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Ernst Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(Swedish pronunciation: [ˈɪŋmar ˈbærjman] ( listen); 14 July 1918 – 30 July 2007) was a Swedish director, writer, and producer who worked in film, television, theatre and radio. Considered to be among the most accomplished and influential filmmakers of all time,[1][2][3][4] Bergman's renowned works include Smiles of a Summer Night
Smiles of a Summer Night
(1955), The Seventh Seal (1957), Wild Strawberries (1957), Persona (1966), Cries and Whispers (1972), Scenes from a Marriage
Scenes from a Marriage
(1973), and Fanny and Alexander (1982). Bergman directed over sixty films and documentaries for cinematic release and for television, most of which he also wrote. He also directed over 170 plays. From 1953, he forged a powerful creative partnership with his full-time cinematographer Sven Nykvist. Among his company of actors were Harriet and Bibi Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Gunnar Björnstrand, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin
Ingrid Thulin
and Max von Sydow. Most of his films were set in Sweden, and numerous films from Through a Glass Darkly (1961) onward were filmed on Faroe Islands. His work often deals with death, illness, faith, betrayal, bleakness and insanity. Philip French
Philip French
referred to Bergman as "one of the greatest artists of the 20th century [...] he found in literature and the performing arts a way of both recreating and questioning the human condition."[5] Mick LaSalle argued, "Like Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
and James Joyce
James Joyce
in literature, Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
strove to capture and illuminate the mystery, ecstasy and fullness of life, by concentrating on individual consciousness and essential moments."[6]

Contents

1 Biography

1.1 Early life 1.2 Early film career 1.3 Tax evasion charges in 1976 1.4 Aftermath following arrest 1.5 Retirement and death

2 Style of working

2.1 Repertory company 2.2 Financing 2.3 Technique 2.4 Subjects 2.5 Bergman’s views on his career 2.6 Theatrical work

3 Ancestry and family tree 4 Legacy and accolades 5 Awards 6 Exhibitions 7 Filmography 8 See also 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Biography[edit] Early life[edit]

A young Bergman

Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
was born in Uppsala, Sweden, the son of Erik Bergman, a Lutheran minister and later chaplain to the King of Sweden, and Karin (née Åkerblom), a nurse who also had Walloon[7] ancestors.[8] He grew up with his older brother Dag and sister Margareta surrounded by religious imagery and discussion. His father was a conservative parish minister with strict ideas of parenting. Ingmar was locked up in dark closets for "infractions", such as wetting the bed. "While father preached away in the pulpit and the congregation prayed, sang, or listened", Ingmar wrote in his autobiography Laterna Magica,

I devoted my interest to the church's mysterious world of low arches, thick walls, the smell of eternity, the coloured sunlight quivering above the strangest vegetation of medieval paintings and carved figures on ceilings and walls. There was everything that one's imagination could desire—angels, saints, dragons, prophets, devils, humans ... .

Although raised in a devout Lutheran household, Bergman later stated that he lost his faith when aged eight, and only came to terms with this fact while making Winter Light
Winter Light
in 1962.[9] His interest in theatre and film began early: "At the age of nine, he traded a set of tin soldiers for a magic lantern, a possession that altered the course of his life. Within a year, he had created, by playing with this toy, a private world in which he felt completely at home, he recalled. He fashioned his own scenery, marionettes, and lighting effects and gave puppet productions of Strindberg plays in which he spoke all the parts."[10][11] Bergman attended Palmgren's School as a teenager. His school years were unhappy,[12] and he remembered them unfavourably in later years. In a 1944 letter concerning the film Torment (sometimes known as Frenzy), which sparked debate on the condition of Swedish high schools (and which Bergman had written),[13] the school's principal Henning Håkanson wrote, among other things, that Bergman had been a "problem child".[14] Bergman wrote in a response that he had strongly disliked the emphasis on homework and testing in his formal schooling. In 1934, aged 16, he was sent to Germany to spend the summer holidays with family friends. He attended a Nazi rally in Weimar
Weimar
at which he saw Adolf Hitler.[15] He later wrote in Laterna Magica (The Magic Lantern) about the visit to Germany, describing how the German family had put a portrait of Hitler on the wall by his bed, and that "for many years, I was on Hitler's side, delighted by his success and saddened by his defeats".[16] Bergman commented that "Hitler was unbelievably charismatic. He electrified the crowd. ... The Nazism I had seen seemed fun and youthful".[17] Bergman did two five-month stretches in Sweden of mandatory military service.[18] He entered Stockholm University
Stockholm University
College (later renamed Stockholm University) in 1937, to study art and literature. He spent most of his time involved in student theatre and became a "genuine movie addict".[19] At the same time, a romantic involvement led to a pugilistic confrontation with his father which resulted in a break which lasted for years. Although he did not graduate, he wrote a number of plays and an opera, and became an assistant director at a theatre. In 1942, he was given the opportunity to direct one of his own scripts, Caspar’s Death. The play was seen by members of Svensk Filmindustri, which then offered Bergman a position working on scripts. He married Else Fisher in 1943. Early film career[edit] Bergman’s film career began in 1941 with his work rewriting scripts, but his first major accomplishment was in 1944 when he wrote the screenplay for Torment (a.k.a. Frenzy) (Hets), a film directed by Alf Sjöberg. Along with writing the screenplay, he was also appointed assistant director of the film. In his second autobiographical book, Images: My Life in Film, Bergman describes the filming of the exteriors as his actual film directorial debut.[20] The film sparked debate on Swedish formal education. When Henning Håkanson (the principal of the high school Bergman had attended) wrote a letter following the film's release, Bergman, according to scholar Frank Gado, disparaged in a response what he viewed as Håkanson's implication that students "who did not fit some arbitrary prescription of worthiness deserved the system's cruel neglect".[13] Bergman also stated in the letter that he "hated school as a principle, as a system and as an institution. And as such I have definitely not wanted to criticize my own school, but all schools."[21][22] The international success of this film led to Bergman’s first opportunity to direct a year later. During the next ten years he wrote and directed more than a dozen films, including Prison (Fängelse) in 1949, as well as Sawdust and Tinsel
Sawdust and Tinsel
(Gycklarnas afton) and Summer with Monika
Summer with Monika
(Sommaren med Monika), both from 1953.

Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
and Victor Sjöström
Victor Sjöström
on the set of Wild Strawberries (1957)

Bergman first achieved worldwide success with Smiles of a Summer Night (Sommarnattens leende) (1955), which won for "Best poetic humour" and was nominated for the Palme d’Or
Palme d’Or
at Cannes the following year. This was followed by The Seventh Seal
The Seventh Seal
(Det sjunde inseglet) and Wild Strawberries (Smultronstället), released in Sweden ten months apart in 1957. The Seventh Seal
The Seventh Seal
won a special jury prize and was nominated for the Palme d'Or at Cannes, and Wild Strawberries won numerous awards for Bergman and its star, Victor Sjöström. Bergman continued to be productive for the next two decades. From the early 1960s, he spent much of his life on the Faroe Islands, where he made several films. In the early 1960s he directed three films that explored the theme of faith and doubt in God, Through a Glass Darkly (Såsom i en Spegel, 1961), Winter Light
Winter Light
(Nattvardsgästerna, 1962), and The Silence (Tystnaden, 1963). Critics created the notion that the common themes in these three films made them a trilogy or cinematic triptych. Bergman initially responded that he did not plan these three films as a trilogy and that he could not see any common motifs in them, but he later seemed to adopt the notion, with some equivocation.[23][24] He made a parody of Fellini
Fellini
in 1964, All These Women
All These Women
(För att inte tala om alla dessa kvinnor).[25] In 1966, he directed Persona, a film that he himself considered one of his most important works. While the highly experimental film won few awards, many consider it his masterpiece. Other notable films of the period include The Virgin Spring
The Virgin Spring
(Jungfrukällan, 1960), Hour of the Wolf (Vargtimmen, 1968), Shame (Skammen, 1968) and The Passion of Anna (En Passion, 1969). He and his cinematographer Sven Nykvist
Sven Nykvist
made oft-noted use of a crimson color scheme for Cries and Whispers
Cries and Whispers
(1972), which is among Bergman's most acclaimed films. He also produced extensively for Swedish television at this time. Two works of note were Scenes from a Marriage
Scenes from a Marriage
(Scener ur ett äktenskap, 1973) and The Magic Flute (Trollflöjten, 1975). Tax evasion charges in 1976[edit] On 30 January 1976, while rehearsing August Strindberg’s The Dance of Death at the Royal Dramatic Theatre
Royal Dramatic Theatre
in Stockholm, he was arrested by two plainclothes police officers and charged with income tax evasion. The impact of the event on Bergman was devastating. He suffered a nervous breakdown as a result of the humiliation, and was hospitalised in a state of deep depression. The investigation was focused on an alleged 1970 transaction of 500,000 Swedish kronor (SEK) between Bergman’s Swedish company Cinematograf and its Swiss subsidiary Persona, an entity that was mainly used for the paying of salaries to foreign actors. Bergman dissolved Persona in 1974 after having been notified by the Swedish Central Bank and subsequently reported the income. On 23 March 1976, the special prosecutor Anders Nordenadler dropped the charges against Bergman, saying that the alleged crime had no legal basis, saying it would be like bringing "charges against a person who has stolen his own car, thinking it was someone else’s".[26] Director General Gösta Ekman, chief of the Swedish Internal Revenue Service, defended the failed investigation, saying that the investigation was dealing with important legal material and that Bergman was treated just like any other suspect. He expressed regret that Bergman had left the country, hoping that Bergman was a "stronger" person now when the investigation had shown that he had not done any wrong.[27] Even though the charges were dropped, Bergman became disconsolate, fearing he would never again return to directing. Despite pleas by the Swedish prime minister Olof Palme, high public figures, and leaders of the film industry, he vowed never to work in Sweden again. He closed down his studio on the island of Faroes, suspended two announced film projects, and went into self-imposed exile in Munich, Germany. Harry Schein, director of the Swedish Film Institute, estimated the immediate damage as ten million SEK (kronor) and hundreds of jobs lost.[28] Aftermath following arrest[edit] Bergman then briefly considered the possibility of working in America; his next film, The Serpent’s Egg (1977) was a German-U.S. production and his second English-language film (the first being 1971’s The Touch). This was followed by a British-Norwegian co-production, Autumn Sonata (Höstsonaten, 1978) starring Ingrid Bergman, and From the Life of the Marionettes (Aus dem Leben der Marionetten, 1980) which was a British-German co-production. He temporarily returned to his homeland in 1982, to direct Fanny and Alexander (Fanny och Alexander). Bergman stated that the film would be his last, and that afterwards he would focus on directing theatre. After that he wrote several film scripts and directed a number of television specials. As with previous work for TV, some of these productions were later released in theatres. The last such work was Saraband
Saraband
(2003), a sequel to Scenes from a Marriage
Scenes from a Marriage
and directed by Bergman when he was 84 years old. Although he continued to operate from Munich, by mid-1978 Bergman had overcome some of his bitterness toward the government of Sweden. In July of that year he visited Sweden, celebrating his sixtieth birthday at Faroe Islands, and partly resumed his work as a director at Royal Dramatic Theatre. To honour his return, the Swedish Film Institute launched a new Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
Prize to be awarded annually for excellence in filmmaking.[29] Still, he remained in Munich
Munich
until 1984. In one of the last major interviews with Bergman, conducted in 2005 at Faroe Islands, Bergman said that despite being active during the exile, he had effectively lost eight years of his professional life.[30] Retirement and death[edit] Bergman retired from filmmaking in December 2003. He had a hip surgery in October 2006 and was making a difficult recovery. He died in his sleep[31] at age 89; his body was found at his home on Faroe Islands, on 30 July 2007.[32] (It was the same day another renowned film director, Michelangelo Antonioni, also died.) The interment was private, at Faroese Church
Faroese Church
on 18 August 2007. A place in the Faroe Islands churchyard was prepared for him under heavy secrecy. Although he was buried on the island of Faroes, his name and date of birth were inscribed under his wife’s name on a tomb at Roslagsbro churchyard, Norrtälje Municipality, several years before his death.

Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
with his long-time cinematographer Sven Nykvist
Sven Nykvist
during the production of Through a Glass Darkly (1960)

Style of working[edit] Repertory company[edit]

A great number of Bergman’s interior scenes were filmed at the Filmstaden
Filmstaden
studios north of Stockholm

Bergman developed a personal "repertory company" of Swedish actors whom he repeatedly cast in his films, including Max von Sydow, Bibi Andersson, Harriet Andersson, Erland Josephson, Ingrid Thulin, Gunnel Lindblom, Bengt Ekerot, Anders Ek, and Gunnar Björnstrand, each of whom appeared in at least five Bergman features. Norwegian actress Liv Ullmann, who appeared in nine of Bergman’s films and one televisual film (Saraband), was the last to join this group (in the film Persona), and ultimately became the most closely associated with Bergman, both artistically and personally. They had a daughter together, Linn Ullmann
Linn Ullmann
(born 1966). Bergman began working with Sven Nykvist, his cinematographer, in 1953. The two developed and maintained a working relationship of sufficient rapport to allow Bergman not to worry about the composition of a shot until the day before it was filmed. On the morning of the shoot, he would briefly speak to Nykvist about the mood and composition he hoped for, and then leave Nykvist to work, lacking interruption or comment until post-production discussion of the next day’s work. Financing[edit] By Bergman’s own account, he never had a problem with funding. He cited two reasons for this: one, that he did not live in the United States, which he viewed as obsessed with box-office earnings; and two, that his films tended to be low-budget affairs. (Cries and Whispers, for instance, was finished for about $450,000, while Scenes from a Marriage, a six-episode television feature, cost only $200,000.)[33] Technique[edit] Bergman usually wrote his films' screenplays, thinking about them for months or years before starting the actual process of writing, which he viewed as somewhat tedious. His earlier films are carefully constructed and are either based on his plays or written in collaboration with other authors. Bergman stated that in his later works, when on occasion his actors would want to do things differently from his own intention, he would let them, noting that the results were often "disastrous" when he did not do so. As his career progressed, Bergman increasingly let his actors improvise their dialogue. In his latest films, he wrote just the ideas informing the scene and allowed his actors to determine the exact dialogue. When viewing daily rushes, Bergman stressed the importance of being critical but unemotive, claiming that he asked himself not if the work was great or terrible, but rather if it was sufficient or needed to be reshot.[33]

Bergman and actress Ingrid Thulin
Ingrid Thulin
during the production of The Silence (1963)

Subjects[edit] Bergman’s films usually deal with existential questions of mortality, loneliness, and religious faith. In addition to these cerebral topics, however, sexual desire features in the foreground of most of his films, whether the central event is a medieval plague (The Seventh Seal), upper-class family activity in early twentieth century Uppsala
Uppsala
(Fanny and Alexander), or contemporary alienation (The Silence). His female characters are usually more in touch with their sexuality than the men, and unafraid to proclaim it, sometimes with breathtaking overtness (e.g., Cries and Whispers) as would define the work of "the conjurer," as Bergman called himself in a 1960 TIME cover story.[34] In an interview with Playboy
Playboy
in 1964, he said: "The manifestation of sex is very important, and particularly to me, for above all, I don’t want to make merely intellectual films. I want audiences to feel, to sense my films. This to me is much more important than their understanding them." Film, Bergman said, was his demanding mistress.[35] While he was a social democrat, Bergman stated that "as an artist I'm not politically involved […] I don't make propaganda for either one attitude or the other."[36] Bergman’s views on his career[edit] When asked in the series of interviews later titled " Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
- 3 dokumentärer om film, teater, Fårö
Fårö
och livet" conducted by Marie Nyreröd for Swedish TV and released in 2004, Bergman said that of his works, he held Winter Light,[37] Persona, and Cries and Whispers[38] in the highest regard. There he also states that he managed to push the envelope of film making in the films "Persona" and "Cries and Whispers." Bergman stated on numerous occasions (for example in the interview book Bergman on Bergman) that The Silence meant the end of the era in which religious questions were a major concern of his films. Bergman said that he would get "depressed" by his own films and could not watch them anymore.[39] In the same interview he also states: "If there is one thing I miss about working with films, it is working with Sven" (Nykvist), the third camera man he had worked together with. Theatrical work[edit] Although Bergman was universally famous for his contribution to cinema, he was also an active and productive stage director all his life. During his studies at Stockholm University, he became active in its student theatre, where he made a name for himself early on. His first work after graduation was as a trainee-director at a Stockholm theatre. At twenty-six years, he became the youngest theatrical manager in Europe at the Helsingborg
Helsingborg
City Theatre. He stayed at Helsingborg
Helsingborg
for three years and then became the director at Gothenburg city theatre from 1946 to 1949. He became director of the Malmö
Malmö
city theatre in 1953, and remained for seven years. Many of his star actors were people with whom he began working on stage, and a number of people in the "Bergman troupe" of his 1960s films came from Malmö’s city theatre (Max von Sydow, for example). He was the director of the Royal Dramatic Theatre
Royal Dramatic Theatre
in Stockholm from 1960 to 1966, and manager from 1963 to 1966, where he began a long-time collaboration with choreographer Donya Feuer. After Bergman left Sweden because of the tax evasion incident, he became director of the Residenz Theatre
Residenz Theatre
of Munich, Germany (1977–84). He remained active in theatre throughout the 1990s and made his final production on stage with Henrik Ibsen’s The Wild Duck at the Royal Dramatic Theatre
Royal Dramatic Theatre
in 2002. A complete list of Bergman’s work in theatre can be found under "Stage Productions and Radio Theatre Credits" at Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
filmography. Ancestry and family tree[edit]

The grave of Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
and his last wife, Ingrid von Rosen

Swedish newsposters 31 July 2007.

Bergman was married five times:

25 March 1943 – 1945, to Else Fisher (1 March 1918 – 3 March 2006), choreographer and dancer (divorced). Children:

Lena Bergman, actress, born 1943.

22 July 1945 – 1950, to Ellen Lundström (23 April 1919 – 6 March 2007), choreographer and film director (divorced). Children:

Eva Bergman, film director, born 1945 Jan Bergman, film director (1946–2000) the twins Mats and Anna Bergman, both actors and film directors, born in 1948.

1951 – 1959, to Gun Grut, journalist (divorced). Children:

Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
Jr., airline captain, born 1951.

1959 – 1969, to Käbi Laretei
Käbi Laretei
(14 July 1922 – 31 October 2014), concert pianist (divorced). Children:

Daniel Bergman, film director, born 1962.

11 November 1971 – 20 May 1995, to Ingrid von Rosen
Ingrid von Rosen
(maiden name Karlebo). Children:

Maria von Rosen, author, born 1959.

The first four marriages ended in divorce, while the last ended when his wife Ingrid died of stomach cancer in 1995, aged 65. Aside from his marriages, Bergman had romantic relationships with actresses Harriet Andersson
Harriet Andersson
(1952–55), Bibi Andersson
Bibi Andersson
(1955–59), and Liv Ullmann (1965–70). He was the father of writer Linn Ullmann
Linn Ullmann
with Liv Ullmann. In all, Bergman had nine children, one of whom predeceased him. Bergman was eventually married to all of the mothers except Liv Ullmann, but his daughter with his last wife, Ingrid von Rosen, was born twelve years before their marriage. Legacy and accolades[edit] See also: List of accolades and awards received by Ingmar Bergman
List of accolades and awards received by Ingmar Bergman
and The Dove (1968 film)

Bust of Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
in Celebrity Alley in Kielce, Poland

After Bergman died, a large archive of notes was donated to the Swedish Film Institute. Among the notes are several unpublished and unfinished scripts both for stage and films, and many more ideas for works in different stages of development. A never performed play has the title Kärlek utan älskare ("Love without lovers"), and has the note "Complete disaster!" written on the envelope; the play is about a director who disappears and an editor who tries to complete a work he has left unfinished. Other canceled projects include the script for a pornographic film which Bergman abandoned since he did not think it was alive enough, a play about a cannibal, some loose scenes set inside a womb, a film about the life of Jesus, a film about The Merry Widow, and a play with the title Från sperm till spöke ("From sperm to spook").[40] The Swedish director Marcus Lindeen went through the material, and inspired by Kärlek utan älskare he took samples from many of the works and turned them into a play, titled Arkivet för orealiserbara drömmar och visioner ("The archive for unrealisable dreams and visions"). Lindeen’s play premiered on 28 May 2012 at the Stockholm City Theatre.[40] Terrence Rafferty of The New York Times
The New York Times
wrote that throughout the 1960s, when Bergman "was considered pretty much the last word in cinematic profundity, his every tic was scrupulously pored over, analyzed, elaborated in ingenious arguments about identity, the nature of film, the fate of the artist in the modern world and so on."[41] Many filmmakers have praised Bergman and some have also cited his work as an influence on their own. Awards[edit] Main article: List of accolades and awards received by Ingmar Bergman In 1971, Bergman received the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award
at the Academy Awards
Academy Awards
ceremony. Three of his films won the Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Foreign Language Film. Exhibitions[edit]

Ingmar Bergman.The Image Maker,[42] Multimedia Art Museum, Moscow, 2012 Ingmar Bergman: The Man Who Asked Hard Questions,[43] Multimedia Art Museum, Moscow, 2012

Filmography[edit] Main article: Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
filmography See also[edit]

Cinema of Sweden List of film collaborations

References[edit]

^ Rothstein, Mervyn (30 July 2007). "Ingmar Bergman, Famed Director, Dies at 89". New York Times. Retrieved 31 July 2007. Ingmar Bergman, the ‘poet with the camera’ who is considered one of the greatest directors in motion picture history, died today on the small island of Faro where he lived on the Baltic coast of Sweden, Astrid Soderbergh Widding, president of The Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
Foundation, said. Bergman was 89.  ^ Rothstein, Mervyn (2007-07-30). "Ingmar Bergman, Master Filmmaker, Dies at 89". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-02-04.  ^ Tuohy, Andy (2015-09-03). A-Z Great Film Directors. Octopus. ISBN 9781844038558.  ^ Gallagher, John (1989-01-01). Film Directors on Directing. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780275932725.  ^ French, Philip (August 5, 2007). "Twin visionaries of a darker art". The Observer. Retrieved May 15, 2017.  ^ LaSalle, Mick (July 30, 2007). "Ingmar Bergman, director who captured life's emotion, dead at 89". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved May 15, 2017.  ^ Gado 1986, p. 374. ^ In a book published in 2011, Bergman's niece Veronica Ralston suggested that the director was not identical to the child born to Erik and Karin Bergman in July 1918. Ralston's claim was that this child would have died and been substituted for another child allegedly born to Erik Bergman in an extramarital relationship. (See Who was the mother of Ingmar Bergman? Dagens Nyheter, 26 May 2011, accessed 28 May 2011.) The DNA evidence was weakened after the laboratory consulted by Ralston clarified that it had only been possible to extract DNA from one out of two stamps submitted for testing, and the child supposedly substituted for the newborn child of Karin Bergman was later identified as having emigrated to the USA in 1923 with his adopted parents and lived there until his death in 1982 (Clas Barkman, "Nya turer i mysteriet kring Bergman", Dagens Nyheter, 4 June 2011, accessed 8 June 2011). ^ Kalin, Jesse (2003). The Films of Ingmar Bergman. p. 193.  ^ Rothstein, Mervyn (31 July 2007). "Ingmar Bergman, Master Filmmaker, Dies at 89". The New York Times.  ^ For an extended discussion of the profound influence that August Strindberg’s work played in Bergman’s life and career, see: Ottiliana Rolandsson, Pure Artistry: Ingmar Bergman, the Face as Portal
Portal
and the Performance of the Soul, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2010, especially chapter 3, "Bergman, Strindberg and the Territories of Imagination". ^ Steene 2005, p. 33. ^ a b Gado 1986, p. 59. ^ Macnab, Geoffrey (2009). Ingmar Bergman: The Life and Films of the Last Great European Director. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 0857713574.  ^ Vermilye, Jerry (2001). Ingmar Bergman: His Life and Films. p. 6. ; see also Bergman's autobiography, Laterna Magica. ^ Ingmar Bergman, The Magic Lantern (transl. from Swedish: Laterna Magica), Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007; ISBN 978-0-226-04382-1. ^ "Bergman admits Nazi past". BBC News. 7 September 1999.  ^ Peter Ohlin. (2009.) "Bergman's Nazi Past", Scandinavian Studies, 81(4):437-74. ^ Vermilye, Jerry (2001). Ingmar Bergman: His Life and Films. p. 6.  ^ Ingmar Bergman, Images : my life in film (translated from the Swedish by Marianne Ruuth), London: Bloomsbury, 1994. ISBN 0-7475-1670-7. ^ Bergman, Ingmar. in the Aftonbladet (9 October 1944) (translated from Swedish) ^ Fristoe, Roger. "Torment (1944)". Turner Classic Movies, Inc. Retrieved March 28, 2017.  ^ Stated in Marie Nyreröd’s interview series (the first part named Bergman och filmen) aired on Sveriges Television
Sveriges Television
Easter 2004. ^ In contrast, in 1964 Bergman had the three scripts published in a single volume: "These three films deal with reduction. Through a Glass Darkly – conquered certainty. Winter Light – penetrated certainty. The Silence – God’s silence — the negative imprint. Therefore, they constitute a trilogy." The Criterion Collection groups the films as a trilogy in a boxed set. In the 1963 documentary Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
Makes a Movie, about the making of Winter Light, supports the idea that Bergman did not plan a trilogy. In the interview with Bergman about writing the script of Winter Light, and the interviews made during the shooting of it, he hardly mentions Through a Glass Darkly. Instead, he discusses the themes of Winter Light, in particular the religious issues, in relation to The Virgin Spring. ^ Theall, Donald F. (1995). Beyond the Word: reconstructing sense in the Joyce era of technology, culture, and communication. p. 35.  ^ Åtal mot Bergman läggs ned [Charges against Bergman dropped]. Rapport (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. 23 March 1976. Archived from the original (News report) on 21 November 2011.  ^ Generaldirektör om Bergmans flykt [The Director General about Bergman's escape]. Rapport (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. 22 April 1976. Archived from the original (News report) on 4 September 2011.  ^ Harry Schein
Harry Schein
om Bergmans flykt [ Harry Schein
Harry Schein
about Bergman's escape]. Rapport (in Swedish). Sveriges Television. 22 April 1976. Archived from the original (News report) on 20 November 2011.  ^ Ephraim Katz, The Film Encyclopedia, New York: HarperCollins, 5th ed., 1998. ^ Ingmar Bergman: Samtal på Fårö
Fårö
[Ingmar Bergman: Talks on Fårö] (in Swedish), Sveriges Radio, 28 March 2005  ^ "Bergman buried in quiet ceremony". BBC News. London. 18 August 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2010.  ^ "Film Great Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
Dies at 89". 30 July 2007.  ^ a b American Film Institute seminar, 1975, on The Criterion Collection’s 2006 DVD of The Virgin Spring. ^ "THE SCREEN: I Am A Conjurer". Time Magazine. 14 March 1960. Retrieved 16 November 2009.  ^ Koskinen, Maaret (2010-04-01). Ingmar Bergman's The Silence: Pictures in the Typewriter, Writings on the Screen. University of Washington Press. ISBN 9780295801957.  ^ Bergman on Bergman: Interviews with Ingmar Bergman. By Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns, and Jonas Sima; translated by Paul Britten Austin. Simon & Schuster, New York. p. 176-178. Swedish edition copyright 1970; English translation 1973. ^ "Winter Light". 2005.  ^ Steene 2005. ^ "Bergman 'depressed' by own films". BBC News. London. 10 April 2004. Retrieved 5 January 2010.  ^ a b Jacobsson, Cecilia (28 May 2012). "Ingmar Bergmans ratade texter blev ny pjäs" [Ingmar Bergman's rejected texts became new play]. Dagens Nyheter
Dagens Nyheter
(in Swedish). Retrieved 28 May 2012.  ^ Rafferty, Terrence (February 8, 2004). "FILM; On the Essential Strangeness of Bergman". The New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2017.  ^ "Ingmar Bergman.The Image Maker". Multimedia Art Museum, Moscow.  ^ "Ingmar Bergman: The Man Who Asked Hard Questions". Multimedia Art Museum, Moscow. 

Bibliography[edit]

Bergman on Bergman: Interviews with Ingmar Bergman. By Stig Björkman, Torsten Manns, and Jonas Sima; translated by Paul Britten Austin. Simon & Schuster, New York. Swedish edition copyright 1970; English translation 1973. Filmmakers on filmmaking: the American Film Institute seminars on motion pictures and television (edited by Joseph McBride). Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1983. Images: my life in film, Ingmar Bergman. Translated by Marianne Ruuth. New York, Arcade Pub., 1994, ISBN 1-55970-186-2 Steene, Birgitta (2005-01-01). Ingmar Bergman: A Reference Guide. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 9789053564066.  The Magic Lantern, Ingmar Bergman. Translated by Joan Tate New York, Viking Press, 1988, ISBN 0-670-81911-5 The Demons of Modernity: Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
and European Cinema, John Orr, Berghahn Books, 2014. Gado, Frank (1986). The Passion of Ingmar Bergman. Duke University Press. ISBN 0822305860. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ingmar Bergman

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ingmar Bergman.

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all posters Bergmanorama: The magic works of Ingmar Bergman The Guardian/NFT interview with Liv Ullmann
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by Shane Danielson, 23 January 2001 Xan Brooks reports on Bergman’s interview for Reuters, The Guardian, 12 December 2001 Bergman Week Regilexikon[permanent dead link] DVD Beaver’s Director’s Chair on Bergman, with links to DVD and Blu-ray comparisons of his major films

Bibliographies

Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
Bibliography (via UC Berkeley) Ingmar Bergman
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Site Collection of interviews with Bergman

Awards and achievements

Preceded by Henri-Georges Clouzot for The Mystery of Picasso Prix du Jury 1957 for The Seventh Seal Succeeded by Jacques Tati for Mon Oncle

Preceded by Robert Bresson for A Man Escaped Prix de la mise en scène 1958 for Brink of Life Succeeded by François Truffaut for The 400 Blows

Preceded by Sidney Lumet for 12 Angry Men Golden Bear 1958 for Wild Strawberries Succeeded by Claude Chabrol for Les Cousins

Preceded by Alfred Hitchcock Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award 1971 Succeeded by Lawrence Weingarten

Preceded by Orson Welles Career Golden Lion 1971 Succeeded by Charles Chaplin, Anatali Golovnia, Billy Wilder

Preceded by Stanley Kubrick for A Clockwork Orange New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director 1972 for Cries and Whispers Succeeded by François Truffaut for Day for Night

Preceded by Peter Bogdanovitch for The Last Picture Show New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Screenplay 1972 for Cries and Whispers Succeeded by George Lucas, Gloria Katz, Willard Huyck for American Graffiti

Preceded by George Lucas, Gloria Katz, Willard Huyck for American Graffiti New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Screenplay 1974 for Scenes from a Marriage Succeeded by François Truffaut, Suzanne Schiffman, Jean Gruault for The Story of Adele H.

Preceded by Sydney Pollack for Tootsie New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director 1983 for Fanny and Alexander Succeeded by David Lean for A Passage to India

v t e

Ingmar Bergman

Filmography

Films directed

Crisis (1946) It Rains on Our Love (1946) A Ship Bound for India (1947) Music in Darkness
Music in Darkness
(1948) Port of Call (1948) Prison (1949) Thirst (1949) To Joy (1950) This Can't Happen Here (1950) Summer Interlude
Summer Interlude
(1951) Secrets of Women
Secrets of Women
(1952) Summer with Monika
Summer with Monika
(1953) Sawdust and Tinsel
Sawdust and Tinsel
(1953) A Lesson in Love
A Lesson in Love
(1954) Dreams (1955) Smiles of a Summer Night
Smiles of a Summer Night
(1955) The Seventh Seal
The Seventh Seal
(1957) Wild Strawberries (1957) Brink of Life
Brink of Life
(1958) The Magician (1958) The Virgin Spring
The Virgin Spring
(1960) The Devil's Eye
The Devil's Eye
(1960) Through a Glass Darkly (1961) Winter Light
Winter Light
(1963) The Silence (1963) All These Women
All These Women
(1964) Persona (1966) Hour of the Wolf
Hour of the Wolf
(1968) Shame (1968) The Rite (1969) The Passion of Anna
The Passion of Anna
(1969) The Touch (1971) Cries and Whispers
Cries and Whispers
(1972) Scenes from a Marriage
Scenes from a Marriage
(1973) The Magic Flute (1975) Face to Face (1976) The Serpent's Egg (1977) Autumn Sonata
Autumn Sonata
(1978) From the Life of the Marionettes
From the Life of the Marionettes
(1980) Fanny and Alexander
Fanny and Alexander
(1982) After the Rehearsal
After the Rehearsal
(1984) The Blessed Ones
The Blessed Ones
(1986) In the Presence of a Clown
In the Presence of a Clown
(1997) Saraband
Saraband
(2003)

Films written

Torment (1944) Woman Without a Face (1947) Eva (1948) While the City Sleeps (1950) Divorced (1951) Last Pair Out (1956) The Pleasure Garden (1961) The Best Intentions
The Best Intentions
(1992) Sunday's Children
Sunday's Children
(1992) Private Confessions (1996) Faithless (2000)

Documentaries

The Making of Fanny and Alexander
Fanny and Alexander
(1986)

Short films

"Daniel" in Stimulantia
Stimulantia
(1967) Karin's Face (1986)

Television theatre

Mr. Sleeman Is Coming (1957) The Venetian (1958) Rabies (1958) The Image Makers (2000)

Related topics

Bergman Week Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
Makes a Movie The Dove The Seduction of Ingmar Bergman Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
Award Bibliography

Family

Erik Bergman (father) Dag Bergman (brother) Margareta Bergman (sister) Lena Bergman
Lena Bergman
(daughter) Eva Bergman (daughter) Mats Bergman (son) Anna Bergman (daughter) Daniel Bergman
Daniel Bergman
(son) Linn Ullmann
Linn Ullmann
(daughter)

Awards for Ingmar Bergman

v t e

Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award

Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck
(1938) Hal B. Wallis
Hal B. Wallis
(1939) David O. Selznick
David O. Selznick
(1940) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1942) Sidney Franklin (1943) Hal B. Wallis
Hal B. Wallis
(1944) Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck
(1945) Samuel Goldwyn
Samuel Goldwyn
(1947) Jerry Wald
Jerry Wald
(1949) Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck
(1951) Arthur Freed (1952) Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
(1953) George Stevens
George Stevens
(1954) Buddy Adler (1957) Jack L. Warner
Jack L. Warner
(1959) Stanley Kramer
Stanley Kramer
(1962) Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
(1964) William Wyler
William Wyler
(1966) Robert Wise
Robert Wise
(1967) Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1968) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1971) Lawrence Weingarten (1974) Mervyn LeRoy
Mervyn LeRoy
(1976) Pandro S. Berman
Pandro S. Berman
(1977) Walter Mirisch (1978) Ray Stark (1980) Albert R. Broccoli
Albert R. Broccoli
(1982) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1986) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1988) David Brown and Richard D. Zanuck
Richard D. Zanuck
(1991) George Lucas
George Lucas
(1992) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1995) Saul Zaentz
Saul Zaentz
(1997) Norman Jewison
Norman Jewison
(1999) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2000) Dino De Laurentiis
Dino De Laurentiis
(2001) John Calley (2009) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(2010)

v t e

Academy Award
Academy Award
for Best Foreign Language Film

1947–1955 (Honorary)

1947: Shoeshine – Vittorio De Sica 1948: Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
– Maurice Cloche 1949: Bicycle Thieves
Bicycle Thieves
– Vittorio De Sica 1950: The Walls of Malapaga – René Clément 1951: Rashomon
Rashomon
– Akira Kurosawa 1952: Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
– René Clément 1953: No Award 1954: Gate of Hell – Teinosuke Kinugasa 1955: Samurai, The Legend of Musashi – Hiroshi Inagaki

1956–1975

1956: La Strada
La Strada
– Federico Fellini 1957: Nights of Cabiria
Nights of Cabiria
– Federico Fellini 1958: My Uncle – Jacques Tati 1959: Black Orpheus
Black Orpheus
– Marcel Camus 1960: The Virgin Spring
The Virgin Spring
– Ingmar Bergman 1961: Through a Glass Darkly – Ingmar Bergman 1962: Sundays and Cybele
Sundays and Cybele
– Serge Bourguignon 1963:
– Federico Fellini 1964: Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow
– Vittorio De Sica 1965: The Shop on Main Street
The Shop on Main Street
Ján Kadár & Elmar Klos 1966: A Man and a Woman
A Man and a Woman
– Claude Lelouch 1967: Closely Watched Trains
Closely Watched Trains
– Jiří Menzel 1968: War and Peace – Sergei Bondarchuk 1969: Z – Costa-Gavras 1970: Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion
Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion
– Elio Petri 1971: The Garden of the Finzi Continis – Vittorio De Sica 1972: The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie
The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie
– Luis Buñuel 1973: Day for Night – François Truffaut 1974: Amarcord
Amarcord
– Federico Fellini 1975: Dersu Uzala – Akira Kurosawa

1976–2000

1976: Black and White in Color
Black and White in Color
– Jean-Jacques Annaud 1977: Madame Rosa
Madame Rosa
– Moshé Mizrahi 1978: Get Out Your Handkerchiefs
Get Out Your Handkerchiefs
– Bertrand Blier 1979: The Tin Drum – Volker Schlöndorff 1980: Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears
Moscow Does Not Believe in Tears
– Vladimir Menshov 1981: Mephisto – István Szabó 1982: Volver a Empezar ('To Begin Again') – José Luis Garci 1983: Fanny and Alexander
Fanny and Alexander
– Ingmar Bergman 1984: Dangerous Moves
Dangerous Moves
– Richard Dembo 1985: The Official Story
The Official Story
– Luis Puenzo 1986: The Assault – Fons Rademakers 1987: Babette's Feast – Gabriel Axel 1988: Pelle the Conqueror
Pelle the Conqueror
– Bille August 1989: Cinema Paradiso – Giuseppe Tornatore 1990: Journey of Hope – Xavier Koller 1991: Mediterraneo – Gabriele Salvatores 1992: Indochine – Régis Wargnier 1993: Belle Époque – Fernando Trueba 1994: Burnt by the Sun
Burnt by the Sun
– Nikita Mikhalkov 1995: Antonia's Line
Antonia's Line
– Marleen Gorris 1996: Kolya
Kolya
– Jan Svěrák 1997: Character – Mike van Diem 1998: Life Is Beautiful
Life Is Beautiful
– Roberto Benigni 1999: All About My Mother
All About My Mother
– Pedro Almodóvar 2000: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon
– Ang Lee

2001–present

2001: No Man's Land – Danis Tanović 2002: Nowhere in Africa – Caroline Link 2003: The Barbarian Invasions
The Barbarian Invasions
– Denys Arcand 2004: The Sea Inside
The Sea Inside
– Alejandro Amenábar 2005: Tsotsi
Tsotsi
– Gavin Hood 2006: The Lives of Others
The Lives of Others
– Florian Henckel von Donnersmarck 2007: The Counterfeiters – Stefan Ruzowitzky 2008: Departures – Yōjirō Takita 2009: The Secret in Their Eyes
The Secret in Their Eyes
– Juan J. Campanella 2010: In a Better World
In a Better World
– Susanne Bier 2011: A Separation – Asghar Farhadi 2012: Amour – Michael Haneke 2013: The Great Beauty
The Great Beauty
– Paolo Sorrentino 2014: Ida – Paweł Pawlikowski 2015: Son of Saul
Son of Saul
– László Nemes 2016: The Salesman – Asghar Farhadi 2017: A Fantastic Woman
A Fantastic Woman
– Sebastián Lelio

v t e

BAFTA Fellowship recipients

1971–2000

Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
(1971) Freddie Young (1972) Grace Wyndham Goldie (1973) David Lean
David Lean
(1974) Jacques Cousteau
Jacques Cousteau
(1975) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1976) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1976) Denis Forman (1977) Fred Zinnemann
Fred Zinnemann
(1978) Lew Grade
Lew Grade
(1979) Huw Wheldon
Huw Wheldon
(1979) David Attenborough
David Attenborough
(1980) John Huston
John Huston
(1980) Abel Gance
Abel Gance
(1981) Michael Powell
Michael Powell
& Emeric Pressburger
Emeric Pressburger
(1981) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1982) Richard Attenborough
Richard Attenborough
(1983) Hugh Greene (1984) Sam Spiegel
Sam Spiegel
(1984) Jeremy Isaacs (1985) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1986) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1987) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988) Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1989) Paul Fox (1990) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1991) John Gielgud
John Gielgud
(1992) David Plowright (1992) Sydney Samuelson (1993) Colin Young (1993) Michael Grade
Michael Grade
(1994) Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1995) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1996) Ronald Neame
Ronald Neame
(1996) John Schlesinger
John Schlesinger
(1996) Maggie Smith
Maggie Smith
(1996) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
(1997) Steven Bochco
Steven Bochco
(1997) Julie Christie
Julie Christie
(1997) Oswald Morris (1997) Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
(1997) David Rose (1997) Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(1998) Bill Cotton
Bill Cotton
(1998) Eric Morecambe
Eric Morecambe
& Ernie Wise
Ernie Wise
(1999) Elizabeth Taylor
Elizabeth Taylor
(1999) Michael Caine
Michael Caine
(2000) Stanley Kubrick
Stanley Kubrick
(2000) Peter Bazalgette
Peter Bazalgette
(2000)

2001–present

Albert Finney
Albert Finney
(2001) John Thaw
John Thaw
(2001) Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2001) Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(2002) Merchant Ivory Productions (2002) Andrew Davies (2002) John Mills
John Mills
(2002) Saul Zaentz
Saul Zaentz
(2003) David Jason (2003) John Boorman
John Boorman
(2004) Roger Graef (2004) John Barry (2005) David Frost
David Frost
(2005) David Puttnam
David Puttnam
(2006) Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2006) Anne V. Coates (2007) Richard Curtis
Richard Curtis
(2007) Will Wright (2007) Anthony Hopkins
Anthony Hopkins
(2008) Bruce Forsyth
Bruce Forsyth
(2008) Dawn French
Dawn French
& Jennifer Saunders
Jennifer Saunders
(2009) Terry Gilliam
Terry Gilliam
(2009) Nolan Bushnell
Nolan Bushnell
(2009) Vanessa Redgrave
Vanessa Redgrave
(2010) Shigeru Miyamoto
Shigeru Miyamoto
(2010) Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg
(2010) Christopher Lee
Christopher Lee
(2011) Peter Molyneux
Peter Molyneux
(2011) Trevor McDonald (2011) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2012) Rolf Harris
Rolf Harris
(2012) Alan Parker
Alan Parker
(2013) Gabe Newell
Gabe Newell
(2013) Michael Palin
Michael Palin
(2013) Helen Mirren
Helen Mirren
(2014) Rockstar Games
Rockstar Games
(2014) Julie Walters
Julie Walters
(2014) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2015) David Braben (2015) Jon Snow (2015) Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
(2016) John Carmack
John Carmack
(2016) Ray Galton & Alan Simpson (2016) Mel Brooks
Mel Brooks
(2017) Joanna Lumley
Joanna Lumley
(2017) Ridley Scott
Ridley Scott
(2018)

v t e

European Film Academy Lifetime Achievement Award

  Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1988)   Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1988)  Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1989)   Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1990)   Alexandre Trauner (1991)   Billy Wilder
Billy Wilder
(1992)   Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1993)   Robert Bresson (1994)   Marcel Carné
Marcel Carné
(1995)   Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1996)   Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1997)   Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(1999)   Richard Harris
Richard Harris
(2000)   Monty Python
Monty Python
(2001)   Tonino Guerra
Tonino Guerra
(2002)   Claude Chabrol
Claude Chabrol
(2003)   Carlos Saura
Carlos Saura
(2004)   Sean Connery
Sean Connery
(2005)   Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2006)   Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(2007)   Judi Dench
Judi Dench
(2008)   Ken Loach
Ken Loach
(2009)   Bruno Ganz
Bruno Ganz
(2010)   Stephen Frears
Stephen Frears
(2011)   Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(2012)   Catherine Deneuve
Catherine Deneuve
(2013)   Agnès Varda
Agnès Varda
(2014)   Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2015)   Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
(2016) Alexander Sokurov
Alexander Sokurov
(2017)

v t e

Cannes Film Festival Best Director Award

René Clément
René Clément
(1946) René Clément
René Clément
(1949) Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
(1951) Christian-Jaque (1952) Jules Dassin
Jules Dassin
/ Sergei Vasilyev
Sergei Vasilyev
(1955) Sergei Yutkevich
Sergei Yutkevich
(1956) Robert Bresson (1957) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1958) François Truffaut
François Truffaut
(1959) Yuliya Solntseva
Yuliya Solntseva
(1961) Liviu Ciulei (1965) Sergei Yutkevich
Sergei Yutkevich
(1966) Ferenc Kósa
Ferenc Kósa
(1967) Glauber Rocha
Glauber Rocha
/ Vojtěch Jasný
Vojtěch Jasný
(1969) John Boorman
John Boorman
(1970) Miklós Jancsó
Miklós Jancsó
(1972) Michel Brault / Costa-Gavras
Costa-Gavras
(1975) Ettore Scola
Ettore Scola
(1976) Nagisa Oshima
Nagisa Oshima
(1978) Terrence Malick
Terrence Malick
(1979) Werner Herzog
Werner Herzog
(1982) Robert Bresson / Andrei Tarkovsky
Andrei Tarkovsky
(1983) Bertrand Tavernier
Bertrand Tavernier
(1984) André Téchiné
André Téchiné
(1985) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1986) Wim Wenders
Wim Wenders
(1987) Fernando Solanas
Fernando Solanas
(1988) Emir Kusturica
Emir Kusturica
(1989) Pavel Lungin
Pavel Lungin
(1990) Joel Coen (1991) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(1992) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(1993) Nanni Moretti
Nanni Moretti
(1994) Mathieu Kassovitz
Mathieu Kassovitz
(1995) Joel Coen (1996) Wong Kar-wai
Wong Kar-wai
(1997) John Boorman
John Boorman
(1998) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(1999) Edward Yang (2000) Joel Coen / David Lynch
David Lynch
(2001) Im Kwon-taek / Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2002) Gus Van Sant
Gus Van Sant
(2003) Tony Gatlif
Tony Gatlif
(2004) Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
(2005) Alejandro González Iñárritu
Alejandro González Iñárritu
(2006) Julian Schnabel
Julian Schnabel
(2007) Nuri Bilge Ceylan
Nuri Bilge Ceylan
(2008) Brillante Mendoza
Brillante Mendoza
(2009) Mathieu Amalric
Mathieu Amalric
(2010) Nicolas Winding Refn
Nicolas Winding Refn
(2011) Carlos Reygadas
Carlos Reygadas
(2012) Amat Escalante
Amat Escalante
(2013) Bennett Miller
Bennett Miller
(2014) Hou Hsiao-hsien
Hou Hsiao-hsien
(2015) Olivier Assayas
Olivier Assayas
/ Cristian Mungiu
Cristian Mungiu
(2016) Sofia Coppola
Sofia Coppola
(2017)

v t e

Guldbagge Award for Best Director

1963–1990

Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1963/64) Arne Sucksdorff (1964/65) Alf Sjöberg
Alf Sjöberg
(1965/66) Jan Troell
Jan Troell
(1966/67) Kjell Grede (1967/68) Bo Widerberg
Bo Widerberg
(1968/69) Lars Lennart Forsberg (1969/70) Tage Danielsson
Tage Danielsson
(1971/72) Johan Bergenstråhle (1972/73) Vilgot Sjöman
Vilgot Sjöman
(1973/74) Hasse Alfredson (1974/75) Jan Halldoff (1975/76) Marianne Ahrne
Marianne Ahrne
(1976/77) Olle Hellbom (1977/78) Stefan Jarl
Stefan Jarl
(1978/79) Kay Pollak
Kay Pollak
(1980/81) Hasse Alfredson (1981/82) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1982/83) Hrafn Gunnlaugsson (1984) Hasse Alfredson (1985) Suzanne Osten
Suzanne Osten
(1986) Kjell Grede (1987) Max von Sydow
Max von Sydow
(1988) Åke Sandgren (1989) Kjell Grede (1990)

1991–present

Anders Grönros (1991) Colin Nutley
Colin Nutley
(1992) Clas Lindberg (1993) Ulf Hultberg & Åsa Faringer (1994) Bo Widerberg
Bo Widerberg
(1995) Kjell Sundvall
Kjell Sundvall
(1996) Daniel Alfredson
Daniel Alfredson
(1997) Lukas Moodysson
Lukas Moodysson
(1998) Ella Lemhagen
Ella Lemhagen
(1999) Roy Andersson
Roy Andersson
(2000) Jan Troell
Jan Troell
(2001) Lukas Moodysson
Lukas Moodysson
(2002) Björn Runge
Björn Runge
(2003) Tomas Alfredson
Tomas Alfredson
(2004) Ulf Malmros
Ulf Malmros
(2005) Ylva Gustavsson & Catti Edfeldt (2006) Roy Andersson
Roy Andersson
(2007) Tomas Alfredson
Tomas Alfredson
(2008) Lisa Siwe
Lisa Siwe
(2009) Pernilla August
Pernilla August
(2010) Ruben Östlund
Ruben Östlund
(2011) Gabriela Pichler
Gabriela Pichler
(2012) Per Fly
Per Fly
(2013) Ruben Östlund
Ruben Östlund
(2014) Magnus von Horn (2015) Goran Kapetanović (2016) Ruben Östlund
Ruben Östlund
(2017)

v t e

Guldbagge Award for Best Screenplay

Bengt Danneborn & Lennart Persson (1988) Stig Larsson & Åke Sandgren (1989) Kjell Grede (1990) Clas Lindberg (1991) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1992) Daniel Alfredson
Daniel Alfredson
& Jonas Cornell (1993) Peter Dalle
Peter Dalle
& Rolf Börjlind (1994) Jonas Gardell
Jonas Gardell
(1995) Per Olov Enquist
Per Olov Enquist
(1996) Annika Thor
Annika Thor
(1997) Lukas Moodysson
Lukas Moodysson
(1998) Ulf Stark
Ulf Stark
(1999) Roy Andersson
Roy Andersson
(2000) Hans Gunnarsson & Mikael Håfström (2001) Lukas Moodysson
Lukas Moodysson
(2002) Björn Runge
Björn Runge
(2003) Maria Blom
Maria Blom
(2004) Lena Einhorn (2005) Hans Renhäll & Ylva Gustavsson (2006) Roy Andersson
Roy Andersson
(2007) John Ajvide Lindqvist
John Ajvide Lindqvist
(2008) Ulf Malmros
Ulf Malmros
(2009) Lisa Langseth
Lisa Langseth
(2010) Josefine Adolfsson & Lisa Aschan
Lisa Aschan
(2011) Gabriela Pichler
Gabriela Pichler
(2012) Anna Odell (2013) Ruben Östlund
Ruben Östlund
(2014) Peter Grönlund (2015) Johannes Nyholm (2016) Amanda Kernell (2017)

v t e

National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Director

Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1966) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1967) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1968) François Truffaut
François Truffaut
(1969) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1970) Bernardo Bertolucci
Bernardo Bertolucci
(1971) Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
(1972) François Truffaut
François Truffaut
(1973) Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
(1974) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(1975) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1976) Luis Buñuel
Luis Buñuel
(1977) Terrence Malick
Terrence Malick
(1978) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
/ Robert Benton (1979) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1980) Louis Malle
Louis Malle
(1981) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1982) Paolo Taviani and Vittorio Taviani (1983) Robert Bresson (1984) John Huston
John Huston
(1985) David Lynch
David Lynch
(1986) John Boorman
John Boorman
(1987) Philip Kaufman
Philip Kaufman
(1988) Gus Van Sant
Gus Van Sant
(1989) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(1990) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(1991) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1992) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1993) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(1994) Mike Figgis
Mike Figgis
(1995) Lars von Trier
Lars von Trier
(1996) Curtis Hanson
Curtis Hanson
(1997) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(1998) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(1999) Steven Soderbergh
Steven Soderbergh
(2000) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2001) Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(2002) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(2003) Zhang Yimou
Zhang Yimou
(2004) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(2005) Paul Greengrass
Paul Greengrass
(2006) Paul Thomas Anderson
Paul Thomas Anderson
(2007) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2008) Kathryn Bigelow
Kathryn Bigelow
(2009) David Fincher
David Fincher
(2010) Terrence Malick
Terrence Malick
(2011) Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
(2012) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2013) Richard Linklater
Richard Linklater
(2014) Todd Haynes
Todd Haynes
(2015) Barry Jenkins
Barry Jenkins
(2016) Greta Gerwig
Greta Gerwig
(2017)

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National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Screenplay

1967–2000

David Newman and Robert Benton (1967) John Cassavetes
John Cassavetes
(1968) Paul Mazursky
Paul Mazursky
and Larry Tucker (1969) Éric Rohmer
Éric Rohmer
(1970) Penelope Gilliatt (1971) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1972) George Lucas, Gloria Katz and Willard Huyck (1973) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1974) Robert Towne
Robert Towne
and Warren Beatty
Warren Beatty
(1975) Alain Tanner
Alain Tanner
and John Berger
John Berger
(1976) Woody Allen
Woody Allen
and Marshall Brickman (1977) Paul Mazursky
Paul Mazursky
(1978) Steve Tesich
Steve Tesich
(1979) Bo Goldman
Bo Goldman
(1980) John Guare
John Guare
(1981) Murray Schisgal and Larry Gelbart
Larry Gelbart
(1982) Bill Forsyth
Bill Forsyth
(1983) Lowell Ganz, Babaloo Mandel and Bruce Jay Friedman (1984) Albert Brooks
Albert Brooks
and Monica Johnson (1985) Hanif Kureishi
Hanif Kureishi
(1986) John Boorman
John Boorman
(1987) Ron Shelton (1988) Gus Van Sant
Gus Van Sant
and Daniel Yost (1989) Charles Burnett (1990) David Cronenberg
David Cronenberg
(1991) David Webb Peoples (1992) Jane Campion
Jane Campion
(1993) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
and Roger Avary
Roger Avary
(1994) Amy Heckerling (1995) Albert Brooks
Albert Brooks
and Monica Johnson (1996) Curtis Hanson
Curtis Hanson
and Brian Helgeland (1997) Scott Frank (1998) Charlie Kaufman
Charlie Kaufman
(1999) Kenneth Lonergan
Kenneth Lonergan
(2000)

2001–present

Julian Fellowes
Julian Fellowes
(2001) Ronald Harwood (2002) Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini
Shari Springer Berman and Robert Pulcini
(2003) Alexander Payne
Alexander Payne
and Jim Taylor (2004) Noah Baumbach
Noah Baumbach
(2005) Peter Morgan (2006) Tamara Jenkins
Tamara Jenkins
(2007) Mike Leigh
Mike Leigh
(2008) Joel Coen and Ethan Coen (2009) Aaron Sorkin
Aaron Sorkin
(2010) Asghar Farhadi
Asghar Farhadi
(2011) Tony Kushner
Tony Kushner
(2012) Richard Linklater, Ethan Hawke, and Julie Delpy
Julie Delpy
(2013) Wes Anderson
Wes Anderson
(2014) Tom McCarthy and Josh Singer (2015) Kenneth Lonergan
Kenneth Lonergan
(2016) Greta Gerwig
Greta Gerwig
(2017)

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Recipients of the Sonning Prize

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
(1950) Albert Schweitzer
Albert Schweitzer
(1959) Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
(1960) Niels Bohr
Niels Bohr
(1961) Alvar Aalto
Alvar Aalto
(1962) Karl Barth
Karl Barth
(1963) Dominique Pire
Dominique Pire
(1964) Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
(1965) Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
(1966) Willem Visser 't Hooft
Willem Visser 't Hooft
(1967) Arthur Koestler
Arthur Koestler
(1968) Halldór Laxness
Halldór Laxness
(1969) Max Tau
Max Tau
(1970) Danilo Dolci
Danilo Dolci
(1971) Karl Popper
Karl Popper
(1973) Hannah Arendt
Hannah Arendt
(1975) Arne Næss
Arne Næss
(1977) Hermann Gmeiner
Hermann Gmeiner
(1979) Dario Fo
Dario Fo
(1981) Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir
(1983) William Heinesen
William Heinesen
(1985) Jürgen Habermas
Jürgen Habermas
(1987) Ingmar Bergman
Ingmar Bergman
(1989) Václav Havel
Václav Havel
(1991) Krzysztof Kieślowski
Krzysztof Kieślowski
(1994) Günter Grass
Günter Grass
(1996) Jørn Utzon
Jørn Utzon
(1998) Eugenio Barba
Eugenio Barba
(2000) Mary Robinson
Mary Robinson
(2002) Mona Hatoum (2004) Ágnes Heller
Ágnes Heller
(2006) Renzo Piano
Renzo Piano
(2008) Hans Magnus Enzensberger
Hans Magnus Enzensberger
(2010) Orhan Pamuk
Orhan Pamuk
(2012) Michael Haneke
Michael Haneke
(2014)

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Ingmar Bergman's Smiles of a Summer Night

Adaptations

A Little Night Music
A Little Night Music
(1973 musical) A Little Night Music
A Little Night Music
(1977 film) A Midsummer Night's Sex Comedy
A Midsummer Night's Sex Comedy
(1982 film)

Songs

"Send in the Clowns"

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 110097018 LCCN: n79054388 ISNI: 0000 0003 6864 6943 GND: 118509519 SELIBR: 177819 SUDOC: 026720884 BNF: cb118914257 (data) BIBSYS: 90059956 ULAN: 500069382 NLA: 35017717 NDL: 00433021 NKC: jn19990000712 ICCU: ITICCUCFIV72947 BNE: XX4579283 RKD: 408066 SN

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