HOME
The Info List - Indian National Satellite System


--- Advertisement ---



The Indian National Satellite System
Indian National Satellite System
(Hindi: भारतीय राष्ट्रीय उपग्रह प्रणाली), or INSAT, is a series of multipurpose geo-stationary satellites launched by ISRO to satisfy the telecommunications, broadcasting, meteorology, and search and rescue operations. Commissioned in 1983, INSAT is the largest domestic communication system in the Asia Pacific Region. It is a joint venture of the Department of Space, Department of Telecommunications, India
India
Meteorological Department, All India Radio
Radio
and Doordarshan. The overall coordination and management of INSAT system rests with the Secretary-level INSAT Coordination Committee. INSAT satellites provide transponders in various bands (C, S, Extended C and Ku) to serve the television and communication needs of India. Some of the satellites also have the Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR), CCD cameras for meteorological imaging. The satellites also incorporate transponder(s) for receiving distress alert signals for search and rescue missions in the South Asian and Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
Region, as ISRO is a member of the Cospas-Sarsat
Cospas-Sarsat
program.

Contents

1 INSAT system 2 Satellites in service

2.1 INSAT-2E 2.2 INSAT-3A 2.3 INSAT-3C 2.4 INSAT-3D 2.5 INSAT-3E 2.6 KALPANA-1 2.7 GSAT-2 2.8 Edusat 2.9 INSAT-4 Series

2.9.1 INSAT-4A 2.9.2 INSAT-4B 2.9.3 INSAT-4CR 2.9.4 GSAT-8
GSAT-8
/ INSAT-4G 2.9.5 GSAT-12 2.9.6 GSAT-10 2.9.7 GSAT-16 2.9.8 INSAT-3DR

3 See also 4 References

INSAT system[edit] The Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system was commissioned with the launch of INSAT-1B
INSAT-1B
in August 1983 (INSAT-1A, the first satellite was launched in April 1982 but could not fulfil the mission). INSAT system ushered in a revolution in India’s television and radio broadcasting, telecommunications and meteorological sectors. It enabled the rapid expansion of TV and modern telecommunication facilities to even the remote areas and off-shore islands. Together, the system provides transponders in C, Extended C and Ku bands for a variety of communication services. Some of the INSATs also carry instruments for meteorological observation and data relay for providing meteorological services. KALPANA-1
KALPANA-1
is an exclusive meteorological satellite. The satellites are monitored and controlled by Master Control Facilities that exist in Hassan and Bhopal. Satellites in service[edit] Of the 24 satellites launched in the course of the INSAT program, 11 are still in operation.[1] INSAT-2E[edit] Main article: INSAT-2E It is the last of the five satellites in INSAT-2 series Prateek . It carries seventeen C-band and lower extended C-band transponders providing zonal and global coverage with an Effective Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP) of 36 dBW. It also carries a Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) with imaging capacity in the visible (0.55–0.75 µm), thermal infrared (10.5–12.5 µm) and water vapour (5.7–7.1 µm) channels and provides 2x2 km, 8x8 km ground resolution respectively. In addition to the above two payloads it has with it a Charge Coupled Device
Charge Coupled Device
(CCD) camera providing 1x1 km ground resolution in the Visible (0.63–0.69 µm), Near Infrared (0.77–0.86 µm) and Shortwave Infrared (1.55–1.70 µm) bands.[2] INSAT-3A[edit] Main article: INSAT-3A The multipurpose satellite, INSAT-3A, was launched by Ariane in April 2003. It is located at 93.5 degree East longitude. The payloads on INSAT-3A
INSAT-3A
are as follows:

12 Normal C-band transponders (9 channels provide expanded coverage from Middle East to South East Asia with an EIRP of 38 dBW, 3 channels provide India
India
coverage with an EIRP of 36 dBW and 6 Extended C-band transponders provide India
India
coverage with an EIRP of 36 dBW). 6 Ku band transponders provide India
India
coverage with EIRP of 48 dBW. Very High Resolution Radiometer(VHRR) with imaging capacity in the visible (0.55–0.75 µm), thred (10.5–12.5 µm) and water vapour (5.7–7.1 µm) channels, provide 2x2 km, 8x8 km and 8x8 km ground resolutions respectively. A CCD camera provides 1x1 km ground resolution, in the visible (0.63–0.69 µm), near infrared (0.77–0.86 µm) and shortwave infrared (1.55–1.70 µm) bands. A Data Relay Transponder
Transponder
(DRT) having global receive coverage with a 400 MHz uplink and 4500 MHz downlink for relay of meteorological, hydrological and oceanographic data from unattended land and ocean-based automatic data collection-cum-transmission platforms. A Satellite Aided Search and Rescue (SAS&R) SARP payload having global receive coverage with 406 MHz uplink and 4500 MHz downlink with India
India
coverage, for relay of signals from distress beacons in sea, air or land.[3] See also Cospas-Sarsat.

INSAT-3C[edit] Main article: INSAT-3C Launched in January 2002, INSAT-3C
INSAT-3C
is positioned at 74 degree East longitude. INSAT-3C
INSAT-3C
payloads include 24 Normal C-band transponders providing an EIRP of 37 dBW, six Extended C-band transponders with EIRP of 37 dBW, two S-band transponders to provide BSS services with 42 dBW EIRP and an MSS payload similar to that on INSAT-3B. All the transponders provide coverage over India.[4] INSAT-3D[edit] Main article: INSAT-3D Launched in July 2013, INSAT-3D
INSAT-3D
is positioned at 82 Degree East longitude. INSAT-3D
INSAT-3D
payloads include Imager, Sounder, Data Relay Transponder
Transponder
and Search & Rescue Transponder. All the transponders provide coverage over large part of the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
region covering India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal, Seychelles, Sri Lanka and Tanzania for rendering distress alert services.[5] INSAT-3E[edit] Main article: INSAT-3E Launched in September 2003, INSAT-3E
INSAT-3E
is positioned at 55 degree East longitude and carries 24 Normal C-band transponders provide an edge of coverage EIRP of 37 dBW over India
India
and 12 Extended C-band transponders provide an edge of coverage EIRP of 38 dBW over India.[6] The satellite has been decommissioned and gone out of service from April 2014.[7] GSAT-16
GSAT-16
will replace this satellite. KALPANA-1[edit] Main article: Kalpana-1 KALPANA-1
KALPANA-1
is an exclusive meteorological satellite launched by PSLV
PSLV
in September 2002. It carries Very High Resolution Radiometer and DRT payloads to provide meteorological services. It is located at 74 degree East longitude. Its first name was METSAT. It was later renamed as KALPANA-1
KALPANA-1
to commemorate Kalpana Chawla. GSAT-2[edit] Main article: GSAT-2 Launched by the second flight of GSLV
GSLV
in May 2003, GSAT-2
GSAT-2
is located at 48 degree East longitude and carries four Normal C-band transponders to provide 36 dBW EIRP with India
India
coverage, two Ku band transponders with 42 dBW EIRP over India
India
and an MSS payload similar to those on INSAT-3B
INSAT-3B
and INSAT-3C. Edusat[edit] Main article: GSAT-3 Configured for audio-visual medium employing digital interactive classroom lessons and multimedia content, EDUSAT was launched by GSLV in September 2004. Its transponders and their ground coverage are specially configured to cater to the educational requirements. The satellite carries a Ku band transponder covering the Indian mainland region with 50 dBW EIRP, five Ku band spot beam transponders for South, West, Central, North and North East regional coverage with 55 dBW EIRP and six Extended C-band transponders with India
India
coverage with 37 dBW EIRP. EDUSAT is positioned at 74 degree East longitude and is collocated with KALPANA-1
KALPANA-1
and INSAT-3 INSAT-4 Series[edit] INSAT-4A[edit] Main article: INSAT-4A Launched in December 2005 by the European Ariane launch vehicle, INSAT-4A
INSAT-4A
is positioned at 83 degree East longitude along with INSAT-2E and INSAT-3B. It carries 12 Ku band 36 MHz bandwidth transponders employing 140 W TWTAs to provide an EIRP of 52 dBW at the edge of coverage polygon with footprint covering Indian main land and 12 C-band 36 MHz bandwidth transponders provide an EIRP of 39 dBW at the edge of coverage with expanded radiation patterns encompassing Indian geographical boundary, area beyond India
India
in southeast and northwest regions.[8] Tata Sky, a joint venture between the TATA Group and STAR uses INSAT-4A
INSAT-4A
for distributing their DTH service.[9] INSAT-4B[edit] Main article: INSAT-4B It was launched in March 2007 by the European Ariane launch vehicle. Configured with payloads identical to that of INSAT-4A, INSAT-4B carries 12 Ku band and 12 C-band transponders to provide EIRP of 52 dBW and 39 dBW respectively. Two Tx/Rx dual grid offset fed shaped beam reflectors of 2.2 m diameter for Ku band and 2 m diameter for C-band are used. INSAT-4B
INSAT-4B
augments the high power transponder capacity over India
India
in Ku band and over a wider region in C-band. It is co-located with INSAT-3A
INSAT-3A
at 93.5 degree E longitude.[10] The national space agency Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO) has allotted nearly seven Ku band transponders to Sun Direct; a DTH service provider from South India, and the other five to Doordarshan's DD Direct Plus. 12 transponders in the C band are for TV, radio and telecommunication purposes China- Stuxnet
Stuxnet
Connection American cyber warfare expert Jeffrey Carr, who specialises in investigations of cyber attacks against government, mentioned in his interview with The Times of India, that the reason for this power glitch may have been an infection by the sophisticated Stuxnet worm.[11] He attributed the development of Stuxnet
Stuxnet
worm most likely to Government of China which had the necessary sophistication to develop the bug and would gain the maximum by failure of Indian satellite. He also pointed out that Stuxnet
Stuxnet
was discovered just a month before the Indian satellite was hit by the power glitch, the reason for which still remains unknown. ISRO uses the same Siemens software that was targeted by Stuxnet. INSAT-4CR[edit] Main article: INSAT-4CR INSAT-4CR
INSAT-4CR
was launched on 2 September 2007 by GSLV-F04.[12] It is a replacement satellite of INSAT-4C
INSAT-4C
which was lost when GSLV-F02 failed and had to be destroyed on its course. It carries 12 Ku band 36 MHz bandwidth transponders employing 140 W TWTAs to provide an Effective Isotropic Radiated Power of 51.5 dBW at Edge of Coverage with footprint covering Indian mainland. It also incorporates a Ku band Beacon as an aid to tracking the satellite. On 8 September 2007 ISRO reported the satellite had reached a near geosynchronous orbit, and would be stabilized in its intended orbital position of 74 degrees E longitude by 15 September.[13] The satellite is designed for a mission life in of ten years. There were reports that the mission life of the satellite had decreased by five years as the thrusters had to burn this much fuel to restore the satellite to its correct orbit. However, the ISRO later refuted this claim dismissing it as false.[14] GSAT-8
GSAT-8
/ INSAT-4G[edit] Main article: GSAT-8 GSAT-8, India’s advanced communication satellite, is a high power communication satellite being inducted in the INSAT system. Weighing about 3100 kg at lift-off, GSAT-8
GSAT-8
is configured to carry 24 high power transponders Ku-band and a two-channel GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) payload operating in L1 and L5 bands. GSAT-12[edit] Main article: GSAT-12 GSAT-12
GSAT-12
configured to carry 12 Extended C-band transponders to meet the country's growing demand for transponders in a short turn-around-time. The 12 Extended C-band transponders of GSAT-12
GSAT-12
will augment the capacity in the INSAT system for various communication services like Tele-education, Telemedicine and for Village Resource Centres (VRC). It weighs about 1410 kg at lift-off. GSAT-10[edit] Main article: GSAT-10 GSAT-10
GSAT-10
is an Indian communication satellite which was launched by Ariane-5ECA carrier rocket in 2012. It will field C and Ku band transponders, and includes a navigation payload to augment GAGAN capacity GSAT-16[edit] Main article: GSAT-16 GSAT-16
GSAT-16
is the 11th Indian communication satellite meant to increase the number of transponders that in turn enhance the satellite based telecommunication, television, VSAT services in India. GSAT-16
GSAT-16
was launched on 7 December 2014 from the Guiana Space Centre, French Guiana, by an Ariane 5 rocket. INSAT-3DR[edit] Main article: INSAT-3DR INSAT-3DR
INSAT-3DR
is a weather satellite meant to provide meteorological services to India
India
using a 6-channel imager and a 19-channel sounder, it was launched on 9 September 2016 by the GSLV
GSLV
Mk II F05,[15] and is a follow-up to INSAT-3D. See also[edit]

India
India
portal Spaceflight portal

List of Indian satellites

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Indian National Satellite System.

^ GSAT-F06 ^ ISRO page of INSAT-2E ^ ISRO page of INSAT-3A ^ ISRO page of INSAT-3C ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-08-05. Retrieved 2013-03-17.  ^ ISRO page of INSAT-3E ^ [1] ^ ISRO page of INSAT-4A ^ " Tata Sky uses INSAT4A and GSAT-10
GSAT-10
transponders". Retrieved 6 April 2018.  ^ ISRO page of INSAT-4B ^ Parashar, Sachin (11 October 2010). "China hitting India
India
via Net worm?". The Times Of India.  ^ " INSAT-4CR
INSAT-4CR
successfully placed in orbit". Times of India. 2 September 2007. Archived from the original on February 21, 2009.  ^ " INSAT-4CR
INSAT-4CR
placed in near geo-synchronous orbit". Press Trust of India. [permanent dead link] ^ "ISRO refutes INSAT-4CR
INSAT-4CR
`disappearance' story". Hindustan Times. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05.  ^ "INSAT-3DR". World Meteorological Organization. 5 June 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2016. 

v t e

INSAT satellites

INSAT-1 series

INSAT-1A INSAT-1B INSAT-1C INSAT-1D

INSAT-2 series

INSAT-2A INSAT-2B INSAT-2C INSAT-2D INSAT-2DT INSAT-2E

INSAT-3 series

INSAT-3A INSAT-3B INSAT-3C INSAT-3D INSAT-3DR INSAT-3DS INSAT-3E

INSAT-4 series

INSAT-4A INSAT-4B INSAT-4C INSAT-4CR GSAT-6 / INSAT-4E GSAT-7
GSAT-7
/ INSAT-4F GSAT-8
GSAT-8
/ INSAT-4G

v t e

Indian spacecraft

List of Indian satellites List of Satish Dhawan Space Centre
Satish Dhawan Space Centre
launches List of ISRO missions

Satellites

Communication

GSAT

1 2 3 (EDUSAT) 4 5P 6 6A 7 8 9 ( South Asia
South Asia
Satellite) 10 12 14 15 16 17 18 19

HAMSAT INSAT

1A 1B 1C 1D 2A 2B 2C 2D 2DT 2E 3A 3B 3C 3D 3DR 3DS 3E 4A 4B 4C 4CR 4E 4F 4G

Planned: GSAT

7A 11 20 22 23 24 29

Earth observation

Bhaskara

I II

Cartosat

1 2 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F

IMS-1 IRS

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E P1 P2 P3

Megha-Tropiques Microsat Oceansat

1 2

Resourcesat

1 2

RISAT

1 2

Rohini

RS-D1 RS-D2

SARAL SCATSAT-1 Technology Experiment Satellite
Technology Experiment Satellite
(TESS) Planned: Cartosat-3 NISAR GISAT Oceansat-3 Resourcesat-3

Experimental

APPLE Aryabhata Rohini

RS-1 Rohini Technology Payload (RTP)

Navigation

IRNSS

1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F 1G

Student satellites

ANUSAT Jugnu SRMSAT StudSat

StudSat-2

YouthSat Pratham

Space probes

Scientific

SROSS

A B C C2

Astronomical

Astrosat Aditya-L1
Aditya-L1
(planned)

Lunar programme

Chandrayaan-1

Moon Impact Probe

Chandrayaan-2
Chandrayaan-2
(planned)

Inter-planetary

Mars Orbiter Mission Mars Orbiter Mission
Mars Orbiter Mission
2 (planned) Venus orbiter mission (planned)

Human spaceflight

Indian human spaceflight programme

SRE-1 SRE-II SRE-III

Orbital Vehicle

CARE

Future spacecraft in italics.

v t e

Indian space programme

Indian Space Research Organisation
Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO)

Organisations

Department of Space
Department of Space
(DoS) Antrix Corporation Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology
Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology
(IIST) Indian Institute of Remote Sensing
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing
(IIRS) Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems
Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems
(LEOS) National Atmospheric Research Laboratory
National Atmospheric Research Laboratory
(NARL) Physical Research Laboratory
Physical Research Laboratory
(PRL) Physical Research Laboratory
Physical Research Laboratory
(DECU)

Programmes

Bhaskara GAGAN GSAT INSAT IRNSS IRS

Cartosat

RISAT Rohini SROSS Chandrayaan Human spaceflight programme

Orbital Vehicle

Satellites

APPLE Aditya-L1 Aryabhata Astrosat AstroSat-2 HAMSAT IMS-1 Megha-Tropiques NISAR SARAL South Asia
South Asia
Satellite SRE SRE II Kalpana-1 CARE

Space probes

Chandrayaan-1

Moon Impact Probe

Chandrayaan-2 Mars Orbiter Mission Mars Orbiter Mission
Mars Orbiter Mission
2 (proposed) Venus orbiter mission (proposed)

Rockets

Engine

CE-7.5 CE-20

Orbital

SLV ASLV PSLV GSLV GSLV
GSLV
Mark III

Suborbital

Rohini ATV

Concepts

ULV

Under development

RLV Technology Demonstration Programme

RLV-TD

Facilities

Indian Deep Space Network
Indian Deep Space Network
(IDSN) ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC) ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network
ISRO Telemetry, Tracking and Command Network
(ISTRAC) Master Control Facility
Master Control Facility
(MCF) Satish Dhawan Space Centre
Satish Dhawan Space Centre
(SDSC) Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station
Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station
(TERLS) ISRO Satellite Integration and Testing Establishment
ISRO Satellite Integration and Testing Establishment
(ISITE) Vikram Sarabhai Space Center (VSSC) Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre
Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre
(LPSC) ISRO Propulsion Complex

See also

SAGA-220
SAGA-220
(supercomputer)

List of Indian satellites List of Satish Dhawan Space Centre
Satish Dhawan Space Centre
launches Lis

.