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Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (Russian: И́горь Ива́нович Сико́рский, IPA: [ˈiɡərʲ ɪˈvanəvitʃ sʲɪˈkorskʲɪj] ( listen), tr. Ígor' Ivánovič Sikórskij; May 25, 1889 – October 26, 1972),[4] was a Russian-American[1][2][3] aviation pioneer in both helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. First success came with the S-2, the second aircraft of his design and construction. His fifth airplane, the S-5, won him national recognition as well as F.A.I. license Number 64. His S-6-A received the highest award at the 1912 Moscow Aviation Exhibition, and in the fall of that year the aircraft won for its young designer, builder and pilot first prize in the military competition at Saint Petersburg.[5] After immigrating to the United States in 1919, Sikorsky founded the Sikorsky Aircraft
Sikorsky Aircraft
Corporation in 1923,[6] and developed the first of Pan American Airways' ocean-conquering flying boats in the 1930s. In 1939, Sikorsky designed and flew the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300,[7] the first viable American helicopter, which pioneered the rotor configuration used by most helicopters today.[8] Sikorsky modified the design into the Sikorsky R-4, which became the world's first mass-produced helicopter in 1942.

Contents

1 Early life 2 Aircraft designer

2.1 List of aircraft designed by Sikorsky

3 Life in the United States 4 Family 5 Death and legacy 6 Philosophical and religious views 7 Published works 8 See also 9 References

9.1 Notes 9.2 Citations 9.3 Bibliography

10 External links

Early life[edit] Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
was born in Kiev, Russian Empire
Russian Empire
(in present-day Ukraine), the youngest of five children. His father, Ivan Alexeevich Sikorsky, was a professor of psychology of Kiev
Kiev
St. Vladimir University, a psychiatrist with an international reputation, and an ardent Russian nationalist.[9][10][11][12] Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
was an Orthodox Christian.[13] When questioned regarding his roots, he would answer: "My family is of Russian origin. My grandfather and other ancestors from the time of Peter the Great were Russian Orthodox priests."[3][14] Sikorsky's mother, Mariya Stefanovna Sikorskaya (née Temryuk-Cherkasova),[15] was a physician who did not work professionally. She is sometimes called Zinaida Sikorsky. While homeschooling young Igor, she gave him a great love for art, especially in the life and work of Leonardo da Vinci, and the stories of Jules Verne. In 1900, at age 11, he accompanied his father to Germany and through conversations with his father, became interested in natural sciences. After returning home, Sikorsky began to experiment with model flying machines, and by age 12, he had made a small rubber band-powered helicopter.[16] Sikorsky began studying at the Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Maritime Cadet Corps, in 1903, at the age of 14. In 1906, he determined that his future lay in engineering, so he resigned from the academy, despite his satisfactory standing, and left the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
to study in Paris. He returned to the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
in 1907, enrolling at the Mechanical College of the Kiev
Kiev
Polytechnic Institute. After the academic year, Sikorsky again accompanied his father to Germany in the summer of 1908, where he learned of the accomplishments of the Wright brothers' Flyer and Ferdinand von Zeppelin's dirigible.[17] Sikorsky later said about this event: "Within twenty-four hours, I decided to change my life's work. I would study aviation."[18] By the start of World War I
World War I
in 1914, Sikorsky's airplane research and production business in Kiev
Kiev
was flourishing, and his factory made bombers during the war. After the Bolshevik revolution began in 1917, Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
fled his homeland, because the new government threatened to shoot him.[19] He moved to France where he was offered a contract for the design of a new, more powerful Muromets-type plane. But in November 1918 the war ended and the French government stopped subsidizing military orders, he arrived in the U.S. a few months later in 1919.[19][20][21] Aircraft designer[edit]

Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
in 1914

With financial backing from his sister Olga, Sikorsky returned to Paris, the center of the aviation world at the time, in 1909. Sikorsky met with aviation pioneers, to ask them questions about aircraft and flying. In May 1909, he returned to Russia and began designing his first helicopter, which he began testing in July 1909. Despite his progress in solving technical problems of control, Sikorsky realized that the aircraft would never fly. He finally disassembled the aircraft in October 1909, after he determined that he could learn nothing more from the design.[22]

I had learned enough to recognize that with the existing state of the art, engines, materials, and – most of all – the shortage of money and lack of experience... I would not be able to produce a successful helicopter at that time.[23]

Sikorsky's first aircraft of his own design, the S-1 used a 15 hp Anzani 3-cylinder fan engine
Anzani 3-cylinder fan engine
in a pusher configuration, that could not lift the aircraft. His second design called the S-2 was powered by a 25 hp Anzani engine in a tractor configuration and first flew on June 3, 1910 at a height of a few feet. On June 30 after some modifications, Sikorsky reached an altitude of "sixty or eighty feet" before the S-2 stalled and was completely destroyed when it crashed in a ravine.[24][25] Later, Sikorsky built the two-seat S-5, his first design not based on other European aircraft. Flying this original aircraft, Sikorsky earned his pilot license; Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI) license No. 64 issued by the Imperial Aero Club of Russia in 1911.[26] During a demonstration of the S-5, the engine quit and Sikorsky was forced to make a crash landing to avoid a wall. It was discovered that a mosquito in the gasoline had been drawn into the carburetor, starving the engine of fuel. The close call convinced Sikorsky of the need for an aircraft that could continue flying if it lost an engine.[27] His next aircraft, the S-6 held three passengers and was selected as the winner of the Moscow aircraft exhibition held by the Russian Army in February 1912.[26]

Sikorsky Bolshoi Baltisky of 1913, before receiving its pair of pusher engines

In early 1912, Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
became Chief Engineer of the aircraft division for the Russian Baltic Railroad Car Works (Russko-Baltiisky Vagonny Zavod or R-BVZ)[28] in Saint Petersburg.[29] His work at R-BVZ included the construction of the first four-engine aircraft, the S-21 Russky Vityaz, which he initially called Le Grand when fitted with just two engines, then as the Bolshoi Baltisky (The Great Baltic) when fitted with four engines for the first time, each wing panel's pair of powerplants in a "push-pull" tandem configuration previous to the four tractor-engined Russki Vityaz. He also served as the test pilot for its first flight on May 13, 1913. In recognition for his accomplishment, he was awarded an honorary degree in engineering from Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Polytechnical Institute in 1914. Sikorsky took the experience from building the Russky Vityaz to develop the S-22 Ilya Muromets airliner. Due to outbreak of World War I, he redesigned it as the world's first four-engined bomber, for which he was decorated with the Order of St. Vladimir. After World War I, Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
briefly became an engineer for the French forces in Russia, during the Russian Civil War.[30] Seeing little opportunity for himself as an aircraft designer in war-torn Europe, and particularly Russia, ravaged by the October Revolution
October Revolution
and Civil War, he immigrated to the United States, arriving in New York on March 30, 1919.[31][32] List of aircraft designed by Sikorsky[edit]

Russian aviators Sikorsky, Genner and Kaulbars aboard a "Russky Vityaz", c. 1913

S-6 – three-passenger plane – 1912 S-21 Russky Vityaz four-engine biplane – 1913 S-22 Ilya Muromets four-engine biplane – 1913 S-29 twin-engine biplane - 1924 S-42 Clipper – flying boat – 1934 VS-300 experimental prototype helicopter – 1939 VS-44
VS-44
Excambian flying boat – 1942 R-4 world's first production helicopter – 1942

Life in the United States[edit]

Sikorsky S-42
Sikorsky S-42
flying boat

Sikorsky Skycrane
Sikorsky Skycrane
carrying a house

In the U.S., Sikorsky first worked as a school teacher and a lecturer, while looking for an opportunity to work in the aviation industry. In 1932, he joined the faculty of the University of Rhode Island
University of Rhode Island
to form an aeronautical engineering program and remained with the university until 1948.[33] He also lectured at the University of Bridgeport. In 1923, Sikorsky formed the Sikorsky Manufacturing Company in Roosevelt, New York.[34] He was helped by several former Russian military officers. Among Sikorsky's chief supporters was composer Sergei Rachmaninoff, who introduced himself by writing a check for US$5,000 (approximately $61,000 in 2007).[35] Although his prototype was damaged in its first test flight, Sikorsky persuaded his reluctant backers to invest another $2,500. With the additional funds, he produced the S-29, one of the first twin-engine aircraft in America, with a capacity for 14 passengers and a speed of 115 mph.[36] The performance of the S-29, slow compared to military aircraft of 1918, proved to be a "make or break" moment for Sikorsky's funding. In 1928, Sikorsky became a naturalized citizen of the United States. The Sikorsky Manufacturing Company moved to Stratford, Connecticut
Stratford, Connecticut
in 1929. It became a part of the United Aircraft and Transport Corporation (now United Technologies Corporation) in July of that year.[37] The company manufactured flying boats, such as the S-42 "Clipper", used by Pan Am for transatlantic flights.[23] Meanwhile, Sikorsky also continued his earlier work on vertical flight while living in Nichols, Connecticut. On February 14, 1929, he filed an application to patent a "direct lift" amphibian aircraft which used compressed air to power a direct lift "propeller" and two smaller propellers for thrust.[38] On June 27, 1931, Sikorsky filed for a patent for another "direct lift aircraft", and was awarded patent No. 1,994,488 on March 19, 1935.[39] His design plans eventually culminated in the first (tethered) flight of the Vought-Sikorsky VS-300 on September 14, 1939, with the first free flight occurring eight months later on May 24, 1940. Sikorsky's success with the VS-300 led to the R-4, which became the world's first mass-produced helicopter, in 1942. Sikorsky's final VS-300 rotor configuration, comprising a single main rotor and a single antitorque tail rotor, has proven to be one of the most popular helicopter configurations, being used in most helicopters produced today.[8] Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
was also on the board of directors for the Tolstoy Foundation Center in Valley Cottage, New York. Family[edit] Sikorsky was married to Olga Fyodorovna Simkovitch in the Russian Empire. They were divorced and Olga remained in Russia with their daughter, Tania, as Sikorsky departed after the October Revolution. In 1923, Sikorsky's sisters immigrated to the US, bringing six-year-old Tania with them.[40] Sikorsky married Elisabeth Semion (1903–1995) in 1924, in New York.[41] Sikorsky and Elisabeth had four sons; Sergei, Nikolai, Igor Jr. and George.[42]

Tania Sikorsky von York (March 1, 1918 – September 22, 2008), Sikorsky's eldest child and only daughter. Tania was born in Kiev, Ukraine. Educated in the United States, she earned a B.A. at Barnard College and a doctorate at Yale University. She was one of the original faculty members of Sacred Heart University
Sacred Heart University
in Bridgeport, Connecticut, where she served as Professor of Sociology for 20 years.[43] Sergei Sikorsky (1925– ), Sikorsky's eldest son. He joined United Technologies in 1951, and retired in 1992, as Vice-President of Special
Special
Projects at Sikorsky Aircraft.[44][45] Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
Jr. is an attorney, businessman and aviation historian.[46] Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
III is also a pilot.[47]

Death and legacy[edit]

The Sikorsky's family house in Kiev's historical center, October 2009

Sikorsky died at his home in Easton, Connecticut, on October 26, 1972, and is buried in Saint John the Baptist Russian Orthodox Cemetery located on Nichols Avenue in Stratford.[48][49] The Sikorsky Memorial Bridge, which carries the Merritt Parkway
Merritt Parkway
across the Housatonic River
Housatonic River
next to the Sikorsky corporate headquarters, is named for him. Sikorsky has been designated a Connecticut Aviation Pioneer by the Connecticut State Legislature. The Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation in Stratford, Connecticut, continues to the present day as one of the world's leading helicopter manufacturers, and a nearby small airport has been named Sikorsky Memorial Airport.[50] Sikorsky was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame and the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1987.[51][52] In October 2011, one of the streets in Kiev
Kiev
was renamed after Sikorsky. The decision was made by the City Council at the request of the U.S. Embassy in Ukraine, which opened its new office on that street.[53] The Sikorsky's family house in the city's historical center is preserved to this day but is in a neglected condition pending restoration. In November 2012, one of the Russian supersonic heavy strategic bomber Tu-160, based at the Engels-2
Engels-2
Air Force Base, was named for Igor Sikorsky, which caused controversy among air base crew members. One of the officers said that Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
does not deserve it because he laid the foundations of the U.S., rather than Russian aviation. However, the Long Range Aviation
Long Range Aviation
command officer said that Igor Sikorsky is not responsible for the activities of his military aircraft.[54][55] In 2013, Flying magazine ranked Sikorsky number 12 on its list of the 51 Heroes of Aviation.[56] On 22 March 2018 the Kiev
Kiev
city council officially renamed Kiev
Kiev
airport International Airport "Kyiv" (Zhulyany) named after Igor Sikorsky.[57] Philosophical and religious views[edit] Sikorsky was a deeply religious Russian Orthodox Christian[58] and authored two religious and philosophical books (The Message of the Lord's Prayer and The Invisible Encounter). Summarizing his beliefs, in the latter he wrote:

Our concerns sink into insignificance when compared with the eternal value of human personality – a potential child of God which is destined to triumph over life, pain, and death. No one can take this sublime meaning of life away from us, and this is the one thing that matters.[59][60]

Published works[edit]

Sikorsky, Igor Ivan. The Message of the Lord's Prayer. New York: C. Scribner's sons, 1942. OCLC 2928920 Sikorsky, Igor Ivan. The Invisible Encounter. New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1947. OCLC 1446225 Sikorsky, Igor Ivan. The Story of the Winged-S: Late Developments and Recent Photographs of the Helicopter, an Autobiography. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1967. OCLC 1396277

See also[edit]

Aerosani
Aerosani
– Sikorsky built some of these propeller-powered snowmobiles in 1909–10 Fedor Ivanovich Bylinkin – an early aircraft collaborator with Sikorsky, in 1910 Sikorsky Prize
Sikorsky Prize
– a prize for human powered helicopters named in his honor 10090 Sikorsky – an asteroid named in honor of Igor Sikorsky

References[edit] Notes[edit]

Citations[edit]

^ a b "Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2006, p. 1751" ^ a b "Sergei Sikorsky: Reflecting on the 90th Anniversary of Sikorsky Aircraft" Quote: Some 90 years ago, on March 5, 1923, a Russian refugee named Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
organized a new company" ^ a b c [1] "My family is of Russian origin." ^ Fortier, Rénald. "Igor Sikorsky: One Man, Three Careers." aviation.technomuses.ca,1996. Retrieved: October 29, 2008. ^ " Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
Historical Archives" ^ "About Sikorsky." Sikorsky Aircraft. Retrieved: December 11, 2008. ^ Spenser 1998, p. 25. ^ a b Woods 1979, p. 262. ^ "Homo Imperii A History of Physical Anthropology in Russia, Marina Mogilner 2013, p.72" ^ Homo Imperii A History of Physical Anthropology in Russia, Marina Mogilner 2013, p.167" ^ Homo Imperii A History of Physical Anthropology in Russia, Marina Mogilner 2013, p.177" ^ "Children of Rus': Right-Bank Ukraine
Ukraine
and the Invention of a Russian Nation 2013, by Faith Hillis, ISBN 0801452198, p.259 ^ [2] ^ Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
Was a Reflection of His Heritage and Experiences in life. Sikorsky Achieves News. April 2013 ^ Mikheev, V. R. "Sikorsky: Hero, Exile, the Father of Aviation" (English translation). pravmir.ru, October 31, 2011. Retrieved: May 16, 2012. ^ Woods 1979, p. 254. ^ "The Case Files: Igor Sikorsky". Franklin Institute. Retrieved: August 24, 2017. ^ Christiano, Marilyn. "Igor Sikorsky: Aircraft and Helicopter Designer." VOA News, July 5, 2005. Retrieved: July 17, 2010. ^ a b [3] "Sergei Sikorsky: My father's fate (English translation version of an interview published in Russian by pravmir.ru)" ^ [4] "An interview with Sergei Sikorsky in Russian by pravmir.ru" ^ Kutuzov, Mikhail. "The Genius of Flight" (English translation). Russian Archipelago, 2012. Retrieved: May 16, 2012. ^ Woods 1979, p. 255. ^ a b "Igor Sikorsky." Encyclopædia Britannica, 2009 via britannica.com. Retrieved: October 14, 2009. ^ Sikorsky, Igor (1944). The Story of the Winged-S. New York: Dodd, Mead & Company. p. 48. ISBN 9781258163556.  ^ "Sikorsky Celebrates." Popular Aviation September 1930, p. 20. ^ a b Woods 1979, p. 256. ^ Current Biography 1940, pp. 734–736. ^ Murphy 2005, p. 180. ^ Lake 2002, p. 31. ^ "Airmen leave Russia." The New York Times, June 25, 1918. Retrieved May 23, 2011. ^ Woods 1979, p. 257. ^ "Russian airplane will be made here." The New York Times, April 20, 1919. Retrieved: July 17, 2010. ^ "URI History and Timeline". University of Rhode Island. Archived from the original on December 23, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2010.  ^ Spenser 1998, p. 15. ^ Prokhorov, Vadim. "Oldies & Oddities: Sikorsky's Piano Man" (History of Flight). Archived July 24, 2012, at Archive.is
Archive.is
Air & Space Magazine/Smithsonian, Volume 17, Issue 4, November 1, 2002. Retrieved: July 17, 2010. ^ Current Biography 1940, p. 735. ^ Spenser 1998, pp. 15–17. ^ "Patent number: 1848389" google.com. Retrieved: November 25, 2010. ^ "Patent number: 1994488." google.com. Retrieved: November 25, 2010. ^ "Military Mission." Archived September 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. The Case Files: Igor Sikorsky, Franklin Institute. Retrieved: October 29, 2008. ^ Hacker and Vining 2007, p. 116. ^ Skyways July 1995, p. 71. ^ "Tania Sikorsky Von York." Foster's Daily Democrat, September 26, 2008. Retrieved: October 16, 2008. ^ "First Helicopter
Helicopter
Civilian Rescue November 29, 1945." Archived December 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Sikorskyarchives.com. Retrieved: July 17, 2010. ^ Zenobia, Keith. "Sergei Sikorsky: Recollections of a Pioneer, The Legacy of Igor Sikorsky." PMLAA News Newsletter (Pine Mountain Lake Aviation Association), 19:6, 2004. Retrieved: December 2, 2010. ^ Church, Diane. "Sikorsky to speak in Plainville tonight."[permanent dead link] Bristol Press, March 19, 2012. ^ " Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
Seminar." Archived March 4, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Aviation Digest: Bradford Camps, June 2003. ^ "St. John the Baptist Russian Orthodox Cemetery" ^ Igor Ivan Sikorsky at Find a Grave ^ "Igor I. Sikorsky: Sikorsky Aircraft." Archived January 9, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. JA Worldwide. Retrieved: October 12, 2009. ^ Ikenson 2004, p. 24. ^ "Igor I. Sikorsky." Archived December 11, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation, Inc. via invent.org. Retrieved: October 12, 2009. ^ "Kyiv changes street name at Washington's request" Kyiv Post. Retrieved: November 26, 2011. ^ Mikhailov, Alexei and Bal′burov, Dmitry. "Ту-160 присвоили имя американского авиаконструктора Сикорского (in Russian) (The Tu-160 was named after the American Sikorsky Aircraft
Sikorsky Aircraft
Designer)." Izvestia
Izvestia
November 13, 2012. ^ "Ту-160 из Энгельса присвоили имя американского авиаконструктора Сикорского (in Russian) (Tu-160 from Engels was named after the American Sikorsky Aircraft
Sikorsky Aircraft
Designer)." novosti, November 13, 2012. ^ http://www.flyingmag.com/photo-gallery/photos/51-heroes-aviation?pnid=41843 ^ https://www.pravda.com.ua/news/2018/03/22/7175492/ ^ Faith Of the Orthodox Born in Russia ^ "The Invisible Encounter". The Universalist Leader, Volume 130, Issue 5, 1948, p. 115. ^ "Igor I. Sikorsky." AvStop Online Magazine. Retrieved: July 17, 2010.

Bibliography[edit]

Delear, Frank J. Igor Sikorsky: His Three Careers in Aviation. New York: Dodd Mead, 1969, Revised edition, 1976. ISBN 978-0-396-07282-9. Hacker, Barton C. and Margaret Vining. American Military Technology: The Life Story of a Technology. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8018-8772-7. Ikenson, Ben. Patents: Ingenious Inventions, How They Work and How They Came to Be. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2004. ISBN 978-1-57912-367-3. Lake, Jon. The Great Book of Bombers: The World's Most Important Bombers from World War I
World War I
to the Present Day. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2002. ISBN 0-7603-1347-4. Leishman, J. Gordon. "The Dream of True Flight." Online summary:Principles of Helicopter
Helicopter
Aerodynamics.. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-521-85860-7. Leishman, J. Gordon. Principles of Helicopter
Helicopter
Aerodynamics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-521-85860-7. Murphy, Justin D. Military Aircraft, Origins to 1918: An Illustrated History of Their Impact (Weapons and warfare series). Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, 2005. ISBN 1-85109-488-1. Sikorsky, Igor Ivan. The Story of the Winged-S: Late Developments and Recent Photographs of the Helicopter, an Autobiography. New York: Dodd, Mead, originally published 1938 (updated editions, various years up to 1948), Revised edition, 1967. Spenser, Jay P. Whirlybirds, A History of the U.S. Helicopter Pioneers. Seattle, Washington, USA: University of Washington Press, 1998. ISBN 0-295-97699-3. Woods, Carlos C. "Memorial Tributes", pp. 253–266. Igor Ivan Sikorsky. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Engineering (The Academy), 1979.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Igor Sikorsky.

External image

Igor's office at Stratford

Official Sikorsky historical archives Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
Aerial Russia – the Romance of the Giant Aeroplane – early days of Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
online book Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
article on ctheritage.org Igor Sikorsky. Time magazine, November 16, 1953. (Cover) The New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut, has extensive Sikorsky exhibits Igor Sikorsky
Igor Sikorsky
at Everything2.com Transatlantic Re-enactment Flight Wingless Helicopter
Helicopter
Flies Straight Up September 1940 Popular Mechanics article showing Sikorsky flying his first helicopter and introducing him to the general public U.S. Patent 1,848,389 : "Aircraft, especially aircraft of the direct lift amphibian type and means of construction and operating the same" U.S. Patent 1,994,488 U.S. Patent 2,318,259 U.S. Patent 2,318,260

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1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

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1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

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2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

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1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

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2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

v t e

ASME Medal

1921–1950

1921: Hjalmar G. Carlson 1922: Frederick A. Halsey 1923: John R. Freeman 1926: Robert Andrews Millikan 1927: Wilfred Lewis 1928: Julian Kennedy 1930: W. L. R. Emmet 1931: Albert Kingsbury 1933: Ambrose Swasey 1934: Willis Carrier 1935: Charles T. Main 1936: Edward Bausch 1937: Edward P. Bullard Jr. 1938: Stephen J. Pigott 1939: James E. Gleason 1940: Charles F. Kettering 1941: Theodore von Karman 1942: Ervin G. Bailey 1943: Lewis K. Sillcox 1944: Edward G. Budd 1945: William F. Durand 1946: Morris E. Leeds 1947: Paul W. Kiefer 1948: Frederick G. Keyes 1949: Fred L. Dornbrook 1950: Harvey C. Knowles

1951–1975

1951: Glenn B. Warren 1952: Nevin E. Funk 1953: Crosby Field 1954: E. Burnley Powell 1955: Granville M. Read 1956: Harry F. Vickers 1957: Llewellyn M. K. Boelter 1958: Wilbur H. Armacost 1959: Martin Frisch 1960: C. Richard Soderberg 1962: Philip Sporn 1963: Igor I. Sikorsky 1964: Alan Howard 1965: Jan Burgers 1967: Mayo D. Hersey 1968: Samuel C. Collins 1969: Lloyd H. Donnell 1970: Robert R. Gilruth 1971: Horace Smart Beattie 1972: Waloddi Weibull 1973: Christopher C. Kraft Jr. 1974: Nicholas J. Hoff 1975: Maxime A. Faget

1976–2000

1976: Raymond D. Mindlin 1977: Robert W. Mann 1979: Jacob P. Den Hartog 1980: Soichiro Honda 1981: Robert S. Hahn 1983: Jack N. Binns Sr. 1984: Aaron Cohen 1985: Milton C. Shaw 1986: Orlan W. Boston 1987: Philip G. Hodge 1988: Eric Reissner 1989: William R. Sears 1990: Harley A. Wilhelm 1992: Daniel C. Drucker 1993: Richard H. Gallagher 1996: Robert C. Dean Jr. 1997: Bernard Budiansky 1998: Frank Kreith 1999: H. Norman Abramson

2000–present

2000: Arther E. Bergles 2001: Warren M. Rohsenow 2002: Leroy S. Fletcher 2003: Norman R. Augustine 2004: Bradford W. Parkinson 2005: Robert E. Uhrig 2006: Richard J. Goldstein 2007: Dean L. Kamen 2008: Frank E. Talke 2009: Nam Pyo Suh 2010: John Abele 2011: Clayton Daniel Mote Jr. 2012: Jan D. Achenbach 2013: Siavouche Nemat-Nasser 2014: Van C. Mow 2015: James R. Rice 2016: J. N. Reddy

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 47562428 LCCN: n86150872 ISNI: 0000 0000 7357 7071 GND: 119015315 SUDOC: 147785197 BNF: cb10981542x (data) BIBSYS: 3082

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