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The Illyriciani or Illyrian emperors
Illyrian emperors
were a group of Roman emperors during the Crisis of the Third Century
Crisis of the Third Century
who hailed from the region of Illyricum (the modern western Balkans), and were raised chiefly from the ranks of the Roman army
Roman army
(whence they are ranked among the so-called "barracks emperors").[1] In the 2nd and 3rd centuries, the Illyricum and the other Danubian provinces (Raetia, Pannonia, Moesia) held the largest concentration of Roman forces (12 legions, up to a third of the total army), and were a major recruiting ground. The advance of these low-born provincials was facilitated by a major shift in imperial policy from the time of Gallienus
Gallienus
(260–268) on, when higher military appointments ceased to be exclusively filled by senators. Instead, professional soldiers of humble origin who had risen through the ranks to the post of primus pilus (which also entailed admission to the equestrian order) were placed as heads of the legions and filled the army's command structure. The historical period of the Illyrian emperors
Illyrian emperors
proper begins with Claudius Gothicus
Claudius Gothicus
in 268 and continues in 284 with the rise of Diocletian
Diocletian
and the institution of the Tetrarchy.[2] This period was very important in the history of the Empire, since it represents the recovery from the Crisis of the Third Century, a long period of usurpations and military difficulties. All of the Illyrian emperors were trained and able soldiers, and they recovered most of the provinces and positions lost by their predecessors, including Gaul and the eastern provinces. Men of Illyrian or Thraco-Dacian origin however continued to be prominent in the Empire throughout the 4th century and beyond. List[edit] The Illyriciani emperors' list is the following:

Decius
Decius
- ruled AD 249–251 Hostilianus - ruled AD 251 Claudius II
Claudius II
"Gothicus" - ruled AD 268–270 (either from Illyricum or Moesia
Moesia
Superior, Thrace) Quintillus
Quintillus
- ruled AD 270 Aurelian
Aurelian
- ruled AD 270–275 (either from Dacia ripensis, Dacia or Illyricum) Probus - ruled AD 276–282 Diocletian
Diocletian
- ruled AD 284–305 Maximianus "Herculius" - ruled AD 286–305 Constantine I
Constantine I
- ruled AD 306–337 Constantius II
Constantius II
- ruled AD 337-361 Jovian - ruled AD 363–364 Valentinianus I - ruled AD 364–375 Valens
Valens
- ruled AD 364–378 Gratian
Gratian
- ruled AD 375–383 Valentinianus II - ruled AD 375–392 Marcianus
Marcianus
- ruled AD 450–457 (either Illyricum or Moesia, Thrace) Anastasius I - ruled AD 491–518 Justin I
Justin I
- ruled AD 518–527 (either Thracian or Illyrian born in Moesia) Justinian I
Justinian I
- ruled AD 527–565

See also Concise List of Roman Emperors for more details.

High grade cavalry was also called[3] Equites Illyriciani

See also[edit]

Thraco-Roman Illyro-Roman

References[edit]

^ The Illyrians
Illyrians
(The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, pp. 261–263 ^ The Illyrians
Illyrians
(The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, p. 264 ^ The Grand Strategy of the Roman Empire: From the First Century A.D. to the Third by Edward N. Luttwak, page 178, "high-grade cavalry (equites Illyriciani)"

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