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Independence Hall
Independence Hall
is the building where both the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
were debated and adopted. It is now the centerpiece of the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The building was completed in 1753 as the colonial legislature (later Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State House) for the Province of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and was used in that capacity until the state capital moved to Lancaster in 1799. It became the principal meeting place of the Second Continental Congress from 1775 to 1783 and was the site of the Constitutional Convention in the summer of 1787. A convention held in Independence Hall
Independence Hall
in 1915, presided over by former US president William Howard Taft, marked the formal announcement of the formation of the League to Enforce Peace, which led to the League of Nations
League of Nations
and eventually the United Nations. The building is part of Independence National Historical Park
Independence National Historical Park
and is listed as a World Heritage Site.[3]

Contents

1 Preparation for construction 2 Structure

2.1 Demolition and reconstruction 2.2 Interior layout 2.3 Liberty Bell

3 Declaration of Independence and Second Continental Congress 4 U.S. Constitutional Convention 5 Funerary procession of Abraham Lincoln 6 League to Enforce Peace 7 Preservation 8 Legacy

8.1 Replicas

9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Preparation for construction[edit]

Detail of A Map of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and Parts Adjacent, depicting the State House as it appeared in 1752. The image shows the original bell tower, which lacked a clock.

By the spring of 1729 the citizens of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
were petitioning to be allowed to build a state house[dubious – discuss]. Two thousand pounds were committed to the endeavor. A committee composed of Thomas Lawrence, Dr. John Kearsley, and Andrew Hamilton was charged with the responsibility of selecting a site for construction, acquiring plans for the building, and contracting a company for the purpose of construction. Hamilton and William Allen were named trustees of the purchasing and building fund and authorized to buy the land that would be the site of the state house. By October 1730 they had begun purchasing lots on Chestnut Street.[4] By 1732, even though Hamilton had acquired the deed for Lot no. 2 from surveyor David Powell, who had been paid for his work with the lot, tensions were rising among the committee members. Dr. John Kearsley and Hamilton disagreed on a number of issues concerning the state house. Kearsley, who is credited with the designs of both Christ Church and St. Peter's Church, had plans for the structure of the building, but so did Hamilton. The two men also disagreed on the building's site; Kearsley suggested High Street, now Market Street, and Hamilton favored Chestnut Street. Lawrence said nothing on the matter.[5] Matters reached a point where arbitration was needed. On August 8, 1733, Hamilton brought the matter before the House of Representatives. He explained that Kearsley did not approve of Hamilton’s plans for the location and architecture of the state house and went on to insist the House had not agreed to these decisions. In response to this, Hamilton, on August 11, showed his plans for the state house to the House, who accepted them. On August 14, the House sided with Hamilton, granting him full control over the project, and the site on the south side of Chestnut Street between Fifth and Sixth Streets was chosen for the location of the state house. Ground was broken for construction soon after.[6] Structure[edit]

Independence Hall
Independence Hall
in 1799, with the wooden steeple removed and Thomas Stretch's clock (far left).

Independence Hall
Independence Hall
is a red brick building designed in the Georgian style. It consists of a central building with belltower and steeple, attached to two smaller wings via arcaded hyphens. The highest point to the tip of the steeple spire is 168 ft, 7​1⁄4 inches above the ground. The State House was built between 1732 and 1751, designed by Edmund Woolley and Andrew Hamilton, and built by Woolley. Its construction was commissioned by the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
colonial legislature which paid for construction as funds were available, so it was finished piecemeal.[7] It was initially inhabited by the colonial government of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
as its State House, from 1732 to 1799.[3] In 1752, when Isaac Norris was selecting a man to build the first clock for the State House, today known as Independence Hall, he chose Thomas Stretch, the son of Peter Stretch his old friend and fellow council member, to do the job.[8] In 1753 Thomas Stretch
Thomas Stretch
erected a giant clock at the building's west end that resembled a tall clock (grandfather clock). The 40-foot-tall limestone base was capped with a 14-foot wooden case surrounding the clock's face, which was carved by Samuel Harding. The giant clock was removed about 1830.[9] The clock’s dials were mounted at the east and west ends of the main building connected by rods to the clock movement in the middle of the building.[10] The acquisition of the original clock and bell by the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Colonial Assembly is closely related to the acquisition of the Liberty Bell. By mid-1753, the clock had been installed in the State House attic, but six years were to elapse before Thomas Stretch
Thomas Stretch
received any pay for it.[11] Demolition and reconstruction[edit] While the shell of the central portion of the building is original, the side wings, steeple and much of the interior was reconstructed. In 1781, the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Assembly had the wooden steeple removed from the main building. The steeple had rotted and weakened to a dangerous extent by 1773, but it wasn't until 1781 that the Assembly had it removed and had the brick tower covered with a hipped roof.[12] The original steeple was demolished due to structural problems in 1781. A more elaborate steeple, designed by William Strickland, was added in 1828. The original wings and hyphens were demolished in 1812. In 1898, these were in turn demolished and replaced with reconstructions of the original wings. The building was renovated numerous times in the 19th and 20th century. The current interior is a mid-20th century reconstruction by the National Park Service
National Park Service
with the public rooms restored to their 18th century appearance. During the summer of 1973 a replica of the Thomas Stretch
Thomas Stretch
clock was restored to Independence Hall.[9] The second floor Governor's Council Chamber, furnished with important examples of the era by the National Park Service, includes a musical tall case clock made by Peter Stretch, c 1740, one of the most prominent clockmakers in early America and father of Thomas Stretch.[13] Two smaller buildings adjoin the wings of Independence Hall: Old City Hall to the east, and Congress Hall
Congress Hall
to the west. These three buildings are together on a city block known as Independence Square, along with Philosophical Hall, the original home of the American Philosophical Society. Since its construction in the mid-20th century, to the north has been Independence Mall, which includes the current home of the Liberty Bell. Interior layout[edit]

1

2

3

4

Ground floor of Independence Hall (right-click links below for room images)

1

Assembly Room

2

Supreme Court Room

3

Vestibule

4

Tower Stair Hall

Rooms on the Second Floor

Long Gallery

Governor's Council Chamber

Committee of Assembly Chamber

Liberty Bell[edit] Main article: Liberty Bell

The Liberty Bell
Liberty Bell
(foreground) was housed in the highest chamber of the brick tower. The Centennial Bell (top) hangs in the cupola of William Strickland's 1828 wooden steeple.

The lowest chamber of the original wooden steeple was the first home of the Liberty Bell. When that steeple was removed in the 1780s the bell was lowered into the highest chamber of the brick tower, where it remained until the 1850s. The much larger Centennial Bell, created for the United States
United States
Centennial Exposition
Centennial Exposition
in 1876, hangs in the cupola of the 1828 steeple. The Liberty Bell, with its distinctive crack, was displayed on the ground floor of the hall from the 1850s until 1976, and is now on display across the street in the Liberty Bell
Liberty Bell
Center. Declaration of Independence and Second Continental Congress[edit] Main article: Second Continental Congress See also: American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
§ Saratoga and Philadelphia

A National Park Service
National Park Service
Ranger describes Independence Hall's Assembly Room, in which both the Declaration of Independence and Constitution were drafted and signed.

From May 10, 1775,[14] to 1783, the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State House served as the principal meeting place of the Second Continental Congress, a body of representatives from each of the thirteen British North American colonies. On June 14, 1775, delegates of the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
nominated George Washington
George Washington
as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army
Continental Army
in the Assembly Room of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State House. The Congress appointed Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
to be the first Postmaster General of what would later become the United States Post Office Department
United States Post Office Department
on July 26. The United States Declaration of Independence
United States Declaration of Independence
was approved there on July 4, 1776, and the Declaration was read aloud to the public in the area now known as Independence Square. This document unified the colonies in North America who declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
and explained their justifications for doing so. These historic events are celebrated annually with a national holiday for U.S. Independence Day. The Congress continued to meet there until December 12, 1776,[14] after which the Congress evacuated Philadelphia. During the British occupation of Philadelphia, the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
met in Baltimore, Maryland
Maryland
(December 20, 1776 to February 27, 1777). The Congress returned to Philadelphia
Philadelphia
from March 4, 1777 to September 18, 1777.[14] In September 1777, the British Army
British Army
again arrived to occupy Philadelphia, once again forcing the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
to abandon the State House. It then met in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, for one day (September 27, 1777) and in York, Pennsylvania, for nine months (September 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778), where the Articles of Confederation were approved in November 1777. The Second Continental Congress again returned to Independence Hall, for its final meetings, from July 2, 1778 to March 1, 1781.[14] Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation initially met in Independence Hall, from March 1, 1781 to June 21, 1783.[15] However, as a result of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Mutiny of 1783, Congress again moved from Philadelphia
Philadelphia
in June 1783 to Princeton, New Jersey, and eventually to other cities.[14] U.S. Constitutional Convention[edit] Main article: Constitutional Convention (United States) In September 1786, commissioners from five states met in the Annapolis Convention to discuss adjustments to the Articles of Confederation that would improve commerce. They invited state representatives to convene in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to discuss improvements to the federal government. After debate, the Congress of the Confederation
Congress of the Confederation
endorsed the plan to revise the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
on February 21, 1787. Twelve states, Rhode Island
Rhode Island
being the exception, accepted this invitation and sent delegates to convene in June 1787 at Independence Hall. The resolution calling the Convention specified its purpose as proposing amendments to the Articles, but the Convention decided to propose a rewritten Constitution. The Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Convention voted to keep deliberations secret, and to keep the Hall's windows shut throughout the hot summer. The result was the drafting of a new fundamental government design. On September 17, 1787, the Constitution was completed, and took effect on March 4, 1789, when the new Congress met for the first time in New York's Federal Hall. Article One, Section Eight, of the United States Constitution
United States Constitution
granted Congress the authority to create a federal district to serve as the national capital. Following the ratification of the Constitution, the Congress, while meeting in New York, passed the Residence Act
Residence Act
of 1790, which established the District of Columbia as the new federal capital. However, a representative from Pennsylvania, Robert Morris, did manage to convince Congress to return to Philadelphia
Philadelphia
while the new permanent capital was being built. As a result, the Residence Act
Residence Act
also declared Philadelphia
Philadelphia
to be the temporary capital for a period of ten years. The Congress moved back into Philadelphia
Philadelphia
on December 6, 1790 and met at Congress Hall, adjacent to Independence Hall
Independence Hall
until moving to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
in 1800. Funerary procession of Abraham Lincoln[edit] Further information: Funeral and burial of Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln's funeral train was to take the body of the president (and the disinterred coffin of his son Willie, who had predeceased him in 1862) from Washington D.C. back to Springfield, Illinois for burial. It would essentially retrace the 1,654 mile route Mr. Lincoln had traveled as president-elect in 1861 (with the deletion of Pittsburgh and Cincinnati and the addition of Chicago). The train left Washington for Baltimore at 8:00 AM on April 21, 1865.[16] Lincoln's funeral train (the "Lincoln Special") left Harrisburg on Saturday - April 22, 1865 at 11:15 AM and arrived at Philadelphia
Philadelphia
at Broad Street Station that afternoon at 4:30 PM. It was carried by hearse past a crowd of 85,000 people and was held in state in the Assembly Room in the east wing of Independence Hall. While there, it was escorted and guarded by a detail of 27 Naval and Military officers.[17] That evening, a private viewing was arranged for honored guests of the mourners. The next day (Sunday - April 23, 1865) lines began forming at 5:00 AM. Over 300,000 mourners viewed the body - some waiting 5 hours just to see him. The Lincoln Special
Special
left Philadelphia's Kensington Station for New York City the next morning (Monday - April 24, 1865) at 4:00 A.M.[16][18] League to Enforce Peace[edit] The symbolic use of the Hall was illustrated on June 17, 1915, where the League to Enforce Peace (LEP) was formed here with former President William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
presiding. They proposed an international governing body under which participating nations would commit to "jointly...use...their economic and military forces against any one of their number making war against another" and "to formulate and codify rules of international law".[19] Preservation[edit]

The Artist in His Museum, an 1822 self-portrait by Charles Willson Peale depicts his museum at the Old State House (The Long Room is shown in the background).

From 1802 to 1826–1827, artist Charles Willson Peale
Charles Willson Peale
housed his museum of natural history specimens (including the skeleton of a mastodon) and portraits of famous Americans, on the second floor of the Old State House and in the Assembly Room.[20][21] In early 1816, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
sold the State House to the City of Philadelphia, with a contract signed by the governor.[3] The deed, however, was not transferred until more than two years later. Philadelphia
Philadelphia
has owned the State House and its associated buildings and grounds since that time.[3] In 1948, the building's interior was restored to its original appearance. Independence National Historical Park
Independence National Historical Park
was established by the 80th U.S. Congress later that year to preserve historical sites associated with the American Revolution. Independence National Historical Park comprises a landscaped area of four city blocks, as well as outlying sites that include: Independence Square, Carpenters' Hall (meeting place of the First Continental Congress), the site of Benjamin Franklin's home, the reconstructed Graff House (where Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence), City Tavern
City Tavern
(center of Revolutionary War activities), restored period residences, and several early banks. The park also holds the Liberty Bell, Franklin's desk, the Syng inkstand, a portrait gallery, gardens, and libraries. A product of extensive documentary research and archaeology by the federal government, the restoration of Independence Hall
Independence Hall
and other buildings in the park set standards for other historic preservation and stimulated rejuvenation of old Philadelphia. The site, administered by the National Park Service, is listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
UNESCO
(joining only three other U.S. man-made monuments still in use, the others being the Statue of Liberty, Pueblo de Taos, and the combined site of the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
and Monticello). Independence Hall
Independence Hall
and the Liberty Bell
Liberty Bell
are now protected in a secure zone with entry at security screening buildings.[22] Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, as part of a national effort to safeguard historical monuments by the United States
United States
Department of Homeland Security, pedestrian traffic around Independence Square and part of Independence Mall was restricted by temporary bicycle barriers and park rangers. In 2006, the National Park Service
National Park Service
proposed installing a seven-foot security fence around Independence Hall
Independence Hall
and bisecting Independence Square, a plan that met with opposition from Philadelphia city officials, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Governor Ed Rendell, and Senator Arlen Specter.[23] As of January 2007, the National Park Service
National Park Service
plan was revised to eliminate the fence in favor of movable bollards and chains, and also to remove at least some of the temporary barriers to pedestrians and visitors.[24][25] Legacy[edit] Independence Hall
Independence Hall
has been used in more recent times as the staging ground for protests because of its symbolic history[26] in support of democratic and civil rights movements. On October 26, 1918, Tomáš Masaryk proclaimed the independence of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
on the steps of Independence Hall. National Freedom Day, which commemorates the struggles of African Americans for equality and justice, has been celebrated at Independence Hall
Independence Hall
since 1942.[27] On Independence Day, July 4, 1962, President John F. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
gave an address there.[28] Annual demonstrations advocating for Gay rights
Gay rights
were held in front of Independence Hall
Independence Hall
on July 4 from 1965 to 1969.[29][30] Independence Hall
Independence Hall
is pictured on the back of the U.S. $100 bill, as well as the bicentennial Kennedy half dollar. The Assembly Room is pictured on the reverse of the U.S. two-dollar bill, from the original painting by John Trumbull
John Trumbull
entitled Declaration of Independence.

1956 U.S. postal stamp

1974 U.S. postal stamp

Reverse of 1976 Kennedy Half-Dollar

U.S. $2 bill.

2006 U.S. $100 bill.

Replicas[edit] Main article: Independence Hall
Independence Hall
replicas and derivatives Independence Hall
Independence Hall
served as the model for the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Building at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Building at the 1907 Jamestown Exposition,[31] and the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Pavilion at the 1939 New York World's Fair.[32] Dozens of structures replicating or loosely inspired by Independence Hall's iconic design have been built elsewhere in the United States. See also[edit]

Philadelphia
Philadelphia
portal

United States
United States
Declaration of Independence Liberty Bell Syng inkstand American Revolution Old City Hall, meeting place of the Supreme Court

References[edit]

^ "Management Documents". National Park Service. Retrieved May 2011.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ a b National Park Service
National Park Service
(2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.  ^ a b c d Independence Hall
Independence Hall
(at "Independence Hall's History"). World Heritage Sites official webpage. World Heritage Committee. Retrieved 2010-03-16. ^ Browning, Charles H. (1916). "The State House Yard, and Who Owned It First after William Penn." The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography 40(1), p.87-89 ^ Browning 1916, p.89 ^ Riley, Edward M. (1953). "The Independence Hall
Independence Hall
Group". Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. 43 (1): 7–42 [11].  ^ Independence Hall. ushistory.org. Independence Hall
Independence Hall
Association website. Retrieved 2010-03-16. ^ Frazier, Arthur H. (1974). "The Stretch Clock and its Bell at the State House". Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography. XCVIII: 296.  ^ a b Frazier, Arthur H. (1974). "The Stretch Clock and its Bell at the State House". Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography. XCVIII: 287.  ^ Philadelphia: A 300-Year History. Barra Foundation. 1982. p. 98. ISBN 0393016102.  ^ Frazier, Arthur H. (1974). "The Stretch Clock and its Bell at the State House". Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography. XCVIII: 299.  ^ National Park Service. "Architectural Change over Time". Independence National Historical Park.  ^ Moss, Robert W. (2008). Historical Landmarks of Philadelphia. Philadelphia: University Of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Press. p. 28.  ^ a b c d e The Nine Capitals of the United States. United States Senate Historical Office. Accessed June 9, 2005. Based on Fortenbaugh, Robert, The Nine Capitals of the United States, York, PA: Maple Press, 1948. See: List of capitals in the United States#Former national capitals. ^ During this time period, American diplomats were negotiating the terms of peace with the Great Britain. See: Peace of Paris (1783)#Treaty with the United States
United States
of America. Based on preliminary articles made on November 30, 1782, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on April 15, 1783, the Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783, and ratified by Congress on January 14, 1784, formally ending the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
between the Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
and the thirteen former colonies which on July 4, 1776, had formed the United States
United States
of America. ^ a b "The Route of Abraham Lincoln's Funeral Train". Abraham Lincoln Research Site. Retrieved 29 December 2012.  ^ "Enon M. Harris". Web Cemeteries. Retrieved 29 December 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ "Abraham Lincoln's Funeral Train". History Channel. Retrieved 29 December 2012.  ^ Hamilton Holt, "The League to Enforce Peace," Proceedings of the Academy of Political Science in the City of New York 7#2 (1917), pp. 65-69 in JSTOR ^ "NPS Historical Handbook: Independence". National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2 May 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2012.  ^ Etting, Frank M. (1876). An Historical Account of the Old State House of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Now Known as the Hall of Independence. Boston: James R. Osgood and Co. pp. 154–165.  ^ Map: Independence National H a kb PDF File ^ New York Times ^ Sonia Rincon, " Independence Hall
Independence Hall
Won't Get Fence", kyw1060.com ^ kyw1060.com[permanent dead link] ^ We the People: Defining Citizenship in the Shadow of Independence Hall Archived 2006-10-18 at the Wayback Machine. ^ National Freedom Day, from Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. ^ Address at Independence Hall, President John F. Kennedy Philadelphia, July 4, 1962 ^ Bob Skiba, Gayborhood, from Encyclopedia of Greater Philadelphia. ^ Gay Rights Demonstrations, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State Historical Marker, from VisitPhilly.com ^ " Jamestown Exposition
Jamestown Exposition
Site, Norfolk City, Virginia". National Register Special
Special
Feature May 2007. U.S. National Park Service. Retrieved May 2011.  Check date values in: access-date= (help) ^ "Pennsylvania". 1939 New York World's Fair. Retrieved May 2011.  Check date values in: access-date= (help)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Independence Hall.

Library resources about Independence Hall

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Independence National Historical Park. National Park Service
National Park Service
official website Archeology at the site. National Park Service
National Park Service
official website Independence Hall: International Symbol of Freedom, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan. National Park Service official website Independence Hall. ushistory.org. Independence Hall
Independence Hall
Association website Independence Hall
Independence Hall
Complex Historic American Building Survey documentation at the Library of Congress Independence Hall. World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
official webpage. World Heritage Committee Independence Hall
Independence Hall
(at "Satellite View of Independence National Historical Park"). World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
official webpage. World Heritage Committee Video of the Signing Room at Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Interactive Flash Version of John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence

v t e

Historical documents of the United States

Constitution

Preamble & Articles

Preamble I II III IV V VI VII

Amendments

Ratified

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Pending

Congressional Apportionment Titles of Nobility Corwin (State Domestic Institutions) Child Labor

Unsuccessful

Equal Rights District of Columbia Voting Rights

See also

List of Constitutional Amendments Bill of Rights (Amendments 1–10) Reconstruction Amendments
Reconstruction Amendments
(Amendments 13–15) Amendment proposals in Congress Conventions to propose amendments State ratifying conventions

Formation

History Articles of Confederation Mount Vernon Conference Annapolis Convention Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Convention

Virginia
Virginia
Plan New Jersey
New Jersey
Plan Connecticut
Connecticut
Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise Committee of Detail Signing Independence Hall Syng inkstand

The Federalist Papers Anti-Federalist Papers Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Compromise Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention Hillsborough Convention Drafting and ratification timeline

Clauses

Appointments Appropriations Assistance of Counsel Bill of credit Case or Controversy Citizenship Commerce Compact Compulsory Process Confrontation Contract Copyright and Patent Double Jeopardy Due Process Equal Protection Establishment Exceptions Excessive Bail Ex post facto Extradition Free Exercise Free Speech Fugitive Slave Full Faith and Credit General Welfare Guarantee Impeachment Import-Export Ineligibility (Emolument) Militia Natural-born citizen Necessary and Proper New States No Religious Test Oath or Affirmation Origination Petition Postal Presentment Privileges and Immunities Privileges or Immunities Recommendation Self-Incrimination Speech or Debate Speedy Trial State of the Union Supremacy Suspension Take Care Takings Taxing and Spending Territorial Title of Nobility Treaty Trial by Jury Vesting Vicinage War Powers List of clauses

Interpretation

Concurrent powers Congressional enforcement Constitutional law Criminal procedure Criminal sentencing Dormant Commerce Clause Enumerated powers Equal footing Executive privilege Incorporation of the Bill of Rights Judicial review Nondelegation doctrine Preemption Saxbe fix Separation of church and state Separation of powers Taxation power Unitary executive theory

Signatories

Convention President

George Washington

New Hampshire

John Langdon Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts

Nathaniel Gorham Rufus King

Connecticut

William Samuel Johnson Roger Sherman

New York

Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey

William Livingston David Brearley William Paterson Jonathan Dayton

Pennsylvania

Benjamin Franklin Thomas Mifflin Robert Morris George Clymer Thomas Fitzsimons Jared Ingersoll James Wilson Gouverneur Morris

Delaware

George Read Gunning Bedford Jr. John Dickinson Richard Bassett Jacob Broom

Maryland

James McHenry Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer Daniel Carroll

Virginia

John Blair James Madison

North Carolina

William Blount Richard Dobbs Spaight Hugh Williamson

South Carolina

John Rutledge Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Charles Pinckney Pierce Butler

Georgia

William Few Abraham Baldwin

Convention Secretary

William Jackson

Display and legacy

National Archives

Charters of Freedom
Charters of Freedom
Rotunda

Independence Mall Constitution Day Constitution Gardens National Constitution Center Scene at the Signing of the Constitution (painting) A More Perfect Union (film) Worldwide influence

Declaration of Independence

Primary author

Thomas Jefferson

Signatories

President of Congress

John Hancock
John Hancock
(Massachusetts)

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett William Whipple Matthew Thornton

Massachusetts

Samuel Adams John Adams Robert Treat Paine Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island

Stephen Hopkins William Ellery

Connecticut

Roger Sherman Samuel Huntington William Williams Oliver Wolcott

New York

William Floyd Philip Livingston Francis Lewis Lewis Morris

New Jersey

Richard Stockton John Witherspoon Francis Hopkinson John Hart Abraham Clark

Pennsylvania

Robert Morris Benjamin Rush Benjamin Franklin John Morton George Clymer James Smith George Taylor James Wilson George Ross

Delaware

George Read Caesar Rodney Thomas McKean

Maryland

Samuel Chase William Paca Thomas Stone Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Virginia

George Wythe Richard Henry Lee Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Harrison Thomas Nelson Jr. Francis Lightfoot Lee Carter Braxton

North Carolina

William Hooper Joseph Hewes John Penn

South Carolina

Edward Rutledge Thomas Heyward Jr. Thomas Lynch Jr. Arthur Middleton

Georgia

Button Gwinett Lyman Hall George Walton

See also

Virginia
Virginia
Declaration of Rights Lee Resolution Committee of Five Document's history

signing portrait

Second Continental Congress "All men are created equal" "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" "Consent of the governed" Independence Hall

Syng inkstand

American Revolution

Articles of Confederation

Signatories

Primary drafter

John Dickinson

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett John Wentworth Jr.

Massachusetts

John Hancock Samuel Adams Elbridge Gerry Francis Dana James Lovell Samuel Holten

Rhode Island

William Ellery Henry Marchant John Collins

Connecticut

Roger Sherman Samuel Huntington Oliver Wolcott Titus Hosmer Andrew Adams

New York

James Duane Francis Lewis William Duer Gouverneur Morris

New Jersey

John Witherspoon Nathaniel Scudder

Pennsylvania

Robert Morris Daniel Roberdeau Jonathan Bayard Smith William Clingan Joseph Reed

Delaware

Thomas McKean John Dickinson Nicholas Van Dyke

Maryland

John Hanson Daniel Carroll

Virginia

Richard Henry Lee John Banister Thomas Adams John Harvie Francis Lightfoot Lee

North Carolina

John Penn Cornelius Harnett John Williams

South Carolina

Henry Laurens William Henry Drayton John Mathews Richard Hutson Thomas Heyward Jr.

Georgia

John Walton Edward Telfair Edward Langworthy

See also

Continental Congress Congress of the Confederation American Revolution Perpetual Union

Continental Association

Signatories

President of Congress

Peyton Randolph

New Hampshire

John Sullivan Nathaniel Folsom

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay

Thomas Cushing Samuel Adams John Adams Robert Treat Paine

Rhode Island

Stephen Hopkins Samuel Ward

Connecticut

Eliphalet Dyer Roger Sherman Silas Deane

New York

Isaac Low John Alsop John Jay James Duane Philip Livingston William Floyd Henry Wisner Simon Boerum

New Jersey

James Kinsey William Livingston Stephen Crane Richard Smith John De Hart

Pennsylvania

Joseph Galloway John Dickinson Charles Humphreys Thomas Mifflin Edward Biddle John Morton George Ross

The Lower Counties

Caesar Rodney Thomas McKean George Read

Maryland

Matthew Tilghman Thomas Johnson, Junr William Paca Samuel Chase

Virginia

Richard Henry Lee George Washington Patrick Henry, Junr Richard Bland Benjamin Harrison Edmund Pendleton

North Carolina

William Hooper Joseph Hewes Richard Caswell

South Carolina

Henry Middleton Thomas Lynch Christopher Gadsden John Rutledge Edward Rutledge

See also

Virginia
Virginia
Association First Continental Congress Carpenters' Hall Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress

v t e

Timeline of tallest buildings in Philadelphia

Independence Hall
Independence Hall
(41 m) (1748) Christ Church, Philadelphia
Philadelphia
(60 m) (1754) Tenth Presbyterian Church
Tenth Presbyterian Church
(76 m) (1856) North American Building
North American Building
(81 m) (1900) Philadelphia
Philadelphia
City Hall (167 m) (1901) One Liberty Place
Liberty Place
(288 m) (1987) Comcast Center (297 m) (2008)

v t e

Timeline of tallest buildings in Pennsylvania

Independence Hall
Independence Hall
(41 m) (1748) North American Building
North American Building
(81 m) (1900) Philadelphia
Philadelphia
City Hall (167 m) (1901) Gulf Tower
Gulf Tower
(177 m) (1932) U.S. Steel Tower
U.S. Steel Tower
(256 m) (1970) One Liberty Place
Liberty Place
(288 m) (1987) Comcast Center (297 m) (2008)

v t e

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
during the American Revolutionary War

1774

First Continental Congress Articles of Association

1775

Independence Hall Second Continental Congress

1776

United States
United States
Declaration of Independence Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Constitution Washington Crosses the Delaware

1777

Articles of Confederation Philadelphia
Philadelphia
campaign Battle of Brandywine Battle of the Clouds Liberty Bell
Liberty Bell
moved to Allentown Battle of Paoli Battle of Germantown Siege of Fort Mifflin Battle of White Marsh Battle of Matson's Ford Valley Forge

1778

Battle of Crooked Billet Battle of Barren Hill British occupation of Philadelphia
Philadelphia
ends Wyoming Valley battle and massacre

1781

Congress of the Confederation Mutiny of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Line

1783

1783 Mutiny

v t e

World Heritage Sites
World Heritage Sites
in the United States

Northeast

Independence Hall Statue of Liberty

Midwest

Cahokia

South

Everglades Great Smoky Mountains Mammoth Cave Monticello
Monticello
and the University of Virginia Poverty Point San Antonio Missions

West

Carlsbad Caverns Chaco Culture National Historical Park Grand Canyon National Park Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park Kluane-Wrangell–St. Elias-Glacier Bay-Tatshenshini-Alsek1 Mesa Verde Olympic National Park Pueblo de Taos Papahānaumokuākea Redwood Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park1 Yellowstone National Park Yosemite National Park

Territories

La Fortaleza
La Fortaleza
and San Juan National Historic Site

1 Shared

.