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The Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
is a devotional name used to refer to the interior life of the Blessed Virgin Mary, her joys and sorrows, her virtues and hidden perfections, and, above all, her virginal love for God the Father, her maternal love for her son Jesus, and her compassionate love for all people.[1] The Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
occasionally utilize the image, devotion, and theology associated with the Immaculate Heart of Mary. However, this is a cause of some controversy, some seeing it as a form of liturgical latinisation. The Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
view is based on Mariology, as exemplified by Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae.[2] Traditionally, the heart is depicted pierced with seven wounds or swords, in homage to the seven dolors of Mary. Also, roses or another type of flower may be wrapped around the heart.

Contents

1 Veneration 2 History of devotion

2.1 Scriptural basis 2.2 Various saints

3 Feast day 4 Related devotions

4.1 Seven Dolors 4.2 The Miraculous Medal 4.3 Five First Saturdays

5 Alliance with the Sacred Heart 6 Acts of Consecration 7 Consecration of the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary 8 Countries consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary 9 Cities consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary 10 Dioceses consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary

10.1 United States 10.2 Italy 10.3 Portugal 10.4 France

11 See also 12 References 13 External links

Veneration[edit]

Part of a series on the

Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus

Sacred Heart Immaculate Heart Alliance of Hearts Divine Mercy

Devotions

Act of Consecration Prayer Feast Scapular

People

Saint Lutgarde Saint Mechtilde
Mechtilde
of Hackeborn Saint Gertrude the Great Saint Bridget of Sweden Saint John Eudes Kasper Drużbicki Saint Margaret Mary Alacoque Blessed Mary of the Divine Heart Estelle Faguette Sister Consolata Betrone

Encyclicals

Annum sacrum Haurietis aquas

Churches

Cathedrals Churches

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The veneration of the Heart of Mary is analogous to the worship of the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus. There are, however, differences in this analogy as devotion to the heart of Jesus
Jesus
is especially directed to the "divine heart" as overflowing with love for humanity. In the devotion to Mary, however, the attraction is the love of her heart for Jesus and for God.[1]. The second difference is the nature of the devotion itself: in the devotion to the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus, the Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
venerates in a sense of love responding to love, in the devotion to the Heart of Mary, study and imitation hold as important a place as love.[1] The aim of the devotion is to unite humankind to God through Mary's heart, and this process involves the ideas of consecration and reparation.[3] The object of the devotion being to love God and Jesus
Jesus
better by uniting one's self to Mary for this purpose and by imitating her virtues. There also exists a third devotion to the Most Chaste Heart of Saint Joseph, the spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, foster-father of Jesus Christ
Christ
God. Joseph is believed on having lived in chastity because of the Perpetual virginity of Mary, and he is called as a just man (Matthew 1:19), prince and patron of the Universal Church, worker of God, the principal intercessor together with the Immaculate Hearth of Saint Mary. The devotion is also together with other marian titles such as Our Lady of Sorrows, or during the related days of celebration. Often, secular believers pray and consacrate their mind, body and soul to the three Sacred Hearths of the Holy Family
Holy Family
of Nazareth. History of devotion[edit] Scriptural basis[edit] In Chapter 2 of St. Luke's gospel, the evangelist twice reports that Mary kept all things in her heart, that there she might ponder over them.[4] Luke 2:35 recounts the prophecy of Simeon that her heart would be pierced with a sword. This image (the pierced heart) is the most popular representation of the Immaculate Heart.[1] St. John's Gospel
Gospel
further invited attention to Mary's heart with its depiction of Mary at the foot of the cross at Jesus' crucifixion. St. Augustine said of this that Mary was not merely passive at the foot of the cross; "she cooperated through charity in the work of our redemption".[1] St. Leo said that through faith and love she conceived her son spiritually, even before receiving him into her womb,[4] and St. Augustine tells us that she was more blessed in having borne Christ
Christ
in her heart than in having conceived him in the flesh.

Part of a series on the

Mariology of the Catholic Church

The Immaculate Conception, by Murillo

Overview

Prayers Antiphons Hymns to Mary Devotional practices

Prayers

Angelus Fátima Prayers Flos Carmeli Hail Mary Hail Mary
Hail Mary
of Gold Immaculata prayer Magnificat Mary, Mother of Grace Mary Our Queen Memorare Sub tuum praesidium

Antiphons

Alma Redemptoris Mater Ave Maris Stella Ave Regina Caelorum Salve Regina

Hymns to Mary

Hail Queen of Heaven, the Ocean Star Immaculate Mary Lo, How a Rose E'er Blooming O Sanctissima Regina Coeli Stabat Mater

Devotional practices

Acts of Reparation Consecration to Mary First Saturdays Rosary Seven Joys of the Virgin Seven Sorrows of Mary Three Hail Marys Litany of the Blessed Virgin Mary

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Various saints[edit]

Statue depicting the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
as described by Sister Lúcia, the famous visionary of Fátima.

The Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
with the Holy Rosary
Rosary
as Our Lady appeared at Fátima, Portugal.

Although Saint Bonaventure
Saint Bonaventure
had referred to the Heart of Jesus
Jesus
and the Heart of Mary in the 13th century, the joint devotion to the hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary was only initiated in the middle of the 17th century by Saint Jean Eudes
Saint Jean Eudes
who established the Society of the Heart of the Mother Most Admirable. Jean Eudes began his devotional teachings with the Heart of Mary, and then extended it to the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus.[5][6] However, it was only in 1805 that Pope Pius VII
Pius VII
allowed a feast to honor the Immaculate Heart of Mary.[7] Devotion to the Heart of Mary began in the Middle Ages with saints like Anselm of Canterbury, and Bernard of Clairvaux. It was practiced and developed by Mechtilde, Gertrude the Great
Gertrude the Great
and Bridget of Sweden.[8] Evidence is also discernible in the pious meditations on the Ave Maria and the Salve Regina, usually attributed either to Saint Anselm of Lucca
Anselm of Lucca
(d. 1080) or Saint Bernard; and also in the large book "De laudibus Beatae Mariae Virginis" (Douai, 1625) by Richard de Saint-Laurent, Penitentiary of Rouen in the thirteenth century. A little earlier it had been included by Saint Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
in the devotion to the joys and sorrows of Mary, by Saint Hermann (d.1241) in his devotions to Mary, and somewhat later it appeared in Bridget of Sweden's " Book
Book
of Revelations". Saint Bernardine of Siena (d.1444), is sometimes called "Doctor of the Heart of Mary",[8] and from him the Church has borrowed the lessons of the second nocturn for the feast of the Heart of Mary. Saint Francis de Sales
Francis de Sales
speaks of the perfections of this heart, the model of love for God, and dedicated his "Theotimus" to it. During this same period one finds occasional mention of devotional practices to the Heart of Mary, e.g., in the "Antidotarium" of Nicolas du Saussay (d. 1488),[9] in Pope Julius II, and in the "Pharetra" of Lanspergius. In the second half of the sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth, ascetic authors dwelt upon this devotion at greater length. It was, however, Saint John Eudes
John Eudes
(d. 1681) who propagated the devotion, to make it public, and to have a feast celebrated in honor of the Heart of Mary, first at Autun
Autun
in 1648 and afterwards in a number of French dioceses. He established several religious societies interested in upholding and promoting the devotion, of which his large book on the Coeur Admirable (Admirable Heart), published in 1681, resembles a summary. Jean Eudes' efforts to secure the approval of an office and feast failed at Rome, but, notwithstanding this disappointment, the devotion to the Heart of Mary progressed. In 1699 Father Pinamonti (d. 1703) published a short work on the Holy Heart of Mary in Italian, and in 1725, Joseph de Gallifet combined the cause of the Heart of Mary with that of the Heart of Jesus
Jesus
in order to obtain Rome's approbation of the two devotions and the institution of the two feasts. In 1729, his project was defeated, and in 1765, the two causes were separated, to assure the success of the principal one. Feast day[edit]

Dates for the Feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
(Novus Ordo), 2015–2030

Year Date (Novus Ordo)

2015 13 June

2016 4 June

2017 24 June

2018 9 June

2019 29 June

2020 20 June

2021 12 June

2022 25 June

2023 17 June

2024 8 June

2025 28 June

2026 13 June

2027 5 June

2028 24 June

2029 9 June

2030 29 June

In its principal object this feast is identical with the feast of the "Inner Life of Mary", celebrated by the Sulpicians
Sulpicians
on 19 October. It commemorates the joys and sorrows of the Mother of God, her virtues and perfections, her love for God and her Divine Son and her compassionate love for mankind.[10] As early as 1643, St. John Eudes
John Eudes
and his followers observed 8 February as the feast of the Heart of Mary.[4] In 1799 Pius VI, then in captivity in Florence, granted the Bishop of Palermo
Bishop of Palermo
the feast of the Most Pure Heart of Mary for some of the churches in his diocese. In 1805 Pope Pius VII
Pius VII
made a new concession, thanks to which the feast was soon widely observed. Such was the existing condition when a twofold movement, started in Paris, gave fresh impetus to the devotion; the two factors of this movement were, first of all, the revelation of the "Miraculous Medal" in 1830, and then the establishment at Notre-Dame-des-Victoires of the Archconfraternity of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Refuge of Sinners, which spread rapidly. On 21 July 1855, the Congregation of Rites finally approved the Office and Mass of the Most Pure Heart of Mary without, however, imposing them upon the Universal Church. Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
instituted the feast of the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
in 1944 to be celebrated on 22 August,[11] coinciding with the traditional octave day of the Assumption.[12] In 1969, Pope Paul VI moved the celebration of the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
to the Saturday, immediately after the Solemnity of the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus. This means in practice that it is now held on the third Saturday after Pentecost.[13] At the same time as he closely associated the celebrations of the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
and the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus, Pope Paul VI moved the celebration of the Queenship of Mary
Queenship of Mary
from 31 May to 22 August, bringing it into association with the feast of her Assumption. Those who use the 1962 edition of the Roman Missal
Roman Missal
or an earlier one (but not more than 17 years before 1962) observe the day established by Pius XII. It is kept as the patronal feast of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost, of the Society of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary, and of the Missionary Society of the Heart of Mary.[10] Related devotions[edit] Seven Dolors[edit] Main article: Our Lady of Sorrows Traditional depictions of the IHM show it pierced with seven wounds or swords, in homage to the seven dolors of Mary. The Seven Sorrows of Mary are a popular Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
devotion. There are devotional prayers which consist of meditation on her Seven Sorrows. One practice is to pray seven Hail Marys daily. The term "Sorrowful and Immaculate Heart of Mary" refers to the combined devotion of both the Immaculate Heart and the Seven Sorrows of Mary as first used by the Franciscan Tertiary Berthe Petit. The Miraculous Medal[edit]

The Immaculate Heart pierced by a sword, appearing on the Miraculous Medal

Main article: Miraculous Medal The devotion to Mary's Heart has had a greater flowering following the manifestation of the Miraculous Medal
Miraculous Medal
to St. Catherine Labouré
Catherine Labouré
in 1830.[4] The Immaculate Heart is depicted on the Miraculous Medal,[14] pierced by a sword. The Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus
Jesus
also appears on the medal, next to the Immaculate Heart, crowned with thorns. The M on the medal signifies the Blessed Virgin at the foot of the Cross when Jesus was being crucified. Five First Saturdays[edit] Our Lady of Fátima
Our Lady of Fátima
asked that, in reparation for the sins committed against her Immaculate Heart, on the first Saturday of five consecutive months a Catholic believer go to the Sacrament of Penance (within eight days before or after the first Saturday), receive the Holy Communion, recite five decades of the Rosary, and keep her company for 15 minutes while meditating on the 15 mysteries of the Rosary. She promised that, whoever would ever do this, would be given the graces necessary for salvation at the hour of one's death.[15] Alliance with the Sacred Heart[edit]

Henriette Aymer de La Chevalerie
Henriette Aymer de La Chevalerie
co-founded the Congregation of the Sacred Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary with Peter Coudrin
Peter Coudrin
in 1800.

Main article: Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary is based on the historical, theological and spiritual links in Catholic devotions
Catholic devotions
to the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus
Jesus
and the Immaculate Heart of Mary.[16][17][18] The joint devotion to the hearts was first formalized in the 17th century by St. John Eudes
John Eudes
who organized the scriptural, theological and liturgical sources relating to the devotions and obtained the approbation of the Church, prior to the visions of St. Margaret Mary Alacoque.[19][20][21] In the 18th and 19th centuries the devotions grew, both jointly and individually through the efforts of figures such as St. Louis de Montfort who promoted Catholic Mariology
Mariology
and St. Catherine Labouré's Miraculous Medal
Miraculous Medal
depicting the Heart of Jesus
Jesus
thorn-crowned and the Heart of Mary pierced with a sword.[22][23][24] The devotions, and the associated prayers, continued in the 20th century, e.g., in the Immaculata prayer
Immaculata prayer
of St. Maximillian Kolbe
Maximillian Kolbe
and in the reported messages of Our Lady of Fátima
Our Lady of Fátima
which stated that the Heart of Jesus wishes to be honored together with the Heart of Mary.[25][26] The Popes have supported the individual and joint devotions to the hearts through the centuries; in 1956 the encyclical Haurietis aquas, Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
encouraged the joint devotion to the hearts, In 1979 the encyclical Redemptor hominis, Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
explained the theme of unity of Mary's Immaculate Heart with the Sacred Heart.[27] In his Angelus
Angelus
address on 15 September 1985 he coined the term The Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary, and in 1986 addressed the international conference on that topic held at Fátima, Portugal.[28][29][30][31] Acts of Consecration[edit]

Blessed Alexandrina of Balazar was the great messenger of Jesus
Jesus
to the request of the consecration of the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary made by Pope Pius XII.

Fatima Statue of Pope Pius XII, who consecrated Russia
Russia
and the World: Just as a few years ago We consecrated the entire human race to the Immaculate Heart of the Virgin Mary, Mother of God, so today We consecrate and in a most special manner We entrust all the peoples of Russia
Russia
to this Immaculate Heart...

During the third apparition at Fátima, Portugal, on 13 July 1917, Our Lady allegedly said to the three little shepherds: God wishes to establish the devotion to her Immaculate Heart in the world in order to save souls from hell and bring about world peace, and also asked for the consecration of Russia
Russia
to her Immaculate Heart. Pope Pius XII, in his Apostolic Letter of 7 July 1952 Sacro Vergente, consecrated Russia
Russia
to the Most Blessed Virgin Mary. Also, the Blessed Alexandrina of Balazar, in Portugal, reported many private apparitions, messages and prophecies received directly from Jesus
Jesus
and the Blessed Virgin Mary. In June 1938, based on the request of her spiritual director Father Mariano Pinho, several bishops from Portugal
Portugal
wrote to Pope Pius XI, asking him to consecrate the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. At that time Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (later Pope Pius XII) was the secretary of the state of the Vatican, and later he performed the consecration of the world.[32] On 25 March 1984 Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
fulfilled this request again, when he made the solemn act of consecration of the world, and implicitly of Russia, to the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
before the miraculous statue of Our Lady of Fátima
Our Lady of Fátima
brought to Saint Peter's Square in the Vatican for the occasion. Sister Lúcia, OCD, then the only surviving visionary of Fátima apparitions, confirmed that the request of Mary for the consecration of Russia
Russia
to the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
was accepted by Heaven, and therefore, was fulfilled. Again on October 8, 2000, the same pope made an act of entrustment of the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
for the new millennium.[33] In August 2013, Pope Francis
Pope Francis
announced that he would consecrate the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
on 13 October 2013, as part of the Marian Day celebration that involved the iconic statue of Our Lady of the Rosary
Rosary
of Fátima.[34] Consecration of the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary[edit]

Pius XII, 31 October 1942 Paul VI, 21 November 1964 John Paul II, 13 May 1982 John Paul II
John Paul II
together with all the bishops of the world, 25 March 1984 Francis, 13 October 2013

Countries consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary[edit]

Ecuador
Ecuador
(1892) Portugal
Portugal
(13 May 1931 - 13 May 1938) Canada
Canada
(22 June 1947 - 26 September 2017) Poland
Poland
(8 September 1946 - 4 June 1979 - 6 June 2017) England
England
and Wales
Wales
(1948 - 20 February 2017, Card. Vincent Nichols) Italy
Italy
(13 September 1959) Lebanon
Lebanon
and Countries of the Middle-East (16 June 2013) Russia
Russia
and Countries of Central Asia
Central Asia
(13 May 2017, Card. Josef Cordes) Scotland
Scotland
(3 September 2017) Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(13 October 2017, fr. Giovanni Scalese) Nigeria
Nigeria
(13 October 2017)

Cities consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary[edit]

Aleppo, Syria
Syria
(13 May 2017)

Dioceses consecrated to the Immaculate Heart of Mary[edit] United States[edit]

Diocese of Springfield-Cape Girardeau, Missouri, United States
United States
(25 March 2010, Bp. James Vann Johnston) Diocese of Winona, Minnesota, United States
United States
(8 September 2011, Bp. John M. Quinn) Archdiocese of Portland, Oregon, United States
United States
(28 June 2014, Abp. Alexander K. Sample) Diocese of Tyler, Texas, United States
United States
(13 May 2017, Bp. Joseph E. Strickland) Diocese of Kansas City-Saint Joseph, Missouri, United States
United States
(13 May 2017, Bp. James Vann Johnston) Diocese of Providence, Rhode Island, United States
United States
(13 May 2016, Bp. Thomas J. Tobin) Archdiocese of San Francisco, California, United States
United States
(7 October 2017, Abp. Salvatore J. Cordileone) Diocese of Jackson, Mississippi, United States
United States
(8 October 2017, Bp. Joseph Kopacz) Archdiocese of Louisville, Kentucky, United States
United States
(8 October 2017, Abp. Joseph E. Kurtz) Diocese of Phoenix, Arizona, United States
United States
(13 October 2017, Bp. Thomas J. Olmsted) Archdiocese of Denver, Colorado, United States(13 October 2017, Abp. Samuel J. Aquila) Archdiocese of Saint Paul and Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States (13 October 2017, Abp. Bernard Hebda) Archdiocese of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
United States
(15 October 2017, Abp. Charles J. Chaput) Diocese of Santa Rosa, California, United States
United States
(8-12 December 2017, Bp. Robert Vasa) Diocese of St. Petersburg, Florida, United States
United States
(6 May 2018, Bp. Gregory Parkes)

Italy[edit]

Diocese of Reggio Emilia-Guastalla, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Italy
(13 May 2017, Bp. Massimo Camisasca) Diocese of Pavia, Lombardy, Italy
Italy
(13 May 2017, Bp. Corrado Sanguineti) Diocese of Carpi, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Italy
(16 September 2017, Bp. Francesco Cavina) Diocese of Ischia, Campania, Italy
Italy
(13 October 2017, Bp. Pietro Lagnese) Diocese of Cesena-Sarsina, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
Italy
(8 Dicember 2017, Bp. Douglas Regattieri) Diocese of Ariano Irpino-Lacedonia, Campania, Italy
Italy
(8 Dicember 2017, Bp. Sergio Melillo)

Portugal[edit]

All the 21 portuguese dioceses (13 May 2016, Card. Manuel Clemente)

France[edit]

Archdiocese of Avignon (08 Dicember 2017, Abp. Jean-Pierre Cattenoz)

See also[edit]

Book: Mary and Mariology

Blessed Virgin Mary
Blessed Virgin Mary
(Roman Catholic) Consecration and entrustment to Mary Immaculate Mary Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart
of Jesus Sisters, Servants of the Immaculate Heart of Mary Sorrowful and Immaculate Heart of Mary

References[edit] Notes

^ a b c d e Bainvel, Jean. "Devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 7. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1910. 20 December 2012 ^ Pope John Paul II's Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae ^ "The Immaculate Heart of Mary", Catholic News Agency ^ a b c d Mauriello, Rev. Matthew R., "Devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary", University of Dayton ^ EWTN on the Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary ^ Life Of The Venerable John Eudes
John Eudes
by Charles De Montzey, Cousens Press 2008, ISBN 1-4097-0537-4 page 215 ^ Saints and feasts of the liturgical year by Joseph N. Tylenda 2003 ISBN 0-87840-399-X page 118 ^ a b Roten, Johan G. "The Heart of Mary", Marian Library, University of Dayton, June 4, 2013 ^ Murphy, John F., Mary's Immaculate Heart, The Bruce Publishing Company, Milwaukee, 1951 ^ a b Holweck, Frederick. "Feast of the Most Pure Heart of Mary." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 10 March 2015 ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 94 ^ Compare 22 August in the Tridentine Calendar
Tridentine Calendar
with the same date on the General Roman Calendar as in 1954 ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), pp. 94, 135 ^ Glass, Joseph. "Miraculous Medal." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 10. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911. 20 December 2012 ^ First Saturday Devotion to the Immaculate Heart of Mary
Immaculate Heart of Mary
Archived May 15, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Mary's Immaculate Heart by John F. Murphy 2007 ISBN 1-4067-3409-8 pages 59-60 ^ Heart of the Redeemer by Timothy Terrance O'Donnell, 1992 ISBN 0-89870-396-4 page 272 ^ Arthur Calkins, The Theology of the Alliance of the Two Hearts, Missio Immaculatae
Missio Immaculatae
(English Edition) Year III, N° 4 (May to December 2007). [1] ^ Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
worship: Trent to today by James F. White 2003 ISBN 0-8146-6194-7 page 34 ^ From Trent to Vatican II: historical and theological investigations by Raymond F. Bulman, Frederick J. Parrella 2006 ISBN 0-19-517807-6 page 182 ^ Praying with the saints by Woodeene Koenig-Bricker 2001 ISBN 0-8294-1755-9 page 134 ^ In Prayer With Mary the Mother of Jesus
Jesus
by Jean Lafrance 1988 ISBN 2-89039-183-3 page 310 ^ Companion to the Calendar: A Guide to the Saints and Mysteries by Mary Ellen Hynes 2007 ISBN 1-56854-011-6 page 24 ^ Butler's lives of the saints, Volume 12 by Alban Butler, Kathleen Jones, 2000 ISBN 0-86012-261-1 page 245 ^ Youngest Prophet by Christopher Rengers 1998 ISBN 0-85342-815-8 page 38 ^ The children of Fatima: Blessed Francisco & Blessed Jacinta Marto by Leo Madigan 2003 OSV Press ISBN 1-931709-57-2 page 248 ^ Peter Stravinskas, 2002, Catholic Dictionary, OSV Press ISBN 978-0-87973-390-2 page 485 ^ Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
1986 Speech at the Vatican Website ^ Arthur Calkins, The Alliance of the Two Hearts and Consecration, Miles Immaculatae
Miles Immaculatae
XXXI (July/December 1995) 389-407. [2] ^ Proceedings of the International Theological Symposium on the Alliance of the Hearts of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary, September 1986, Fátima, Portugal ^ Vatican website: Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
Angelus
Angelus
address of September 15, 1985 (Spanish and Italian) ^ Calkins, Arthur Burton. Totus tuus: John Paul II's program of Marian consecration and entrustment, 1992, ISBN 0-9635345-0-5 page 97 ^ Pope John Paul II, Jubilee of Bishops, Rome, 8 October 2000, http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/homilies/2000/documents/hf_jp-ii_hom_20001008_act-entrustment-mary_en.html ; retrieved June 13, 2012 ^ Catholic News Agency - Pope Francis
Pope Francis
will consecrate the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary

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