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Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
consists of a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines native to the Indian subcontinent. Given the range of diversity in soil type, climate, culture, ethnic groups, and occupations, these cuisines vary substantially from each other and use locally available spices, herbs, vegetables, and fruits. Indian food is also heavily influenced by religion, in particular Hindu, and cultural choices and traditions.[1] Also, Middle Eastern and Central Asian influences have occurred on North Indian cuisine
North Indian cuisine
from the years of Mughal rule.[2] Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
is still evolving, as a result of the nation's cultural interactions with other societies.[3][4] Historical incidents such as foreign invasions, trade relations, and colonialism have played a role in introducing certain foods to the country. For instance, potato, a staple of the diet in some regions of India, was brought to India
India
by the Portuguese, who also introduced chillies and breadfruit.[5] Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
has shaped the history of international relations; the spice trade between India
India
and Europe
Europe
was the primary catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.[6] Spices were bought from India
India
and traded around Europe
Europe
and Asia. Indian cuisine has influenced other cuisines across the world, especially those from Europe, the Middle East, North Africa, sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, the British Isles, Fiji, and the Caribbean.[7][8]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Antiquity 1.2 Middle Ages to the 16th centuries

2 Ingredients 3 Regional cuisines

3.1 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 3.2 Andhra Pradesh 3.3 Arunachal Pradesh 3.4 Assam 3.5 Bihar 3.6 Chandigarh 3.7 Chhattisgarh 3.8 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 3.9 Daman and Diu 3.10 Delhi 3.11 Goa 3.12 Gujarat 3.13 Haryana 3.14 Himachal Pradesh 3.15 Jammu and Kashmir 3.16 Jharkhand 3.17 Karnataka 3.18 Kerala 3.19 Lakshadweep 3.20 Madhya Pradesh 3.21 Maharashtra

3.21.1 Malwani

3.22 Manipur 3.23 Meghalaya 3.24 Mizoram 3.25 Nagaland 3.26 Odisha 3.27 Puducherry 3.28 Punjab 3.29 Rajasthan 3.30 Sikkim 3.31 Sindh 3.32 Tamil Nadu 3.33 Telangana 3.34 Tripura 3.35 Uttar Pradesh 3.36 Uttarakhand 3.37 West Bengal

4 Diaspora and fusion cuisines

4.1 Indian Chinese cuisine 4.2 Malaysian Indian cuisine 4.3 Indian Singaporean cuisine 4.4 Anglo-Indian cuisine

5 Desserts 6 Beverages

6.1 Non-alcoholic beverages 6.2 Alcoholic beverages

6.2.1 Beer 6.2.2 Others

7 Eating habits 8 Dietary restrictions 9 Etiquette 10 Outside India

10.1 Canada 10.2 China 10.3 Middle East 10.4 Nepal 10.5 Southeast Asia 10.6 United Kingdom 10.7 Ireland 10.8 United States

11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of South Asian cuisine Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
reflects an 8,000-year history of various groups and cultures interacting with the subcontinent, leading to diversity of flavours and regional cuisines found in modern-day India. Later, trade with British and Portuguese influence added to the already diverse Indian cuisine.[9][10] Antiquity[edit] Early diet in India
India
mainly consisted of legumes, vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy products, and honey. Staple foods eaten today include a variety of lentils (dal), whole-wheat flour (aṭṭa), rice, and pearl millet (bājra), which has been cultivated in the Indian subcontinent since 6200 BCE.[10] Over time, segments of the population embraced vegetarianism during Śramaṇa
Śramaṇa
movement[11][12] while an equitable climate permitted a variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains to be grown throughout the year. A food classification system that categorised any item as saatvic, raajsic, or taamsic developed in Yoga
Yoga
tradition.[13][14] The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
proscribes certain dietary practices (chapter 17, verses 8–10).[15] Consumption of beef is taboo, due to cows being considered sacred in Hinduism.[16] Beef
Beef
is generally not eaten by Hindus in India
India
except for Kerala
Kerala
and the north east.[17] Middle Ages to the 16th centuries[edit] During the Middle Ages, several Indian dynasties were predominant, including the Gupta dynasty. Travelling to India
India
during this time introduced new cooking methods and products to the region, including tea. India
India
was later invaded by tribes from Central Asian cultures, which led to the emergence of Mughlai cuisine, a mix of Indian and Central Asian cuisine. Hallmarks include seasonings such as saffron.[18] Ingredients[edit]

Spices at a grocery shop in India

Staple foods of Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
include pearl millet (bājra), rice, whole-wheat flour (aṭṭa), and a variety of lentils, such as masoor (most often red lentils), toor (pigeon peas), urad (black gram), and moong (mung beans). Lentils may be used whole, dehusked—for example, dhuli moong or dhuli urad—or split. Split lentils, or dal, are used extensively.[19] Some pulses, such as channa or cholae (chickpeas), rajma (kidney beans), and lobiya (black-eyed peas) are very common, especially in the northern regions. Channa and moong are also processed into flour (besan). Many Indian dishes are cooked in vegetable oil, but peanut oil is popular in northern and western India, mustard oil in eastern India,[18] and coconut oil along the western coast, especially in Kerala.[20] Gingelly (sesame) oil is common in the south since it imparts a fragrant, nutty aroma.[21] In recent decades, sunflower, safflower, cottonseed, and soybean oils have become popular across India.[22] Hydrogenated vegetable oil, known as Vanaspati ghee, is another popular cooking medium.[23] Butter-based ghee, or deshi ghee, is used frequently, though less than in the past. Many types of meat are used for Indian cooking, but chicken and mutton tend to be the most commonly consumed meats. Fish
Fish
and beef consumption are prevalent in some parts of India, but they are not widely consumed except for coastal areas, as well as the north east.

Lentils are a staple ingredient in Indian cuisine.

The most important and frequently used spices and flavourings in Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
are whole or powdered chilli pepper (mirch, introduced by the Portuguese from Mexico
Mexico
in the 16th century), black mustard seed (sarso), cardamom (elaichi), cumin (jeera), turmeric (haldi), asafoetida (hing), ginger (adrak), coriander (dhania), and garlic (lasoon).[24] One popular spice mix is garam masala, a powder that typically includes five or more dried spices, especially cardamom, cinnamon (dalchini), and clove (laung).[25] Each culinary region has a distinctive garam masala blend—individual chefs may also have their own. Goda masala is a comparable, though sweet, spice mix popular in Maharashtra. Some leaves commonly used for flavouring include bay leaves (tejpat), coriander leaves, fenugreek leaves, and mint leaves. The use of curry leaves and roots for flavouring is typical of Gujarati[26] and South Indian
South Indian
cuisine.[27] Sweet dishes are often seasoned with cardamom, saffron, nutmeg, and rose petal essences.

Regional cuisines[edit] See also: List of Indian dishes Cuisine
Cuisine
differs across India's diverse regions as a result of variation in local culture, geographical location (proximity to sea, desert, or mountains), and economics. It also varies seasonally, depending on which fruits and vegetables are ripe. Andaman and Nicobar Islands[edit] Seafood
Seafood
plays a major role in the cuisine of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[28] Staples of the diet of the Indigenous Andamanese traditionally included roots, honey, fruits, meat, and fish, which were obtained by hunting and gathering. Some insects were also eaten as delicacies.[29] Immigration from mainland of India, however, has resulted in variations in the cuisine. Andhra Pradesh[edit]

A vegetarian Andhra meal served on important occasions

Main article: Telugu cuisine The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
belongs to the two Telugu-speaking regions of Rayalaseema
Rayalaseema
and Coastal Andhra and is part of Telugu cuisine. The food of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
is known for its heavy use of spices, and similar to South Indian
South Indian
cuisine, the use of tamarind. Seafood
Seafood
is common in the coastal region of the state. Rice
Rice
is the staple food (as is with all South Indian
South Indian
states) eaten with lentil preparations such as pappu (lentils) and pulusu (stew) and spicy vegetables or curries. In Andhra, leafy greens or vegetables such as bottle-gourd and eggplant are usually added to dal. Pickles are an essential part of the local cuisine; popular among those are mango-based pickles such as avakaya and maagaya, gongura (a pickle made from Kenaf
Kenaf
leaves),[30] usirikaya (gooseberry or amla), nimmakaya (lime), and tomato pickle. Yogurt
Yogurt
is a common addition to meals, as a way of tempering spiciness. Breakfast items include dosa, pesarattu (mung bean dosa), vada, and idli. Arunachal Pradesh[edit] Main article: Cuisine
Cuisine
of Arunachal Pradesh The staple food of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
is rice, along with fish, meat, and leaf vegetables.[31] Many varieties of rice are used. Lettuce
Lettuce
is the most common vegetable, usually prepared by boiling with ginger, coriander, and green chillies.[32] Boiled rice cakes wrapped in leaves are a popular snack. Thukpa
Thukpa
is a kind of noodle soup common among the Monpa tribe of the region.[33] Native tribes of Arunachal are meat eaters and use fish, eggs, beef, chicken, pork, and mutton to make their dishes. Apong or rice beer made from fermented rice or millet is a popular beverage in Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
and is consumed as a refreshing drink.[34] Assam[edit] Main article: Assamese cuisine

Assamese Thali

Assamese cuisine
Assamese cuisine
is a mixture of different indigenous styles, with considerable regional variation and some external influences. Although it is known for its limited use of spices,[35] Assamese cuisine
Assamese cuisine
has strong flavours from its use of endemic herbs, fruits, and vegetables served fresh, dried, or fermented. Rice
Rice
is the staple food item and a huge variety of endemic rice varieties, including several varieties of sticky rice are a part of the cuisine in Assam. Fish, generally freshwater varieties, are widely eaten. Other nonvegetarian items include chicken, duck, squab, snails, silkworms, insects, goat, pork, venison, turtle, monitor lizard, etc. The region's cuisine involves simple cooking processes, mostly barbecuing, steaming, or boiling. Bhuna, the gentle frying of spices before the addition of the main ingredients, generally common in Indian cooking, is absent in the cuisine of Assam. A traditional meal in Assam
Assam
begins with a khar, a class of dishes named after the main ingredient and ends with a tenga, a sour dish. Homebrewed rice beer or rice wine is served before a meal. The food is usually served in bell metal utensils.[36] Paan, the practice of chewing betel nut, generally concludes a meal.[37] Bihar[edit] Main article: Bihari cuisine See also: Bhojpuri cuisine
Bhojpuri cuisine
and Mithila (India)

Palak paneer, a dish made from spinach and paneer (cottage cheese)

Bihari cuisine
Bihari cuisine
is wholesome and simple. Litti chokha, a baked salted wheat-flour cake filled with sattu (baked chickpea flour) and some special spices, is well known among the middle-class families served with baigan bharta, made of roasted eggplant (brinjal) and tomatoes.[38][39] Among meat dishes, meat saalan is a popular dish made of mutton or goat curry with cubed potatoes in garam masala. Dalpuri is another popular dish in Bihar. It is salted wheat-flour bread, filled with boiled, crushed, and fried gram pulses. Malpua is a popular sweet dish of Bihar, prepared by a mixture of maida, milk, bananas, cashew nuts, peanuts, raisins, sugar, water, and green cardamom. Another notable sweet dish of Bihar is balushahi, which is prepared by a specially treated combination of maida and sugar along with ghee, and the other worldwide famous sweet, khaja, also very popular, is made from flour, vegetable fat, and sugar, which is mainly used in weddings and other occasions. Silav near Nalanda is famous for its production. During the festival of Chhath, thekua, a sweet dish made of ghee, jaggery, and whole-meal flour, flavoured with aniseed, is made.[38] Chandigarh[edit] Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab and Haryana
Haryana
is a city of 20th century origin with a cosmopolitan food culture mainly involving North Indian cuisine. People enjoy home-made recipes such as parantha, especially at breakfast, and other Punjabi foods like roti which is made from wheat, corn, or other glutenous flour with cooked vegetables or beans. Sarson da saag and dal makhani are well-known dishes among others.[40] Popular snacks include gol gappa (known as panipuri in other places). It consists of a round, hollow puri, fried crisp and filled with a mixture of flavoured water, boiled and cubed potatoes, bengal gram beans, etc. Chhattisgarh[edit]

Roti
Roti
with Baigan (Brinjal) subji and curd

Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
cuisine is unique in nature and not found in the rest of India, although the staple food is rice, like in much of the country. Many Chhattisgarhi people drink liquor brewed from the mahuwa flower palm wine (tadi in rural areas).[41] The tribal people of the Bastar region of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
eat ancestral dishes such as mushrooms, bamboo pickle, bamboo vegetables, etc.[42][43] Dadra and Nagar Haveli[edit] The local cuisine resembles the cuisine of Gujarat. Ubadiyu is a local delicacy made of vegetables and beans with herbs. The common foods include rice, roti, vegetables, river fish, and crab. People also enjoy buttermilk and chutney made of different fruits and herbs.[44] Daman and Diu[edit] Daman and Diu
Daman and Diu
is a union territory of India
India
which, like Goa, was a former colonial possession of Portugal. Consequently, both native Gujarati food and traditional Portuguese food are common. Being a coastal region, the communities are mainly dependent on seafood. Normally, rotli and tea are taken for breakfast, rotla and saak for lunch, and chokha along with saak and curry are taken for dinner. Some of the dishes prepared on festive occasions include puri, lapsee, potaya, dudh-plag, and dhakanu.[45] While alcohol is prohibited in the neighbouring state of Gujarat, drinking is common in Daman and Diu. Better known as the “pub” of Gujarat. All popular brands of alcohol are readily available. Delhi[edit]

Rajma-chawal, curried red kidney beans with steamed rice

Delhi
Delhi
was once the capital of the Mughal empire, and it became the birthplace of Mughlai cuisine. Delhi
Delhi
is noted for its street food. The Paranthewali Gali in Chandani Chowk is just one of the culinary landmarks for stuffed flatbread (paranthas). Delhi
Delhi
has people from different parts of India, thus the city has different types of food traditions; its cuisine is influenced by the various cultures. Punjabi cuisine is common, due to the dominance of Punjabi communities.[46] Delhi
Delhi
cuisine is actually an amalgam of different Indian cuisines modified in unique ways. This is apparent in the different types of street food available. Kababs, kachauri, chaat, Indian sweets, Indian ice cream (commonly called kulfi), and even western food items like sandwiches and patties, are prepared in a style unique to Delhi
Delhi
and are quite popular.[47] Goa[edit] Main articles: Goan cuisine
Goan cuisine
and Goan Catholic cuisine See also: Saraswat cuisine and Malvani cuisine

Pork vindaloo (pictured) is a popular curry dish in Goa
Goa
and around the world.

The area has a tropical climate, which means the spices and flavours are intense. Use of kokum is a distinct feature of the region's cuisine. Goan cuisine
Goan cuisine
is mostly seafood and meat-based; the staple foods are rice and fish. Kingfish (vison or visvan) is the most common delicacy, and others include pomfret, shark, tuna, and mackerel; these are often served with coconut milk.[48] Shellfish, including crabs, prawns, tiger prawns, lobster, squid, and mussels, are commonly eaten. The cuisine of Goa
Goa
is influenced by its Hindu origins, 400 years of Portuguese colonialism, and modern techniques.[48][49] Bread, introduced by the Portuguese, is very popular, and is an important part of goan breakfast. Frequent tourism in the area gives Goan food an international aspect. Vegetarianism
Vegetarianism
is equally popular.[50] Gujarat[edit] Main article: Gujarati cuisine

Khaman
Khaman
is a popular Gujarati snack.

Vegetable
Vegetable
Handva is a savory Gujarati dinner dish.

Gujarati cuisine
Gujarati cuisine
is primarily vegetarian. The typical Gujarati thali consists of roti (rotlii in Gujarati), daal or kadhi, rice, sabzi/shaak, papad and chaas (buttermilk). The sabzi is a dish of different combinations of vegetables and spices which may be stir fried, spicy or sweet.[51] Gujarati cuisine
Gujarati cuisine
can vary widely in flavour and heat based on personal and regional tastes. North Gujarat, Kathiawad, Kachchh, and South Gujarat
Gujarat
are the four major regions of Gujarati cuisine.[52] Many Gujarati dishes are simultaneously sweet, salty (like vegetable Handvo), and spicy. In mango season, keri no ras (fresh mango pulp) is often an integral part of the meal. Spices also vary seasonally.For example, garam masala is used very less in summer.Few of Gujarati Snacks like Sev Khamani, Khakhra, Dal
Dal
Vada, Methi na Bhajiya, Khaman, Bhakharwadi etc. Regular fasting, with diets limited to milk, dried fruit, and nuts, is a common practice.[53] Haryana[edit] Cattle being common in Haryana, dairy products are a common component of its cuisine.[54][55] Specific dishes include kadhi, pakora, besan masala roti, bajra aloo roti, churma, kheer, bathua raita, methi gajar, singri ki sabzi, and tamatar chutney. Lassi, sharbat, and nimbu pani are three popular nonalcoholic beverages in Haryana. Liquor
Liquor
stores are common there, which cater to a large number of truck drivers.[56] Himachal Pradesh[edit] Main article: Culture of Himachal Pradesh § Cuisine The daily diet of Himachal people is similar to that of the rest of North India, including lentils, broth, rice, vegetables, and bread, although nonvegetarian cuisine is preferred. Some of the specialities of Himachal include sidu, patande, chukh, rajmah, and til chutney.[57] Jammu and Kashmir[edit] Main article: Cuisine
Cuisine
of Kashmir

Rogan josh
Rogan josh
is a popular Kashmiri dish.

The cuisine of Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir
is from three regions of the state: Jammu, Kashmir, and Ladakh. Kashmiri cuisine
Kashmiri cuisine
has evolved over hundreds of years. Its first major influence was the food of the Kashmiri Hindus and Buddhists. The cuisine was later influenced by the cultures which arrived with the invasion of Kashmir
Kashmir
by Timur
Timur
from the area of modern Uzbekistan. Subsequent influences have included the cuisines of Central Asia
Central Asia
and the North Indian plains. The most notable ingredient in Kashmiri cuisine
Kashmiri cuisine
is mutton, of which over 30 varieties are known.[58] Wazwan
Wazwan
is a multicourse meal in the Kashmiri tradition, the preparation of which is considered an art.[59] Kashmiri Pandit food is elaborate, and an important part of the Pandits' ethnic identity. Kashmiri Pandit cuisine usually uses yogurt, oil, and spices such as turmeric, red chilli, cumin, ginger, and fennel, though they do not use onion and garlic.[60] Also, birayanis are quite popular here. They are the speciality of Kashmir. Jharkhand[edit] Main article: Traditional cuisine of Jharkhand Traditional Jharkhand
Jharkhand
dishes are not available at restaurants, as they have not been commercialised.[citation needed] Prepared exclusively in tribal regions, this cuisine uses oil and spices infrequently, except for pickle production and special occasions. Baiganee chop, a snack made of brinjal slices or eggplant, is popular in Jharkhand. Thekua is a sweet dish made of sugar, wheat, flour, and chopped coconuts. Hadia, which is made of paddy rice, is a refreshing drink.[61] A wide variety of recipes is prepared with different types of rice in Jharkhand, including dhuska, pittha, and different kinds of rotis prepared with rice. Karnataka[edit] Main article: Cuisine
Cuisine
of Karnataka See also: Mangalorean cuisine
Mangalorean cuisine
and Udupi
Udupi
cuisine

Staple vegetarian meal of Karnataka
Karnataka
jolada rotti, palya, and anna-saaru

Bisi bele bath, a delicacy in Karnataka
Karnataka
made of rice, lentils, spices, and vegetables

A number of dishes, such as idly, rava idly, Mysore
Mysore
masala dosa, etc. were invented here and have become popular beyond the state of Karnataka[citation needed]. Equally, varieties in the cuisine of Karnataka
Karnataka
have similarities with its three neighbouring South Indian states, as well as the states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Goa
Goa
to its north. It is very common for the food to be served on a banana leaf, especially during festivals and functions. Karnataka
Karnataka
cuisine can be very broadly divided into: 1) Mysore/ Bangalore
Bangalore
cuisine, 2) North Karnataka
Karnataka
cuisine, 3) Udupi cuisine, 4) Kodagu/ Coorg
Coorg
cuisine, and 5) Karavali/coastal cuisine. The cuisine covers a wide spectrum of food from pure vegetarian and vegan to meats like pork, and from savouries to sweets. Typical dishes include bisi bele bath, jolada rotti, badanekai yennegai, Holige, Kadubu, chapati, idli vada, ragi rotti, akki rotti, saaru, huli, kootu, vangibath, khara bath, kesari bhath, sajjige, neer dosa, mysoore pak, haal bai, chiroti, benne dose, ragi mudde, and uppittu. The Kodagu district
Kodagu district
is known for spicy pork curries,[62] while coastal Karnataka
Karnataka
specialises in seafood. Although the ingredients differ regionally, a typical Kannadiga oota (Kannadiga meal) is served on a banana leaf. The coastal districts of Dakshina Kannada
Kannada
and Udupi
Udupi
have slightly varying cuisines, which make extensive use of coconut in curries and frequently include seafood.[63][64] Kerala[edit] Main article: Cuisine
Cuisine
of Kerala

A full-course Sadya
Sadya
is the ceremonial meal of Kerala
Kerala
eaten usually on celebrations (like Onam, Vishu, etc.) and is served on a plantain leaf.

Spicy fish from Kerala

Fish
Fish
moilee Kerala
Kerala
style (Kerala Fish
Fish
Molly)

Traditional food of Kerala
Kerala
Hindus is vegetarian[citation needed], with regional exceptions such as the food of the Malabar area. It includes Kerala
Kerala
sadhya, which is an elaborate vegetarian banquet prepared for festivals and ceremonies. Contemporary Kerala
Kerala
food also includes nonvegetarian dishes. A full-course sadya, which consists of rice with about 20 different accompaniments and desserts is the ceremonial meal, eaten usually on celebrations such as marriages, Onam, Vishu, etc. and is served on a plantain leaf. Fish
Fish
and seafood play a major role in Kerala
Kerala
cuisine, as Kerala
Kerala
is a coastal state. An everyday Kerala
Kerala
meal in most households consists of rice with fish curry made of sardines, mackerel, seer fish, king fish, pomfret, prawns, shrimp, sole, anchovy, parrotfish, etc. (mussels, oysters, crabs, squid, scallops etc. are not rare), vegetable curry and stir-fried vegetables with or without coconut traditionally known as thoran or mizhukkupiratti. As Kerala
Kerala
has large inland water bodies, freshwater fish are abundant, and constitute regular meals. It is common in Kerala
Kerala
to have a breakfast with nonvegetarian dishes in restaurants, in contrast to other states in India. Chicken/mutton stews, lamb/chicken/beef/pork/egg curry, fish curry with tapioca for breakfast are common. A wide range of breakfast with non-vegetarian is common in Malabar and in Central Kerala. Kerala
Kerala
cuisine[65] reflects its rich trading heritage. Over time, various cuisines have blended with indigenous dishes, while foreign ones have been adapted to local tastes. Significant Arab, Syrian, Portuguese, Dutch, Jewish, and Middle Eastern influences exist in this region's cuisine, through ancient trade routes via the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
and through Arab traders who settled here, contributed to the evolution of kozhikodan halwa along with other dishes like Thalassery biryani. Coconuts grow in abundance in Kerala, so grated coconut and coconut milk are commonly used for thickening and flavouring.[66] Kerala's long coastline and numerous rivers have led to a strong fishing industry in the region, making seafood a common part of the meal. Rice is grown in abundance, along with tapioca. It is the main starch ingredient used in Kerala's food.[67] Having been a major production area of spices for thousands of years, the region makes frequent use of black pepper, cardamom, clove, ginger, and cinnamon. Most of Kerala's Hindus, except its Brahmin community, eat fish, chicken, beef, pork, eggs, and mutton.[68] The Brahmin
Brahmin
is famed for its vegan cuisine, especially varieties of sambar and rasam. A thick vegetable stew popular in South and Central India called avial is believed to have originated in southern Kerala. Avial is a widely eaten vegetarian dish in the state and plays a major role in sadya. In most Kerala
Kerala
households, a typical meal consists of rice,and vegetables. Kerala
Kerala
also has a variety of breakfast dishes like idli, dosa, appam, idiyappam, puttu, and pathiri.[69] The Muslim
Muslim
community of Kerala
Kerala
blend Arabian, North Indian, and indigenous Malabari cuisines, using chicken, eggs, beef, and mutton.[70]Thalassery biryani is the only biryani variant, which is of Kerala
Kerala
origin having originated in Talassery, in Malabar region. The dish is significantly different from other biryani variants.[71] The Pathanamthitta
Pathanamthitta
region is known for raalan and fish curries. Appam along with wine and curries of cured beef and pork are popular among Syrian Christians in Central Kerala. Popular desserts are payasam and halwa. The Hindu
The Hindu
community's payasams, especially those made at temples, like the Ambalappuzha temple, are famous for their rich taste. Halva
Halva
is one of the most commonly found or easily recognised sweets in bakeries throughout Kerala, and Kozhikode
Kozhikode
is famous for its unique and exotic haluva, which is popularly known as Kozhikodan haluva. Europeans used to call the dish "sweetmeat" due to its texture, and a street in Kozhikode where became named Sweet Meat Street during colonial rule. Kozhikodan haluva is mostly made from maida (highly refined wheat), and comes in various flavours, such as banana, ghee or coconut. However, karutha haluva (black haluva) made from rice is also very popular. Many Muslim families in the region are famed for their traditional karutha haluva. Lakshadweep[edit] The cuisine of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
prominently features seafood and coconut. Local food consists of spicy nonvegetarian and vegetarian dishes. The culinary influence of Kerala
Kerala
is quite evident in the cuisines of Lakshadweep, since the island lies in close proximity to Kerala. Coconut
Coconut
and sea fish serve as the foundations of most of the meals. The people of Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
drink large amounts of coconut water, which is the most abundant aerated drink on the island. Coconut milk
Coconut milk
is the base for most of the curries. All the sweet or savory dishes have a touch of famous Malabar spices. Local people also prefer to have dosa, idlis, and various rice dishes.[72] Madhya Pradesh[edit]

Daal bafla, a popular dish in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Gujarat

The cuisine in Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
varies regionally. Wheat
Wheat
and meat are common in the north and west of the state, while the wetter south and east are dominated by rice and fish. Milk is a common ingredient in Gwalior
Gwalior
and Indore. The street food of Indore
Indore
is renowned, with shops that have been active for generations.[73] Bhopal
Bhopal
is known for meat and fish dishes such as rogan josh, korma, qeema, biryani, pilaf, and kebabs. On a street named Chatori Gali in old Bhopal, one can find traditional Muslim
Muslim
nonvegetarian fare such as paya soup, bun kabab, and nalli-nihari as some of the specialties.[74] Dal
Dal
bafla is a common meal in the region and can be easily found in Indore
Indore
and other nearby regions, consisting of a steamed and grilled wheat cake dunked in rich ghee, which is eaten with daal and ladoos. The culinary specialty of the Malwa
Malwa
and Indore
Indore
regions of central Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
is poha (flattened rice); usually eaten at breakfast with jalebi.[75] Beverages in the region include lassi, beer, rum and sugarcane juice. A local liquor is distilled from the flowers of the mahua tree. Date palm toddy is also popular. In tribal regions, a popular drink is the sap of the sulfi tree, which may be alcoholic if it has fermented. Maharashtra[edit] Main article: Maharashtrian cuisine

Pav bhaji, a popular fast food originating in Maharashtra

Maharashtrian cuisine
Maharashtrian cuisine
is an extensive balance of many different tastes. It includes a range of dishes from mild to very spicy tastes. Bajri, wheat, rice, jowar, vegetables, lentils, and fruit form important components of the Maharashtrian diet. Popular dishes include puran poli, ukdiche modak, batata wada, sabudana khichdi, masala bhat, pav bhaji, and wada pav.[76] Poha or Misal Pav flattened rice is also usually eaten at breakfast. Kanda poha and aloo poha are some of the dishes cooked for breakfast and snacking in evenings. Popular spicy meat dishes include those that originated in the Kolhapur region. These are the Kolhapuri Sukka mutton, pandhra rassa, and tabmda rassa. Shrikhand, a sweet dish made from strained yogurt, is a main dessert of Maharashtrian cuisine.[77] The cuisine of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
can be divided into two major sections—the coastal and the interior. The Konkan, on the coast of the Arabian Sea, has its own type of cuisine, a homogeneous combination of Malvani, Goud Saraswat Brahmin, and Goan cuisines. In the interior of Maharashtra, the Vidarbha
Vidarbha
and Marathwada areas have their own distinct cuisines. The cuisine of Vidarbha
Vidarbha
uses groundnuts, poppy seeds, jaggery, wheat, jowar, and bajra extensively. A typical meal consists of rice, roti, poli, or bhakar, along with varan and aamtee—lentils and spiced vegetables. Cooking is common with different types of oil. Savji food from Vidarbha
Vidarbha
is well known all over Maharashtra. Savji dishes are very spicy and oily. Savji mutton curries are very famous.

Poha, a popular Maharashtrian breakfast dish

Like other coastal states, an enormous variety of vegetables, fish, and coconuts exists, where they are common ingredients. Peanuts and cashews are often served with vegetables. Grated coconuts are used to flavour many types of dishes, but coconut oil is not widely used; peanut oil is preferred.[78] Kokum, most commonly served chilled, in an appetiser-digestive called sol kadhi, is prevalent. During summer, Maharashtrians consume panha, a drink made from raw mango.[79][80] Malwani[edit]

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Malwani cuisine is a specialty of the tropical area which spans from the shore of Deogad Malwan to the southern Maharashtrian border with Goa. The unique taste and flavor of Malwani cuisine comes from Malwani masala and use of coconut and kokam. The staple foods are rice and fish. Various kinds of red and green fish, prawns, crab, and shellfish curries (also called mashacha sar in the Malwani language) are well known, along with kombadi (chicken) wade and mutton prepared Malwani style. Mohari mutton is also one of the distinct delicacies of Malwani cuisine. A large variety of fish is available in the region, which include surmai, karali, bangada, bombil(Bombay duck), paplet (pompret), halwa, tarali, suandale, kolambi (prawns), tisari (shell fish), kalwa (stone fish) and kurli (crab). All these fish are available in dried form, including prawns, which are known as sode. Local curries and chatanis are also prepared with dried fish. Different types of rice breads and pancakes add to the variety of Malwani cuisine and include tandlachi bhakari, ghawane, amboli, patole, appe, tandalachi and shavai (rice noodles). These rice breads can be eaten specially flavored with coconut milk, fish curries, and chicken or mutton curries. Sole kadi made from kokam and coconut milk is a signature appetizer drink . For vegetarians, Malwani delicacies include alloochi bhaji, alloochi gathaya, kalaya watanyacha, and sambara(black gram stew). The sweets and desserts include ukadiche modak, Malawani khaje, khadakahde kundiche ladu, shegdanyache ladu, tandalchi kheer, and tandalachi shavai ani ras (specially flavored with coconut milk). Manipur[edit] Main article: Manipuri cuisine Manipuri cuisine
Manipuri cuisine
is represented by the cuisine of the Meitei people who form the majority population in the central plain. Meitei food are simple, tasty, organic and healthy. Rice
Rice
with local seasonal vegetables and fish form the main diet. Most of the dishes are cooked like vegetable stew, flavored with either fermented fish called ngari, or dried and smoked fish. The most popular manipuri dish is the iromba; it's a preparation of boiled and mashed vegetables, often including potatoes or beans, mixed with chilli and roasted fermented fish. Another popular dish is the savory cake called Paknam, made of a base of lentil flour stuffed with various ingredients such as banana inflorescence, mushrooms, fish, vegetables etc., and baked covered in turmeric leaves. Along with spicy dishes, a mild side dish of steamed or boiled sweet vegetables are often served in the daily meals. The manipuri salad dish called singju, made of finely julienned cabbage, green papaya, and other vegetables, and garnished with local herbs, toasted sesame powder and lentil flour is extremely popular locally, and often found sold in small street side vendors. Singju is often served with bora which are fritters of various kinds, and also kanghou, or oil fried spicy veggies. Cooked and fermented soybean is a popular condiment in all manipuri kitchens. The staple diet of Manipur consists of rice, fish, large varieties of leafy vegetables (of both aquatic and terrestrial). Manipuris typically raise vegetables in a kitchen garden and rear fishes in small ponds around their house. Since the vegetables are either grown at home or obtained from local market, the cuisines are very seasonal, each season having its own special vegetables and preparations. The taste is very different from mainland Indian cuisines because of the use of various aromatic herbs and roots that are peculiar to the region. They are however very similar to the cuisines of Southeast/East/Central Asia, Siberia, Micronesia and Polynesia. Meghalaya[edit] Main article: Meghalayan cuisine Meghalayan cuisine
Meghalayan cuisine
is unique and different from other Northeastern Indian states.[81] Spiced meat is common, from goats, pigs, fowl, ducks, chickens, and cows. In the Khasi and Jaintia Hills districts, common foods include jadoh, ki kpu, tung-rymbai, and pickled bamboo shoots. Other common foods in Meghalaya
Meghalaya
include minil songa (steamed sticky rice), sakkin gata, and momo dumplings. Like other tribes in the northeast, the Garos ferment rice beer, which they consume in religious rites and secular celebrations.[82] Mizoram[edit] The cuisine of Mizoram
Mizoram
differs from that of most of India, though it shares characteristics to other regions of Northeast India
Northeast India
and North India. Rice
Rice
is the staple food of Mizoram, while Mizos love to add non-vegetarian ingredients in every dish. Fish, chicken, pork and beef are popular meats among Mizos. Dishes are served on fresh banana leaves. Most of the dishes are cooked in mustard oil. Meals tend to be less spicy than in most of India. Mizos love eating boiled vegetables along with rice. A popular dish is bai, made from boiling vegetables (spinach, eggplant, beans, and other leafy vegetables) with bekang fermented soya beans or Sa-um, a fermented pork and served with rice. Sawhchiar is another common dish, made of rice and cooked with pork or chicken.[83][84] Nagaland[edit]

Dried fish, prawns, ghost chili, and preserved colocasia leaves are common ingredients in Naga cuisine

Main article: Naga cuisine The cuisine of Nagaland
Nagaland
reflects that of the Naga people. It is known for exotic pork meats cooked with simple and flavourful ingredients,[85] like the extremely hot Bhut jolokia
Bhut jolokia
pepper, fermented bamboo shoots and akhuni or fermented soya beans. Another unique and strong ingredient used by the Naga people, is the fermented fish known as ngari. Fresh herbs and other local greens also feature prominently in the Naga cuisine. The Naga use oil sparingly, preferring to ferment, dry, and smoke their meats and fish. Traditional homes in Nagaland
Nagaland
have external kitchens that serve as smokehouses.[86] A typical meal consists of rice, meat, a chutney, a couple of stewed or steamed vegetable dishes – flavored with ngari or akhuni. Desserts usually consist of fresh fruits. Odisha[edit] Main article: Oriya cuisine

Oriya mutton curry (mansha tarkari).

The cuisine of Odisha
Odisha
relies heavily on local ingredients. Flavours are usually subtle and delicately spiced, unlike the spicy curries typically associated with Indian cuisine. Fish
Fish
and other seafood, such as crab and shrimp, are very popular, and chicken and mutton are also consumed. Panch phutana, a mix of cumin, mustard, fennel, fenugreek and kalonji (nigella), is widely used for flavouring vegetables and dals,[87] while garam masala and turmeric are commonly used for meat-based curries. Pakhala, a dish made of rice, water, and yogurt, that is fermented overnight, is very popular in summer in rural areas.[88] Oriyas are very fond of sweets, so dessert follows most meals. Few popular Oriya cuisines, Anna, Kanika, Dalma, Khata (Tamato & Oou), Dali (Different types of lentils, i.e. Harada (Red Gram), known as Arhar in Hindi), Muga (Moong), Kolatha (Horsegram), etc. And many more varieties both in Veg. (Niramisha) & Non-Veg. (Aamisha). Saga ( spinach and other green leaves) and Alu-bharta(mashed potato) along with Pakhala
Pakhala
are popular dishes(lunch) in rural Odisha. Odisha
Odisha
is well known for its milk based sweets. Among the many Rasagula which originated in Odisha, Chhena poda, Chhena gaja, Chhena jhili, and Rasabali
Rasabali
are very famous. Puducherry[edit] The union territory of Puducherry
Puducherry
was a French colony for around 200 years, making French cuisine
French cuisine
a strong influence on the area. Tamil cuisine is eaten by the territory's Tamil majority. The influence of the neighbouring areas, such as Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Kerala, is also visible on the territory's cuisine. Some favourite dishes include coconut curry, tandoori potato, soya dosa, podanlangkai, curried vegetables, stuffed cabbage, and baked beans.[89] Punjab[edit] Main article: Punjabi cuisine

Tandoori chicken
Tandoori chicken
is a popular grilled dish.

The cuisine of Punjab is known for its diverse range of dishes. The state, being an agriculture center, is abundant with whole grains, vegetables, and, fruits. Home-cooked and restaurant Punjabi cuisine can vary significantly. Restaurant-style Punjabi cooking puts emphasis on creamy textured foods by using ghee, butter and cream to accustom various kinds of guest taste preferences; while, home-cooked equivalents center around whole wheat, rice, and other ingredients flavored with various kinds of masalas.[90] Common dishes cooked at home are roti with daal and dahi with a side chutney and salad that includes raw onion, tomato, cucumber, etc. The meals are also abundant of local and seasonal vegetables usually sautéed with spices such as cumin, dried coriander, red chili powder, turmeric, black cloves, etc. Masala Chai
Masala Chai
is a favorite drink and is consumed in everyday life and at special occasions. Many regional differences exist in the Punjabi cuisine based on traditional variations in cooking similar dishes, food combinations, preference of spice combination, etc. Is it apparent that "the food is simple, robust, and, closely linked to the land.[91] Certain dishes exclusive to Punjab, such as makki di roti and sarson da saag,[92] dal makhani, etc. are a favorite of many. The masala in a Punjabi dish traditionally consists of onion, garlic, ginger, cumin, garam masala, salt, turmeric, tomatoes sauteed in mustard oil. Tandoori
Tandoori
food is a Punjabi specialty. Common meat dishes in this region are Bhakra curry (Goat) and fish dishes[93] Dairy products are commonly consumed and usually accompany main meals in the form of dahi, milk, and milk derived products such as lassi, paneer, etc. Punjab consists of a high number of people following the Sikh religion who traditionally follow a vegetarian diet (which includes plant derived foods, milk, and milk by-products. See diet in Sikhism) in accordance to their beliefs. No description of Punjabi cuisine
Punjabi cuisine
is complete without the myriad of famous desserts, such as kheer, gajar ka halwa, sooji (cream of wheat) halwa, rasmalai, gulab jamun and jalebi. Most desserts are ghee or dairy based, use nuts such as almonds, walnuts, pistachios, cashews, and, raisins. Many of the most popular elements of Anglo-Indian cuisine, such as tandoori foods, naan, pakoras and vegetable dishes with paneer, are derived from Punjabi styles.[94] Punjabi food is well liked in the world for its flavors, spices, and, versatile use of produce; and hence it is one of the most popular cuisine's from the sub continent. And last but not least is the Chhole Bhature and Chhole Kulche which are famous all over the north India. Rajasthan[edit] Main article: Rajasthani cuisine

Rajasthani thali

Kadhi, a spicy North Indian dish

Cooking in Rajasthan, an arid region, has been strongly shaped by the availability of ingredients. Because water is at a premium, food is generally cooked in milk or ghee, making it quite rich. Gram flour
Gram flour
is a mainstay of Marwari food mainly due to the scarcity of vegetables in the area.[95] Historically, food that could last for several days and be eaten without heating was preferred. Major dishes of a Rajasthani meal may include daal-baati, tarfini, raabdi, Ghevar, bail-gatte, panchkoota, chaavadi, laapsi, kadhi and boondi. Typical snacks include bikaneri bhujia, mirchi bada, Pyaaj Kachori, and Dal
Dal
Kachori. Daal-baati is the most popular dish prepared in the state. It is usually supplemented with choorma, a mixture of finely ground baked rotis, sugar and ghee.[96] Rajasthan
Rajasthan
is also influenced by the Rajputs who were predominantly non vegetarians. Their diet consisted of game meat and gave birth to dishes like laal maas, safed maas, khad khargosh and jungli maas.[97] Sikkim[edit] Main article: Sikkimese cuisine In Sikkim, various ethnic groups such as the Nepalese, Bhutias, and Lepchas have their own distinct cuisines. Nepalese cuisine
Nepalese cuisine
is very popular in this area. Rice
Rice
is the staple food of the area, and meat and dairy products are also widely consumed. For centuries, traditional fermented foods and beverages have constituted about 20 percent of the local diet. Depending on altitudinal variation, finger millet, wheat, buckwheat, barley, vegetables, potatoes, and soybeans are grown. Dhindo, Daal bhat, Gundruk, Momo, gya thuk, ningro, phagshapa, and sel roti are some of the local dishes. Alcoholic drinks are consumed by both men and women. Beef
Beef
is eaten by the Bhutias.[98] Sindh[edit] Main article: Sindhi cuisine See also: Sindhis in India Sindhi cuisine
Sindhi cuisine
refers to the native cuisine of the Sindhi people
Sindhi people
from the Sindh
Sindh
region, now in Pakistan. While Sindh
Sindh
is not geographically a part of modern India, its culinary traditions persist,[99] due to the sizeable number of Hindu Sindhis who migrated to India
India
following the independence of Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947, especially in Sindhi enclaves such as Ulhasnagar
Ulhasnagar
and Gandhidam. A typical meal in most Sindhi households consists of wheat-based flatbread (phulka) and rice accompanied by two dishes, one with gravy and one dry. Lotus stem (known as kamal kakri) is also used in Sindhi dishes. Cooking vegetables by deep frying is a common practice that is followed. Some common Sindhi dishes are Sindhi Kadhi, Sai Bhaji, Koki and Besan Bhaji. Some common ingredients used are mango powder, tamarind, kokum flowers, and dried pomegranate seeds.[100] Tamil Nadu[edit] Main article: Cuisine
Cuisine
of Tamil Nadu

Vegetarian meals in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
traditionally served on a plantain leaf

Dosa
Dosa
served with sambar and chutney

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
is noted for its deep belief that serving food to others is a service to humanity, as is common in many regions of India. The region has a rich cuisine involving both traditional non-vegetarian and vegetarian dishes. Tamil food is characterised by its use of rice, legumes, and lentils, along with distinct aromas and flavours achieved by the blending of spices such as curry leaves, tamarind, coriander, ginger, garlic, chili pepper, cinnamon, clove, cardamom, cumin, nutmeg, coconut and rose water. The traditional way of eating a meal involves being seated on the floor, having the food served on a plantain leaf, and using the right hand to eat. After the meal the plantain leaf is discarded but becomes food for free-ranging cattle and goats. A meal (called Saapadu) consists of rice with other typical Tamil dishes on a plantain leaf. A typical Tamilian would eat in plantain leaf as it gives different flavour and taste to the food. But it can also be served on a stainless steel tray – plate with a selection of different dishes in small bowls. Tamil food is characterized by tiffins, which is a light food taken for breakfast or dinner, and meals which are usually taken during lunch. The word "curry" is derived from the Tamil kari, meaning something similar to "sauce".[101][102] The southern regions such as Tirunelveli, Madurai, Paramakudi, Karaikudi, and Chettinad
Chettinad
are noted for their spicy non-vegetarian dishes.[103][104] Dosa, idli, pongal and Biryani
Biryani
are some of the popular dishes and are eaten with chutney and sambar. Fish and other seafoods are also very popular, because the state is located on the coast. Chicken and goat meat is the predominantly consumed meats in Tamil Nadu. Many Tamilians are vegetarian, however, and the typical meal is heavily dependent on rice, vegetables and lentil preparations such as rasam and sambar. Tamil food tends to be spicy compared to other parts of India
India
so there is a tradition of finishing the meal with Yogurt
Yogurt
is considered a soothing end to the meal. Telangana[edit] Main articles: Telugu cuisine
Telugu cuisine
and Hyderabadi cuisine

Hyderabadi Biryani
Biryani
from the city of Hyderabad

The cuisine of Telangana
Telangana
consists of the Telugu cuisine, of Telangana's Telugu people
Telugu people
as well as Hyderabadi cuisine
Hyderabadi cuisine
(also known as Nizami cuisine), of Telangana's Hyderabadi Muslim
Muslim
community.[105][106] Hyderabadi food is based heavily on non-vegetarian ingredients while, Telugu food is a mix of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian ingredients. Telugu food is rich in spices and chillies are abundantly used. The food also generally tends to be more on the tangy side with tamarind and lime juice both used liberally as souring agents. Rice
Rice
is the staple food of Telugu people. Starch is consumed with a variety of curries and lentil soups or broths.[107][108] Vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods are both popular. Hyderabadi cuisine
Hyderabadi cuisine
includes popular delicacies such as Biryani, Haleem, Baghara baingan
Baghara baingan
and Kheema, while Hyderabadi day to day dishes see some commonalities with Telanganite Telugu food, with its use of tamarind, rice, and lentils, along with meat.[107] Yogurt
Yogurt
is a common addition to meals, as a way of tempering spiciness.[109] Tripura[edit] Main article: Tripuri cuisine

A bowl of thukpa

The Tripuri people
Tripuri people
are the original inhabitants of the state of Tripura
Tripura
in northeast India. Today, they comprise the communities of Tipra, Reang, Jamatia, Noatia, and Uchoi, among others. The Tripuri are non-vegetarian,[110] although they have a minority of Vaishnavite vegetarians.[111] The major ingredients of Tripuri cuisine
Tripuri cuisine
include vegetables, herbs, pork, chicken, mutton, fishes, turtle, shrimps, crabs, freshwater mussels, periwinkles, edible freshwater snails and frogs. Uttar Pradesh[edit] Main article: Cuisine
Cuisine
of Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradeshi thali (platter) with naan, daal, raita, gul paneer, and salad

Traditionally, Uttar Pradeshi cuisine consists of Awadhi and Mughlai cuisine,[112] though a vast majority[citation needed] of the state is vegetarian, preferring dal, roti, sabzi, and rice. Pooris and kachoris are eaten on special occasions. Chaat, samosa, and pakora, among the most popular snacks in India, originate from Uttar Pradesh.[113][114] Well known dishes include kebabs, dum biryani, and various mutton recipes. Sheer Qorma, Ghevar, Gulab jamun, Kheer, and Ras malai
Ras malai
are some of the popular desserts in this region. Awadhi cuisine
Awadhi cuisine
(Hindi: अवधी खाना) is from the city of Lucknow, which is the capital of the state of Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
in Central-South Asia and Northern India, and the cooking patterns of the city are similar to those of Central Asia, the Middle East, and other parts of Northern India. The cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. Awadh
Awadh
has been greatly influenced by Mughal cooking techniques, and the cuisine of Lucknow
Lucknow
bears similarities to those of Central Asia, Kashmir, Punjab and Hyderabad. The city is also known for its Nawabi foods.[115] The bawarchis and rakabdars of Awadh gave birth to the dum style of cooking or the art of cooking over a slow fire, which has become synonymous with Lucknow
Lucknow
today.[116] Their spread consisted of elaborate dishes like kebabs, kormas, biryani, kaliya, nahari-kulchas, zarda, sheermal, roomali rotis, and warqi parathas. The richness of Awadh
Awadh
cuisine lies not only in the variety of cuisine but also in the ingredients used like mutton, paneer, and rich spices, including cardamom and saffron. Mughlai cuisine
Mughlai cuisine
is a style of cooking developed in the Indian subcontinent by the imperial kitchens of the Mughal Empire. It represents the cooking styles used in North India
North India
(especially Uttar Pradesh). The cuisine is strongly influenced by the Central Asian cuisine, the region where the Chagatai-Turkic Mughal rulers originally hailed from, and it has in turn strongly influenced the regional cuisines of Kashmir
Kashmir
and the Punjab region.[117][115] The tastes of Mughlai cuisine
Mughlai cuisine
vary from extremely mild to spicy, and is often associated with a distinctive aroma and the taste of ground and whole spices. A Mughlai course is an elaborate buffet of main course dishes with a variety of accompaniments.[118] Uttarakhand[edit] Main article: Kumauni cuisine

Saag, a popular Kumauni dish from Uttarakhand, is made from any of the various green vegetables like spinach and fenugreek.

The food from Uttrakhand
Uttrakhand
is known to be healthy and wholesome to suit the high-energy necessities of the cold, mountainous region. It is a high protein diet that makes heavy use of pulses and vegetables. Traditionally it is cooked over wood or charcoal fire mostly in iron utensils. While also making use of condiments such as jeera, haldi and rai common in other Indian cuisines, Uttarakhand cuisine uses some exotic condiments like jambu, timmer, ghandhraini and bhangira. Similarly, although the people in Uttarakhand also prepare the dishes common in other parts of northern India, several preparations are unique to Uttarakhand tradition such as rus, chudkani, dubuk, chadanji, jholi, kapa, etc. Among dressed salads and sauces, kheere ka raita, nimbu mooli ka raita, daarim ki khatai and aam ka fajitha necessarily deserve a mention. The cuisine mainly consists of food from two different sub regions—Garhwal and Kumaon—though their basic ingredients are the same.[119] Both the Kumaoni and Garhwali styles make liberal use of ghee, lentils or pulses, vegetables and bhaat (rice). They also use Badi (sun-dried Urad Dal
Dal
balls) and Mungodi (sun-dried Moong Dal
Dal
balls) as substitutes for vegetables at times. During festivals and other celebrations, the people of Uttarakhand prepare special refreshments which include both salty preparations such as bada and sweet preparations such as pua and singal. Uttarakhand also has several sweets (mithai) such as singodi, bal-mithai, malai laddu, etc. native to its tradition. West Bengal[edit] Main article: Bengali cuisine

Bengali authentic full meal

During the 19th century, many Odia-speaking cooks were employed in Bengal[citation needed], which led to the transfer of several food items between the two regions. Bengali cuisine
Bengali cuisine
is the only traditionally developed multi-course tradition from the Indian subcontinent that is analogous in structure to the modern service à la russe style of French cuisine, with food served course-wise rather than all at once[citation needed]. Bengali cuisine
Bengali cuisine
differs according to regional tastes, such as the emphasis on the use of chilli pepper in the Chittagong district of Bangladesh[120] However, across all its varieties, there is predominant use of mustard oil along with large amounts of spices. The cuisine is known for subtle flavours with an emphasis on fish, meat, vegetables, lentils, and rice.[121] Bread
Bread
is not a common dish in Bengali cuisine, but a deep fried version called luchi is popular. Fresh sweetwater fish is one of its most distinctive features; Bengalis prepare fish in many ways, such as steaming, braising, or stewing in vegetables and sauces based on coconut milk or mustard. East Bengali food, which has a high presence in West Bengal and Bangladesh, is much spicier than the West Bengali cuisine, and tends to use high amounts of chilli, and is one of the spiciest cuisines in India
India
and the World. Shondesh and Rasgulla
Rasgulla
are popular sweet dishes made of sweetened, finely ground fresh cheese. The rasgulla originated in Bengal.[122][123][124] and later became popular in erstwhile Odisha. The government of west Bengal
Bengal
has recently acquired the GI status of rasgulla after citing proof in court. The cuisine is also found in the state of Tripura
Tripura
and the Barak Valley of Assam. Diaspora and fusion cuisines[edit] The interaction of various Indian diaspora communities with the native cultures of their domiciles have resulted in the creation of many fusion cuisines, which blend aspects of Indian and foreign cuisines. These cuisines tend to adapt Indian seasoning and cooking techniques to foreign dishes. Indian Chinese cuisine[edit] Main article: Indian Chinese cuisine Indian Chinese cuisine, also known as Indo- Chinese cuisine
Chinese cuisine
originated in the 19th century among the Chinese community of Calcutta, during the immigration of Hakka Chinese
Hakka Chinese
from Canton (present-day Guangzhou) seeking to escape the First and Second Opium Wars and political instability in the region.[125] Upon exposure to local Indian cuisine, they incorporated many spices and cooking techniques into their own cuisine, thus creating a unique fusion of Indian and Chinese cuisine.[125] After 1947, many Cantonese immigrants fleeing political repression under Mao Zedong, opened their own restaurants in Calcutta, whose dishes combined aspects of Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
with Cantonese cuisine.[126] While Indian Chinese cuisine
Indian Chinese cuisine
is heavily derived from traditional Chinese cuisine, it bears little resemblance to its Chinese counterpart.[126] The dishes tend to be flavoured with cumin, coriander seeds, and turmeric, which with a few regional exceptions, are not traditionally associated with Chinese cuisine.[127] Chilli, ginger, garlic and yogurt are also frequently used in dishes.[127] Popular dishes include Chicken Manchurian, Chicken lollipop, Chilli chicken, Hakka noodles, Hunan chicken, Chow mein, and Szechwan fried rice. Soups such as Manchow soup
Manchow soup
and Sweet corn soup are very popular, whereas desserts include ice cream on honey-fried noodles and date pancakes. Chow mein
Chow mein
is now known as one of the most favorite Chinese dishes in India. Specially in West Bengal, it is one of the most loved street foods. Malaysian Indian cuisine[edit] Main article: Malaysian Indian cuisine Indian Singaporean cuisine[edit] Main article: Indian Singaporean cuisine Indian Singaporean cuisine
Indian Singaporean cuisine
refers to foods and beverages produced and consumed in Singapore
Singapore
that are derived, wholly or in part, from South Asian culinary traditions. The great variety of Singaporean food includes Indian food, which tends to be Tamil cuisine, especially local Tamil Muslim
Muslim
cuisine, although North Indian food[128] has become more visible recently. Indian dishes have become modified to different degrees, after years of contact with other Singaporean cultures, and in response to locally available ingredients, as well as changing local tastes. Anglo-Indian cuisine[edit] Main article: Anglo-Indian cuisine Anglo-Indian cuisine
Anglo-Indian cuisine
is the cuisine that developed during the British Raj in India, as the British wives interacted with their Indian cooks.[129] Well-known Anglo-Indian dishes include chutneys, salted beef tongue, kedgeree,[130] ball curry, fish rissoles, and mulligatawny soup.[129][131][132] Desserts[edit] Main article: List of Indian sweets and desserts

Kheer

Phirni

Phirni
Phirni
and Kheer
Kheer
are two of the most popular rice puddings in India.

Many Indian desserts, or mithai, are fried foods made with sugar, milk or condensed milk. Ingredients and preferred types of dessert vary by region. In the eastern part of India, for example, most are based on milk products. Many are flavoured with almonds and pistachios, spiced with cardamon, nutmeg, cloves and black pepper, and decorated with nuts, or with gold or silver leaf. Popular Indian desserts include gulab jamun, jalebi, laddu, peda etc.[133] Beverages[edit] See also: List of Indian drinks Non-alcoholic beverages[edit]

Non-alcoholic beverages

A cup of Darjeeling tea.

Lassi
Lassi
served at an Indian restaurant.

Indian filter coffee
Indian filter coffee
is popular in Southern India.[134]

Badam milk

Tea
Tea
is a staple beverage throughout India, since the country is one of the largest producers of tea in the world. The most popular varieties of tea grown in India
India
include Assam
Assam
tea, Darjeeling tea
Darjeeling tea
and Nilgiri tea. It is prepared by boiling the tea leaves in a mix of water, milk, and spices such as cardamom, cloves, cinnamon, and ginger. In India, tea is often enjoyed with snacks like biscuits and pakoda. Coffee
Coffee
is another popular beverage, but more popular in South India. Coffee
Coffee
is also cultivated in some parts of India. There are two varieties of coffee popular in India, which include Indian filter coffee and instant coffee. Lassi
Lassi
is a traditional yogurt-based drink in India.[135] It is made by blending yogurt with water or milk and spices. Salted lassi is more common in villages of Punjab and in Porbandar, Gujarat. Traditional lassi is sometimes flavoured with ground roasted cumin. Lassi
Lassi
can also be flavoured with ingredients such as sugar, rose water, mango, lemon, strawberry, and saffron.[136] Sharbat
Sharbat
is a sweet cold beverage prepared from fruits or flower petals.[137] It can be served in concentrate form and eaten with a spoon, or diluted with water to create a drink. Popular sharbats are made from plants such as rose, sandalwood, bel, gurhal (hibiscus), lemon, orange, pineapple, sarasaparilla and falsa (Grewia asiatica). In Ayurveda, sharbats are believed to hold medicinal value.[138] Other beverages include nimbu pani (lemonade), chaas, badam doodh (almond milk with nuts and cardamom), and coconut water. Cold drinks unique to southern India
India
include beverages, such as "Panner Soda" or "Gholi Soda", which is a mixture of carbonated water, rose water, rose milk, and sugar. "Narenga Soda", a mixture of carbonated water, salt and lemon juice and "Soda Nannari Sharbat", a mixture of sarasaparilla Sharbat
Sharbat
with carbonated water are most popular non alcoholic beverages in Kerala
Kerala
and Tamil Nadu. Street shops in Central Kerala
Kerala
and Madurai region of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
are most popular for these drinks which are also called 'Kulukki Sharbats' in Kerala Alcoholic beverages[edit] Beer[edit] Main article: Beer
Beer
in India

Bastar Beer
Beer
prepared from Sulfi

Most beers in India
India
are either lagers (4.8 percent alcohol) or strong lagers (8.9 percent). The Indian beer industry has witnessed steady growth of 10–17 percent per year over the last ten years. Production exceeded 170 million cases during the 2008–2009 financial year.[139] With the average age of the population decreasing and income levels on the rise, the popularity of beer in the country continues to increase. Others[edit] Other popular alcoholic drinks in India
India
include fenny, a Goan liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple. The state of Goa
Goa
has registered for a geographical indicator to allow its fenny distilleries to claim exclusive rights to production of liquor under the name "fenny."[140] Hadia is a rice beer, created by mixing herbs with boiled rice and leaving the mixture to ferment for around a week. It is served cold and is less alcoholic than other Indian liquors. Chuak is a similar drink from Tripura. Palm wine, locally known as Neera, is a sap extracted from inflorescences of various species of toddy palms.[141] Chhaang
Chhaang
is consumed by the people of Sikkim
Sikkim
and the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region of West Bengal. It is drunk cold or at room temperature in summer, and often hot during cold weather. Chhaang
Chhaang
is similar to traditional beer, brewed from barley, millet, or rice.[142] Kallu(Chetthu Kallu) is a popular natural alcohol extracted from coconut and pine trees in Kerala. It is sold in local Kallu shops and is consumed with fried fish and chicken. Its alcoholic content is increased by addition of alcoholic additives. Eating habits[edit]

Paan
Paan
is often eaten after a meal.

Indians consider a healthy breakfast important. They generally prefer to drink tea or coffee with breakfast, though food preferences vary regionally. North Indian people prefer roti, parathas, and a vegetable dish accompanied by achar (a pickle) and some curd.[143] Various types of packaged pickles are available in the market. One of the oldest pickle-making companies in India
India
is Harnarains, which had started in the 1860s in Old Delhi. People of Gujarat
Gujarat
prefer dhokla and milk, while south Indians prefer idli and dosa, generally accompanied by sambhar or sagu and various chutneys.[144] Traditional lunch in India
India
usually consists of a main dish of rice in the south and the east, and whole wheat rotis in the north. It typically includes two or three kinds of vegetables, and sometimes items such as kulcha, naan, or parathas. Paan
Paan
(stuffed, spiced and folded betel leaves) which aids digestion is often eaten after lunch and dinner in many parts of India.[24] Indian families often gather for "evening breakfast," similar to tea time to talk and have tea and snacks. Dinner is considered the main meal of the day.[145] Dietary restrictions[edit] In India
India
people often follow dietary restrictions based on their religion or faith:

Hindu communities condemn beef taboo since it is believed that Hindu scriptures condemn cow slaughter. Beef
Beef
consumption has been banned in many states of India.[146] Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
followers generally do not eat garlic and onions because they are advised against it in the Bhagavad Gita.[147] Jains follow a strict form of vegetarianism, known as Jain vegetarianism, which in addition to being completely vegetarian, also excludes potatoes and other root vegetables because when the root is pulled up, organisms that live around the root also die.[148] Muslims do not eat pork or pork products.

Etiquette[edit] Main article: Etiquette of Indian dining Traditionally, meals in India
India
were eaten while seated either on the floor or on very low stools or cushions. Food is most often eaten with the right hand rather than cutlery. The left hand is used to serve oneself when the courses are not served by the host. Often roti is used to scoop curry without allowing it to touch the hand. In the wheat-producing north, a piece of roti is gripped with the thumb and middle finger and ripped off while holding the roti down with the index finger. A somewhat different method is used in the south for the dosai, the adai, and the uththappam, where the middle finger is pressed down to hold the crepe down and the forefinger and thumb used to grip and separate a small part. Traditional serving styles vary regionally throughout India. Contact with other cultures has affected Indian dining etiquette. For example, the Anglo-Indian middle class commonly uses spoons and forks, as is traditional in Western culture.[149] In South India, cleaned banana leaves, which can be disposed of after meals, are used for serving food. When hot food is served on banana leaves, the leaves add distinctive aromas and taste to the food.[150] Leaf plates are less common today, except on special occasions. Outside India[edit] Indian migration has spread the culinary traditions of the subcontinent throughout the world. These cuisines have been adapted to local tastes, and have also affected local cuisines. Curry's international appeal has been compared to that of pizza.[151] Indian tandoor dishes such as chicken tikka enjoy widespread popularity.[152] Canada[edit] As in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the United States, Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
is widely available in Canada, especially in the cities of Toronto[153] and Vancouver,[154] where the majority of Canadians of South Asian heritage live. China[edit] Indian food is gaining popularity in China, where there are many Indian restaurants in Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. Hong Kong
Hong Kong
alone has more than 50 Indian restaurants, some of which date back to the 1980s. Most of the Indian restaurants in Hong Kong
Hong Kong
are in Tsim Sha Tsui.[155] Middle East[edit] The Indian culinary scene in the Middle East
Middle East
has been influenced greatly by the large Indian diaspora in these countries. Centuries of trade relations and cultural exchange resulted in a significant influence on each region's cuisines. The use of the tandoor, which originated in northwestern India,[156] is an example. The large influx of Indian expatriates into the Middle Eastern countries during the 1970s and 1980s led to the booming of Indian restaurants to cater to this population and was also widely influenced by the local and international cuisines. Nepal[edit] Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
is available in the streets of Nepalese cities, including Kathmandu
Kathmandu
and Janakpur. Southeast Asia[edit]

An Indian restaurant in Singapore

Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
is very popular in Southeast Asia, due to the strong Hindu and Buddhist cultural influence in the region. Indian cuisine has had considerable influence on Malaysian cooking styles[7] and also enjoys popularity in Singapore.[157][158] There are numerous North and South Indian
South Indian
restaurants in Singapore, mostly in Little India. Singapore
Singapore
is also known for fusion cuisine combining traditional Singaporean cuisine
Singaporean cuisine
with Indian influences. Fish
Fish
head curry, for example, is a local creation. Indian influence on Malay cuisine
Malay cuisine
dates to the 19th century.[159] Other cuisines which borrow inspiration from Indian cooking styles include Filipino, Vietnamese, Indonesian, Thai, and Burmese cuisines. The spread of vegetarianism in other parts of Asia is often credited to Hindu and Buddhist practices.[160] United Kingdom[edit]

Chicken tikka
Chicken tikka
masala, a modified version of Indian chicken tikka, has been called "a true British national dish."[161]

The UK's first Indian restaurant, the Hindoostanee Coffee
Coffee
House, opened in 1810.[162][163] By 2003, there were as many as 10,000 restaurants serving Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine
in England
England
and Wales
Wales
alone. According to Britain's Food Standards Agency, the Indian food industry in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is worth 3.2 billion pounds, accounts for two-thirds of all eating out and serves about 2.5 million customers every week.[164] One of the best known examples of British Indian restaurant cuisine is Chicken tikka
Chicken tikka
masala, which has also been called "a true British national dish."[165] Ireland[edit] Ireland's first Indian restaurant, the Indian Restaurant and Tea Rooms, opened in 1908 on Sackville Street, now O'Connell Street, in Dublin.[166] Today, Indian restaurants are commonplace in most Irish cities and towns. Southeast Asians are the fastest growing ethnic group in Ireland.[167] United States[edit] A survey by The Washington Post
The Washington Post
in 2007 stated that more than 1,200 Indian food products had been introduced into the United States
United States
since 2000.[168] There are numerous Indian restaurants across the US, which vary based on regional culture and climate. North Indian and South Indian cuisines are especially well represented. Most Indian restaurants in the United States
United States
serve Americanized versions of North Indian food, which is generally less spicy than its Indian equivalents. See also[edit]

India
India
portal Food portal

Buddhist vegetarianism Diet in Hinduism Diet in Sikhism Jain vegetarianism Indian bread Indian Chinese cuisine Indian tea culture List of Indian breads List of Indian dishes List of Indian pickles List of Indian snacks List of plants used in Indian cuisine North East Indian cuisine South Asian pickles South Indian
South Indian
cuisine Street food
Street food
of Chennai Street food
Street food
of Mumbai

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Bibliography[edit]

Pat Chapman. India: Food & Cooking, New Holland, London — ISBN 978-1-84537-619-2 (2007)

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