in
Ingolstadt in 1949, ultimately evolving
into the modern-era
Audi company, after it was taken over by
Volkswagen in 1964. Today,
Audi is the region's largest employer and
now dominates the economy of the city.
Largest groups of foreign residents
As one of five ducal residences of medieval
Bavaria — besides
Straubing and Burghausen — the city of Ingolstadt
features many Gothic buildings, such as the Herzogskasten ('old ducal
castle', ca. 1255) and the New Castle, which was built from 1418
onwards. The largest church is the Gothic hall church of Our Lady,
which was begun in 1425. Also the churches of Saint Maurice (1235) and
of the Gnadenthal and Franciscans monasteries date from the Gothic
era. The Kreuztor (1385) is one of the remaining gates of the old city
wall. The Gothic Old City Hall was constructed in the 14th century,
and later altered several times.
The Baroque era is represented by the Old Anatomy Building of the
university (1723–1736, designed by Gabriel de Gabrieli) and the
church St. Maria de Victoria, which was built by the Asam brothers
(1732–1736). The church of the Augustinians of Johann Michael
Fischer (1736) was completely destroyed in World War II.
Many buildings of the neo-classical fortification of Leo von Klenze
have been preserved, such as the Reduit Tilly and the towers Baur and
As well as being the home of the headquarters of the car manufacturer
Audi, the town is also home to Audi's museum mobile, which is open to
the public and presents historic exhibits and offers guided tours.
Parks and natural areas
Ingolstadt is a green city with numerous parks, green spaces and
forests. The most prominent of these is the "Glacis", formerly an open
space in front of the city walls, now surrounding the historic city
center. It functions as a "green belt" and a buffer area between
traffic, residential areas and schools. It is possible to traverse it
using spacious paths for pedestrians and cyclists, with a good view of
the site of the former fortifications, including a well-preserved
section of the ditch. The biggest park in the city, the Klenzepark,
which contained the former
Ingolstadt State Fortress, and was the site
of the Landesgartenschau in 1992, is also a part of the Glacis.
The biggest forest in
Ingolstadt is the Auwald ("riverside forest",
also called "Schüttel"). It is found on both the northern and
southern banks of the Danube, and is one of the biggest well-preserved
river forests in Germany, extending mainly from Neuburg to Ingolstadt
with extensions to the city center. The forest serves as a natural
reserve, with parts containing unique vegetation or acting as a
Ingolstadt School of Management
Ingolstadt is home to the
Ingolstadt School of Management, which is
the department of business administration and economics of the
Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt. In national rankings,
the business school regularly scores among the top ten.[citation
needed] The faculty maintains a large network of partner universities
for international educational exchange.
Ingolstadt School of management offers bachelor's and master's
degrees in business administration. Among the academic programs
offered are also an executive
MBA and doctoral degrees.
THI University of Applied Sciences
The University of Applied Sciences
Ingolstadt is a university for
technology, computer sciences and business administration. With
approximately 6,000 students, it is the biggest educational
institution in Ingolstadt.
Several scholarship programmes supported by companies such as Siemens
and Conti Temic (Continental AG) provide gifted students with
financial assistance during their studies. These students deepen their
practical experience by working at these organizations.
The University of Applied Sciences
Ingolstadt offers several
undergraduate and graduate programmes. Every programme is listed under
the top 10 in Germany.
The sports life of the city is based on the 83 registered sports
clubs. The biggest sports club is the MTV 1881 Ingolstadt, with over
3000 registered members in 16 branches. In total, the sports clubs in
Ingolstadt have more than 41,000 members.
Ingolstadt is especially known for ice hockey and association
football. ERC Ingolstadt, founded in 1964, plays in the German Ice
Hockey League since the 2002-03 season. With the exception of its
season of debut and 2007–08, the club has reached the national
play-offs every year as of 2014[update], and has reached the
semi-finals three times. They won the German Ice Hockey League
Championship in 2014.
The football club
FC Ingolstadt 04
FC Ingolstadt 04 came into existence in 2004 after
the merger of the football branches of
MTV Ingolstadt and ESV
Ingolstadt. In the 2007-08 season, it was promoted from the third
highest division at the time, Regionalliga Süd to 2. Bundesliga. In
the 2008-09 season, it was relegated at the penultimate place, but was
promoted again in 2010-11 and remained in
2. Bundesliga till 2015. In
Ingolstadt won the
2. Bundesliga and were promoted to the
country's highest league, the Bundesliga. During their first season in
Ingolstadt finished in 11th place. They were relegated
2. Bundesliga by the end of the 2016-17 season.
Ingolstadt is one of the many settings in Mary Shelley's novel
Frankenstein. Primarily, Victor
Frankenstein attends university in
Ingolstadt. The musical version of the novel,
Frankenstein – A New
Musical has many scenes set in Ingolstadt.
Ingolstadt is also a pivotal location in
The Illuminatus! Trilogy
The Illuminatus! Trilogy by
Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson.
The sixth scene of "Mother Courage and Her Children" by "Bertolt
Brecht" is set in Ingolstadt, when count Tilly died in 1632, during
the "Thirty Years War"
Rainer Werner Fassbinder's 1971 film
Pioneers in Ingolstadt is set in
The X-Files episode "The Post-Modern Prometheus" makes a reference to
the University of Ingolstadt. This was an allusion to Frankenstein, as
the episode contained numerous
Frankenstein references, and the full
Frankenstein is "Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus".
In the Terra Ignota series,
Ingolstadt is the capital of Gordian, one
of the world's seven Hives.
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany
Several other cities are sister cities to Ingolstadt:
Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland
Grasse, PACA, France
Carrara, Tuscany, Italy
Moscow, Central Administrative Okrug, Russia
Murska Sobota, Slovenia
China (since 2013)
Organizations and clubs
MTV 1881 Ingolstadt, Ingolstadt's major sports club
Ingolstadt 04, Footballclub in
Grün-Weiß Ingolstadt, Footballclub in Kreisklasse (IX)
Ingolstadt Schanzer, Baseball team in
2. Bundesliga (II)
Ice hockey team in DEL (I)
The Bavarian Illuminati
American football in GFL (I)
University of Ingolstadt
^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt
für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). January 2018.
^ "Bevölkerung" [Population] (pdf) (in German). Stadt Ingolstadt.
pp. 34–38. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
^ "Facts and Figures". THI. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
^ "Miasta Partnerskie Opola". Urzad Miasta Opola (in Polish). Archived
from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ingolstadt.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Ingolstadt.
Ingolstadt Official website of the city (in German)
Virtual tour through
Ingolstadt (in German, but more images than text)
Catholic University Eichstätt-Ingolstadt
University of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschule)
Museum of the Bavarian Army (in German)
A history of
Ingolstadt by Kurt Scheurer (in German)
A biography of
Marieluise Fleißer (in German)
Marieluise Fleißer (in
Germany by population
Freiburg im Breisgau
Mülheim an der Ruhr
Offenbach am Main
cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants
Urban and rural districts in the Free State of
Neustadt (Aisch)-Bad Windsheim
Neustadt an der Waldnaab
List of islands in the Danube
List of crossings of the Danube