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The history of the Jews
Jews
in India
India
reaches back to ancient times.[1][2][3] Judaism
Judaism
was one of the first foreign religions to arrive in India
India
in recorded history.[4] Indian Jews
Jews
are a religious minority of India, but unlike many parts of the world, have historically lived in India
India
without any instances of antisemitism from the local majority populace.[5] The better-established ancient communities have assimilated a large number of local traditions through cultural diffusion.[6] The Jewish community of India
India
is the fourth largest Asian Jewish community after Israel, Asian Russia, and Iran. The Jewish population in India
India
is hard to estimate, since each Jewish community is distinct with different origins; while some allegedly arrived during the time of the Kingdom of Judah, others are seen by some as descendants of Israel's Ten Lost Tribes.[7]

Contents

1 Jewish groups in India 2 Cochin
Cochin
Jews 3 Madras
Madras
Jews 4 Bene Israel

4.1 Bombay/Mumbai

5 South Asian Jews
Jews
& Baghdadi Jews 6 Bnei Menashe 7 Bene Ephraim 8 Delhi Jewry 9 Today 10 Notable Jews
Jews
of Indian descent 11 Notes 12 References

12.1 Further reading

13 External links

Jewish groups in India[edit] In addition to Jewish expatriates[8] and recent immigrants, there are seven Jewish groups in India:

The 'black' Malabar component of the Cochin
Cochin
Jews, according to Shalva Weil, might have arrived in India
India
together with Solomon's merchants. The Cochin
Cochin
Jews
Jews
settled down in Kerala
Kerala
as traders.[1] The 'white' component is of European and other Jewish descent.[9] Chennai
Chennai
Jews: The so-called Spanish and Portuguese Jews, Paradesi Jews and British Jews
Jews
arrived at Madras
Madras
during the 16th century, they were diamond businessmen,[10] and of Sephardi
Sephardi
heritage. Following expulsion from Iberia
Iberia
in 1492 by the Alhambra Decree, a few families of Sephardic Jews
Jews
eventually made their way to Madras
Madras
in the 16th century. They maintained trade connections to Europe, and their language skills were useful. Although the Sephardim
Sephardim
spoke Ladino (i.e. Spanish or Judeo-Spanish), in India
India
they learned Tamil and Judeo-Malayalam from the Malabar Jews.[11] The Jews
Jews
of Goa: These were Portuguese Jews
Jews
who fled to Portuguese Goa after the commencement of the Inquisition
Inquisition
in Portugal. The community consisted mainly of "New-Christians" who were Jews
Jews
by blood and had converted under the duress of the Inquisition. This group was the target of heavy persecution with the start of the Goan Inquisition, which put on trial famed physician Garcia de Orta, among others. Another branch of the Bene Israel
Bene Israel
community resided in Karachi until the Partition of India
India
in 1947, when they fled to India
India
(in particular, to Mumbai)[citation needed]. Many of them also moved to Israel. The Jews
Jews
from Sindh, Punjab
Punjab
or Pathan
Pathan
area are often incorrectly called Bani Israel
Israel
Jews. The Jewish community who used to reside in other parts of what became Pakistan (such as Lahore
Lahore
or Peshawar) also fled to India
India
in 1947, in a similar manner to the larger Karachi Jewish community[citation needed]. The Baghdadi Jews
Jews
arrived in the city of Surat
Surat
from Iraq (and other Arab states), Iran and Afghanistan about 250 years ago.[2] The Bnei Menashe
Bnei Menashe
are Mizo and Kuki tribesmen in Manipur
Manipur
and Mizoram who are recent converts to Judaism.[12] The Bene Ephraim (also called "Telugu Jews") are a small group who speak Telugu; their observance of Judaism
Judaism
dates to 1981.

Cochin
Cochin
Jews[edit] Main article: Cochin
Cochin
Jews

Arrival of the Jewish pilgrims at Cochin, A.D. 68

The Paradesi Synagogue
Synagogue
in Kochi is an active 16th century synagogue

The oldest of the Indian Jewish communities is in Cochin.[1][13] The traditional account is that traders from Judea
Judea
arrived in the city of Cochin, Kerala, in 562 BCE, and that more Jews
Jews
came as exiles from Israel
Israel
in the year 70 CE. after the destruction of the Second Temple.[14] It is also believed that the Jews
Jews
settled in India
India
when King Solomon was in power. This was a time that teak, ivory, spices, and peacock were popular in trade in Cochin. There is no exact date or reason to why they arrived in India
India
but scholars date it to around the early Middle Ages. Cochin
Cochin
is a group of small tropical islands filled with markets and many different cultures such as Dutch, Hindu, Jewish, Portuguese, and British.[15] The distinct Jewish community was called Anjuvannam. The still-functioning synagogue in Mattancherry belongs to the Paradesi Jews, the descendants of Sephardim
Sephardim
that were expelled from Spain in 1492,[14] although the Jewish community in Mattancherry had only six remaining members as of 2015.[16] Central to the history of the Cochin
Cochin
Jews
Jews
is their close relationship with Indian rulers, and this was eventually codified on a set of copper plates granting the community special privileges. The date of these plates, known as "Sâsanam",[17] is contentious. The plates themselves provide a date of 379 CE, but in 1925 tradition was setting it as 1069 CE,[18] Joseph Rabban
Joseph Rabban
by Bhaskara Ravi Varma, the fourth ruler of Maliban granted the copper plates to the Jews. The plates were inscribed with a message stating that the village of Anjuvannam belonged to the Jews
Jews
and that they were the rightful lords of Anjuvannam
Anjuvannam
and it should remain theirs and be passed on to their Jewish descendants "so long as the world and moon exist." This is the earliest document that shows that the Jews
Jews
were living in India permanently. It is now stored in Cochins main synagogue.[19] The Jews settled in Kodungallur
Kodungallur
(Cranganore) on the Malabar Coast, where they traded peacefully, until 1524. The Jewish leader Joseph Rabban
Joseph Rabban
was granted the rank of prince over the Jews
Jews
of Cochin, given the rulership and tax revenue of a pocket principality in Anjuvannam, near Cranganore, and rights to seventy-two "free houses".[20] The Hindu king gave permission in perpetuity (or, in the more poetic expression of those days, "as long as the world and moon exist") for Jews
Jews
to live freely, build synagogues, and own property "without conditions attached".[21][22] A link back to Rabban, "the king of Shingly" (another name for Cranganore), was a sign of both purity and prestige. Rabban's descendants maintained this distinct community until a chieftainship dispute broke out between two brothers, one of them named Joseph Azar, in the 16th century. The Jews
Jews
lived peacefully for over a thousand years in Anjuvannam. After the reign of the Rabban's, the Jewish people no longer had the protection of the copper plates. Neighboring princes of Anjuvannam
Anjuvannam
intervened and revoked all privileges that the Jewish people were given. In 1524, the Jews
Jews
were attacked by the Moors brothers on a suspicion that they were messing with the pepper trade and the homes and synagogues belonging to them were destroyed. The damage was so extensive that when the Portuguese arrived a few years later, only a small amount of impoverished Jews remained. They remained there for 40 more years only to return to their land of Cochin.[19] In Mala, Thrissur District, the Malabar Jews
Jews
have a Synagogue
Synagogue
and a cemetery, as well as in Chennamangalam, Parur and Ernakulam.[23] There are at least 7 Synagogues
Synagogues
still existing in Kerala, although not serving their original purpose anymore. Madras
Madras
Jews[edit] Main article: Paradesi Jews

Plan of Fort St George and the city of Madras
Madras
in 1726,Shows "Jews Burying Place" (marked as "b."), the "Jewish Cemetery Chennai", Four Brothers Garden and Bartolomeo Rodrigues Tomb

Rabbi
Rabbi
Salomon Halevi(Last Rabbi
Rabbi
of Madras
Madras
Synagogue) and his wife Rebecca Cohen, Paradesi Jews
Jews
of Madras

Jews
Jews
also settled in Madras
Madras
(now Chennai) soon after its founding in 1640.[24] Most of them were coral merchants from Leghorn, Caribbean, London, Amsterdam who were of Portuguese origin and belonged to the Henriques De Castro, Franco, Paiva or Porto families.[24] Jacques (Jaime) de Paiva (Pavia), originally from Amsterdam, was an early Jewish arrival and a leader of the community. He established good relations with those in power and bought several mines. Through his efforts, Jews
Jews
were permitted to live within Fort St. George.[25] De Paiva died in 1687 after a visit to his mines and was buried in the Jewish cemetery
Jewish cemetery
he had established in Peddanaickenpet, which later became the north Mint Street.[25][a] In 1670, the Portuguese population in Madras
Madras
numbered around 3000.[citation needed] Before his death he established ‘The Colony of Jewish Traders of Madraspatam’ with Antonio do Porto, Pedro Pereira and Fernando Mendes Henriques.[25] This enabled more Portuguese Jews, from Leghorn, the Caribbean, London and Amsterdam, to settle in Madras.[citation needed] Coral Merchant Street was named after the Jews' business.[27] Three Portuguese Jews
Jews
were nominated to be aldermen of Madras Corporation.[28] Three - Bartolomeo Rodrigues, Domingo do Porto and Alvaro da Fonseca - also founded the largest trading house in Madras. The large tomb of Rodrigues, who died in Madras
Madras
in 1692, became a landmark in Peddanaickenpet but was later destroyed.[29] Samuel de Castro came to Madras
Madras
from Curaçao and Salomon Franco came from Leghorn.[25][30] In 1688, there were three Jewish representatives in the Madras Corporation.[24] Most Jewish settlers resided in the Coral Merchants Street in Muthialpet.[24] They also had a cemetery, called "Jewish Cemetery Chennai" in the neighbouring Peddanaickenpet.[24] Bene Israel[edit] Main article: Bene Israel

photo of Marathi Bene Israel
Bene Israel
family Alibag
Alibag
Bombay State.

Foreign notices of the Bene Israel
Bene Israel
go back at least to 1768, when Yechezkel Rahabi wrote to a Dutch trading partner that they were widespread in Maharatta Province, and observed two Jewish observances, recital of the Shema
Shema
and observation of Shabbat
Shabbat
rest.[31] The legend of their origins claims that they descend from ancestors, 14 Jewish men and women, equally divided by gender, who survived the shipwreck of refugees from persecution or political turmoil, and came ashore at Navagaon near Alibag, 20 miles south of Mumbai, some 17 to 19 centuries ago.[31] They were instructed in the rudiments of normative Judaism
Judaism
by Cochin
Cochin
Jews.[31] Their Jewishness is controversial, and initially as not accepted by the Rabbinate in Israel.[31] Since 1964 however they intermarry throughout Israel
Israel
and are considered Israeli and Jewish in all respects.[32] They are divided into subcastes, which do not intermarry: 'Black' (Kara) and White (Gora), the latter believed to be lineal descendants of the shipwreck survivors, while the former are considered to descend from concubinage of a male with local women.[31] They were nicknamed the shanivār telī ("Saturday oil-pressers") by the local population as they abstained from work on Saturdays. Bene Israel
Bene Israel
communities and synagogues are situated in Pen, Mumbai, Alibag, Pune
Pune
and Ahmedabad with smaller communities scattered around India. The largest synagogue in Asia outside Israel
Israel
is in Pune
Pune
(Ohel David Synagogue). Mumbai
Mumbai
had a thriving Bene Israel
Bene Israel
community until the 1950s to 1960s when many families from the community emigrated to the fledgling state of Israel, where they are known as Hodi'im (Indians).[31] The Bene Israel
Israel
community has risen to many positions of prominence in Israel.[33] In India
India
itself the Bene Israel
Bene Israel
community has shrunk considerably with many of the old Synagogues
Synagogues
falling into disuse. Unlike many parts of the world, Jews
Jews
have historically lived in India without any instances of antisemitism from the local majority populace, the Hindus.[34] However, Jews
Jews
were persecuted by the Portuguese during their control of Goa.[35][verification needed] Bombay/Mumbai[edit] Main article: Jewish Community of Mumbai South Asian Jews
Jews
& Baghdadi Jews[edit] Main articles: Baghdadi Jews
Jews
and History of the Jews
Jews
in Kolkata

Knesset Eliyahoo, a 150-year-old Jewish Synagogue
Synagogue
in Fort, Mumbai, India

The first known Baghdadi Jewish immigrant to India, Joseph Semah, arrived in the port city of Surat
Surat
in 1730. He and other early immigrants established a synagogue and cemetery in Surat, though most of the city's Jewish community eventually moved to Bombay (Mumbai), where they established a new synagogue and cemetery. They were traders and quickly became one of the most prosperous communities in the city. As philanthropists, some donated their wealth to public structures. The Sassoon Docks
Sassoon Docks
and David Sassoon Library
David Sassoon Library
are some of the famous landmarks still standing today.

The Magen David Synagogue
Synagogue
of Kolkata was built in 1884

The synagogue in Surat
Surat
was eventually razed; the cemetery, though in poor condition, can still be seen on the Katargam-Amroli road. One of the graves within is that of Moseh Tobi, buried in 1769, who was described as 'ha-Nasi ha-Zaken' (The Elder Prince) by David Solomon Sassoon in his book A History of the Jews
Jews
in Baghdad (Simon Wallenburg Press, 2006, ISBN 184356002X). Baghdadi Jewish populations spread beyond Bombay to other parts of India, with an important community forming in Calcutta (Kolkata). Scions of this community did well in trade (particularly jute and tea), and in later years contributed officers to the army. One, Lt-Gen J. F. R. Jacob
J. F. R. Jacob
PVSM, became state governor of Goa
Goa
(1998–99), then Punjab, and later served as administrator of Chandigarh. Pramila (Esther Victoria Abraham) became the first ever Miss India, in 1947.

Bnei Menashe[edit]

Flag of Bnei Menashe

Main article: Bnei Menashe The Bnei Menashe
Bnei Menashe
are a group of more than 9,000 people from the northeastern Indian states of Mizoram
Mizoram
and Manipur[12] who practice a form of biblical Judaism
Judaism
and claim descent from one of the Lost Tribes of Israel.[36] Many were converted to Christianity and were originally headhunters and animists at the beginning of the 20th century, but began converting to Judaism
Judaism
in the 1970s.[37] Bene Ephraim[edit] Main article: Bene Ephraim

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The Bene Ephraim are a small group of Telugu-speaking Jews
Jews
in eastern Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
whose recorded observance of Judaism, like that of the Bnei Menashe, is quite recent, dating only to 1981. There are a few families in Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
who follow Judaism. Many among them follow the customs of Orthodox Jews
Jews
like long side locks in male hair and having head covering all the time.[38] Delhi Jewry[edit]

Ohel David Synagogue
Synagogue
of Pune
Pune
is the largest active synagogue in India

Judaism
Judaism
in Delhi is primarily focused on the expatriate community who work in Delhi, as well as Israeli diplomats and a small local community. In Paharganj, Chabad
Chabad
has set up a synagogue and religious center in a backpacker area regularly visited by Israeli tourists. Today[edit] Main article: Indian Jews
Jews
in Israel See also: Synagogues
Synagogues
in India The majority of Indian Jews
Jews
have "made Aliyah" (migrated) to Israel since the creation of the modern state in 1948. Over 70,000 Indian Jews
Jews
now live in Israel
Israel
(over 1% of Israel's total population).[citation needed] Of the remaining 5,000, the largest community is concentrated in Mumbai, where 3,500 have stayed over from the over 30,000 Jews
Jews
registered there in the 1940s, divided into Bene Israel
Israel
and Baghdadi Jews,[39] though the Baghdadi Jews
Jews
refused to recognize the B'nei Israel
Israel
as Jews, and withheld dispensing charity to them for that reason.[31] There are reminders of Jewish localities in Kerala
Kerala
still left such as Synagogues. The majority of Jews
Jews
from the old British-Indian capital of Calcutta (Kolkata) have also migrated to Israel
Israel
over the last six decades. Notable Jews
Jews
of Indian descent[edit]

Anish Kapoor, sculptor

Sulochana, actress

Aditya Roy Kapur, actor

Eli Ben-Menachem, Israeli politician Jacqueline Bhabha, lecturer at Harvard Law School and Harvard Kennedy School of Government Ranjit Chaudhry, Bollywood actor David Abraham Cheulkar, Bollywood actor Reuben David (1912 - 1989) zoologist[40] Esther David (March 17, 1945— ), Jewish-Indian author, an artist and a sculptor[41] Nadira, Bollywood actress Karen David, British-Canadian actress Nissim Ezekiel, poet, playwright, editor and art-critic Lieutenant General
Lieutenant General
J F R Jacob, former Chief of Staff of the Indian Army's Eastern Command, and former Governor of Punjab
Punjab
and Goa (Hakham) Ezra Reuben David Barook, a High Priest in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1856. He travelled to India
India
and settled in Calcutta Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, writer who moved to India
India
when she was 24, lived there for 24 years, before emigrating to USA Gerry Judah, artist and designer Ellis Kadoorie and Elly Kadoorie, philanthropists Horace Kadoorie, philanthropist Anish Kapoor, sculptor Samson Kehimkar, musician Ezekiel Isaac Malekar, Bene Israel
Bene Israel
rabbi Ruby Myers, Bollywood actress of the 1920s known as Sulochana Pearl Padamsee, theatre personality Joseph Rabban, was given copper plates of special grants from the Chera ruler Bhaskara Ravivarman II from Kerala David and Simon Reuben, businessmen Abraham Barak Salem, Cochin
Cochin
Jewish Indian nationalist leader Aditya Roy Kapur, Bollywood actor Lalchanhima Sailo, rabbi and founder of Chhinlung Israel
Israel
People's Convention David Sassoon, businessman Albert Abdullah David Sassoon, British Indian merchant Sassoon David Sassoon, philanthropist and benefactor of greater Indian Jewish community Solomon Sopher, Jewish community leader in Mumbai Bensiyon Songavkar, professional cricketer Esther Victoria Abraham, also known as Pramila, first Miss India Fleur Ezekiel - Bene Israel
Bene Israel
model, chosen as Miss World in 1959 Sheila Singh Paul, paediatrician, founder and director of Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi; pioneer in polio vaccination

Notes[edit]

^ A synagogue once also existed at Mint Street.[26]

References[edit]

^ a b c The Jews
Jews
of India: A Story of Three Communities by Orpa Slapak. The Israel
Israel
Museum, Jerusalem. 2003. p. 27. ISBN 965-278-179-7. ^ a b Weil, Shalva.India's Jewish Heritage: Ritual, Art and Life-Cycle. Mumbai: Marg Publications [first published in 2002; 3rd edn.]. 2009. ^ "Solomon To Cheraman". outlookindia.com.  ^ Weil, Shalva. "Indian Judaic Tradition" in Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby (eds) Religions in South Asia, London: Palgrave Publishers, 2006. pp. 169-183. ^ Weiss, Gary (August 13, 2007). "India's Jews". Forbes. Retrieved July 9, 2016. ^ Weil, Shalva. " Bene Israel
Bene Israel
Rites and Routines" in Shalva Weil (ed.) India's Jewish Heritage: Ritual, Art and Life-Cycle, Mumbai: Marg Publications, 2009. [first published in 2002]; 3Arts, 54(2): 26-37. ^ Weil, Shalva. (1991) "Beyond the Sambatyon: the Myth of the Ten Lost Tribes." Tel-Aviv: Beth Hatefutsoth, the Nahum Goldman Museum of the Jewish Diaspora. ^ Weil, Shalva. "From Persecution to Freedom: Central European Jewish Refugees and their Jewish Host Communities in India" in Anil Bhatti and Johannes H. Voigt (eds) Jewish Exile in India
India
1933-1945, New Delhi: Manohar and Max Mueller Bhavan,1999. pp. 64-84. ^ Weil, Shalva. " Cochin
Cochin
Jews", in Judith Baskin (ed.) Cambridge Dictionary of Judaism
Judaism
and Jewish Culture, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. pp. 107. ^ S. Muthiah
S. Muthiah
(September 30, 2002). "The Hindu : Will Chennai's Jews
Jews
be there?". www.thehindu.com. Retrieved 2017-01-12.  ^ Katz 2000; Koder 1973; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973. ^ a b Weil, Shalva. "Lost Israelites from North-East India: Re-Traditionalisation and Conversion among the Shinlung from the Indo-Burmese Borderlands." The Anthropologist, 2004. 6(3): 219-233. ^ Weil, Shalva. " Cochin
Cochin
Jews," in Carol R. Ember, Melvin Ember and Ian Skoggard (eds) Encyclopedia of World Cultures Supplement, New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2002. pp. 78-80. ^ a b Schreiber, Mordecai (2003). The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia. Rockville, MD: Schreiber Publishing. p. 125. ISBN 1887563776.  ^ Meyer, Raphael. " Jews
Jews
of India- The Cochin
Cochin
Jews". The-south-asian.  ^ Pinsker, Alyssa (October 22, 2015). "The last six Paradesi Jews
Jews
of Cochin". BBC. Retrieved July 2, 2016.  ^ Burnell, Indian Antiquary, iii. 333–334 ^ Katz, Nathan (2000). Who are the Jews
Jews
of India?. University of California Press. p. 33. ISBN 9780520213234.  ^ a b Meyer, Raphael. " Jews
Jews
of India- Cochin
Cochin
Jews". The-south-asian.  ^ taken from WP article on Rabban, which appears to rely on Ken Blady's book Jewish Communities in Exotic Places. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson Inc., 2000. pp. 115–130. Weil, Shalva. "Symmetry between Christians and Jews
Jews
in India: the Cnanite Christians and the Cochin
Cochin
Jews
Jews
of Kerala." Contributions to Indian Sociology, 1982. 16(2): 175-196. ^ Three years in America, 1859–1862 (p. 59, p. 60) by Israel
Israel
Joseph Benjamin ^ Roots of Dalit history, Christianity, theology, and spirituality (p. 28) by James Massey, I.S.P.C.K. ^ Weil, Shalva. "Where are Cochin
Cochin
Jews
Jews
today? The Synagogues
Synagogues
of Kerala, India." Cochinsyn.com, Friends of Kerala
Kerala
Synagogues. 2011. ^ a b c d e Muthiah, S. (2004). Madras
Madras
Rediscovered. East West Books (Madras) Pvt Ltd. p. 125. ISBN 81-88661-24-4.  ^ a b c d Muthiah, S. (3 September 2007). "The Portuguese Jews
Jews
of Madras". The Hindu. Retrieved 2016-05-24.  ^ Sundaram, Krithika (31 October 2012). "18th century Jewish cemetery lies in shambles, craves for attention". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2016-07-12.  ^ Muthiah, S. (30 September 2002). "Will Chennai's Jews
Jews
be there?". The Hindu. Retrieved 2016-05-24.  ^ Muthiah, S. (2014). Madras
Madras
Rediscovered. Westland. ISBN 978-9-38572-477-0.  ^ Parthasarathy, Anusha (3 September 2013). "Lustre dims, legacy stays". The Hindu. Retrieved 2016-05-24.  ^ " Chennai
Chennai
- India". International Jewish Cemetery Project. Retrieved 2016-07-12.  ^ a b c d e f g Nathan Katz, Who Are the Jews
Jews
of India?, California University Press, 2000 pp.91ff. ^ Joseph Hodes,From India
India
to Israel: Identity, Immigration, and the Struggle for Religious Equality, McGill-Queen's Press 2014 pp.98ff.108. ^ Weil, Shalva. "Religious Leadership vs. Secular Authority: the Case of the Bene Israel." Eastern Anthropologist, 1996. 49(3- 4): 301-316. ^ Weiss, Gary (August 13, 2007). "India's Jews". Forbes. Retrieved July 9, 2016.  ^ Who are the Jews
Jews
of India? - The S. Mark Taper Foundation imprint in Jewish studies. University of California Press. 2000. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-520-21323-4. ; "When the Portuguese arrived in 1498, they brought a spirit of intolerance utterly alien to India. They soon established an Office of Inquisition
Inquisition
at Goa, and at their hands Indian Jews
Jews
experienced the only instance of antisemitism ever to occur in Indian soil." ^ Stephen Epstein. " Bnei Menashe
Bnei Menashe
History". Bneimenashe.com. Retrieved January 12, 2017.  ^ "More than 7,200 Indian Jews
Jews
to immigrate to Israel". The Times Of India. September 27, 2011.  ^ Yulia Egorova and Shahid Perwez (2011). "Kulanu: The Bene Ephraim of Andhra Pradesh, India". Kulanu.org. Retrieved January 12, 2017.  ^ Rachel Delia Benaim, 'For India's Largest Jewish Community, One Muslim Makes All the Tombstones,' Tablet 23 February 2015. ^ "Reuben David". estherdavid.com. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009.  ^ Weil, Shalva. "Esther David: The Bene Israel
Bene Israel
Novelist who Grew Up with a Tiger" in David Shulman and Shalva Weil (eds) Karmic Passages: Israeli Scholarship on India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2008. pp. 232-253.

Further reading[edit]

Aafreedi, Navras Jaat, ed., Café Dissensus, Issue 12: Indian Jewry, January 2015 Aafreedi, Navras Jaat, "Community and Belonging in Indian Jewish Literature", Himal Southasian (ISSN 1012-9804), May 2014 Aafreedi, Navras Jaat, "Absence of Jewish Studies in India: Creating A New Awareness", Asian Jewish Life (ISSN 2224-3011), Autumn 2010, pp. 31-34. Aafreedi, Navras Jaat, "Jewish-Muslim Relations in South Asia: Where Antipathy lives without Jews", Asian Jewish Life (ISSN 2224-3011), Issue 15, October 2014, pp. 13-16. Aafreedi, Navras Jaat, "The Attitudes of Lucknow's Muslims towards Jews, Israel
Israel
and Zionism", Café Dissensus (ISSN 2373-177X), Issue 7, April 15, 2014 Aafreedi, Navras Jaat, "History of India's Jewish Beauty Queens", Yedioth Ahronoth, August 3, 2013 Aafreedi, Navras Jaat, "Hindi Novel Portrays Life of Indian Jews", Yedioth Ahronoth, May 23, 2013 India's Bene Israel: A Comprehensive Inquiry and Sourcebook Isenberg, Shirley Berry; Berkeley: Judah L. Magnes Museum, 1988 Indian Jewish Heritage: Ritual, Art and Life-Cycle Dr. Shalva Weil (ed). Mumbai: Marg Publications, 3rd ed. 2009 Indo-Judaic Studies in the Twenty-First Century: A Perspective from the Margin, Katz N., Chakravarti, R., Sinha, B. M. and Weil, S., New York and Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. 2007 Karmic Passages: Israeli Scholarship on India,Shulman, D. and Weil, S. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.2008 The Last Jews
Jews
of Kerala, Edna Fernandes, Portobello Books, (ISBN 978-1-84627-099-4), 2008.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Judaism
Judaism
in India.

TheJewsOfIndia.com, Comprehensive website of Jews
Jews
in Inda Bneimenashe.com, Bnei Menashe
Bnei Menashe
Jews
Jews
of North East India Haruth.com, Jewish India Jewsofindia.org, Jews
Jews
of India Indjews.com, Indian synagogues in Israel Indian Jews
Jews
- Jewish Encyclopedia Bene Israel
Bene Israel
- Jewish Encyclopedia Cochin
Cochin
Jews
Jews
- Jewish Encyclopedia Calcutta Jews
Jews
- Jewish Encyclopedia Indian Jews
Jews
- Jewish Virtual Library Information on synagogues in Kerala, India

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