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Indian rupee
Banknote of india.jpg Coins of the Indian rupee.png
The different types of Indian rupee banknotes in circulation.Coins of the Indian rupee
ISO 4217
CodeINR
Denominations
Subunit
  • ^ "Nepal writes to RBI to declare banned new Indian currency notes legal". The Economic Times. Times Internet. 6 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  • Also affecting convertibility is a series of customs regulations restricting the import and export of rupees. Legally, only up to 25000 can be imported or exported in cash at a time, and the possession of 200 and higher notes in Nepal is prohibited.[66][67] The conversion of currencies for and from rupees is also regulated.

    RBI also exercises a system of capital controls in addition to (through active trading) in currency markets. On the current account, there are no currency-conversion restrictions hindering buying or selling foreign exchange (although trade barriers exist). On the capital account, foreign institutional investors have convertibility to bring money into and out of the country and buy securities (subject to quantitative restrictions). Local firms are able to take capital out of the country in order to expand globally. However, local households are restricted in their ability to diversify globally. Because of the expansion of the current and capital accounts, India is increasingly moving towards full de facto convertibility.

    There is some confusion regarding the interchange of the currency with gold, but the system that India follows is that money cannot be exchanged for gold under any circumstances due to gold's lack of liquidity;[citation needed] therefore, money cannot be changed into gold by the RBI. India follows the same principle as Great Britain and the US.

    Reserve Bank of India clarifies its position regarding the promissory clause printed on each banknote:

    "As per Section 26 of Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934, the Bank is liable to pay the value of banknote. This is payable on demand by RBI, being the issuer. The Bank's obligation to pay the value of banknote does not arise out of a contract but out of statutory provisions. The promissory clause printed on the banknotes i.e., "I promise to pay the bearer an amount of X" is a statement which means that the banknote is a legal tender for X amount. The obligation on the part of the Bank is to exchange a banknote for coins of an equivalent amount." [68]

    For almost a century following the Great Recoinage of 1816, and adoption of the Gold Standard, until the outbreak of World War I, the silver backed Indian rupee lost value against a basket of Gold pegged currencies, and was periodically devalued to reflect the then current gold to silver reserve ratios, see above. In 1850 the official conversion rate between a pound sterling and the rupee was £0 / 2s / 0d (or £1:₹10), while between 1899 and 1914 the conversion rate was set at £0 / 1s / 4d (or £1:₹15), for comparison during this period the US dollar was pegged at £1:$4.79. Between the wars the rate improved to 1s 6d (or £1:₹13.33), and remained pegged at this rate for the duration of the Breton Woods agreement, to its devaluation and pegging to the US dollar, at $1:7.50, in 1966.[74][75]

    The sterling was devalued against the US dollar in 1949, impacting currencies that maintained a peg to the sterling, such as the Indian rupee.

    The gold/silver ratio expanded during 1870–1910. Unlike India, Britain was on the gold standard. To meet the Home Charges (i.e., expenditure in England) the colonial government had to remit a larger number of rupees and this necessitated increased taxation, unrest and nationalism.

    Indian rupees per currency unit averaged over the year<[76][77]
    Currency ISO code 1947 1966 1995 1996 2000 2004 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
    Australian dollar AUD 5.33 27.69 26.07 33.28 34.02 34.60 36.81 38.22 42.00 56.36 54.91 48.21 49.96 49.91 50.64
    Bahraini dinar BHD 13.35 91.75 91.24 117.78 120.39 120.40 109.59 115.65 128.60 121.60 155.95 164.55 170.6 178.3 169.77
    Bangladeshi taka BDT 0.84 0.84 0.77 0.66 0.63 0.57 0.71 0.66 0.68 0.80 0.88 0.84 0.85 0.76
    Canadian dollar CAD 5.90 23.63 26.00 30.28 34.91 41.09 42.92 44.59 52.17 44.39 56.88 49.53 47.94 52.32 50.21 51.38
    Renminbi CNY 5.80 9.93 10.19 10.15 9.81
    Emirate dirham AED 17.47 18.26 17.73 17.80
    Euroa EUR 42.41 44.40 41.52 56.38 64.12 68.03 60.59 65.69 70.21 72.60 75.84 73.53 79.52
    Israeli shekelb ILS 13.33 21.97 11.45 10.76 10.83 17.08 16.57 17.47 18.36
    Japanese yenc JPY 6.6 2.08 32.66 32.96 41.79 41.87 38.93 35.00 42.27 51.73 52.

    The sterling was devalued against the US dollar in 1949, impacting currencies that maintained a peg to the sterling, such as the Indian rupee.

    The gold/silver ratio expanded during 1870–1910. Unlike India, Britain was on the gold standard. To meet the Home Charges (i.e., expenditure in England) the colonial government had to remit a larger number of rupees and this necessitated increased taxation, unrest and nationalism.