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The International Society for Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness (ISKCON), known colloquially as the Hare Krishna
Krishna
movement or Hare Krishnas, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Hindu
Hindu
religious organisation.[6] ISKCON
ISKCON
was founded in 1966 in New York City by A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupada
Prabhupada
who is worshipped by followers as Guru
Guru
and spiritual master.[7] Its core beliefs are based on select traditional scriptures, particularly the Bhagavad-gītā and the Śrīmad Bhāgavatam. ISKCON
ISKCON
is a direct descendant of Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Sampradaya.[8] The appearance of the movement and its culture come from the Gaudiya Vaishnava
Vaishnava
tradition, which has had adherents in India since the late 15th century and American and European converts since the early 1900s in North America,[9] and in England since the 1930s.[10] In West Virginia, the Praphupada’s Palace of Gold, built to be a home for Swami, is now a shrine for the founder, who died in 1977.[11] ISKCON
ISKCON
was formed to spread the practice of bhakti yoga, in which those involved (bhaktas) dedicate their thoughts and actions towards pleasing the Supreme Lord, Krishna.[12][13] ISKCON
ISKCON
as of 2017 is a worldwide confederation of more than 850 temples and centres, including 60 farm communities, some aiming for self-sufficiency, 50 schools, and 90 restaurants.[14] Its most rapid expansions in membership as of 2007 have been within India and, especially after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe.[15]

Contents

1 History and belief

1.1 Hare Krishna
Krishna
mantra 1.2 Seven purposes of ISKCON 1.3 Four regulative principles

2 Preaching activities 3 Bhaktivedanta Institute 4 Food for Life 5 Management structure

5.1 The Guru
Guru
and the Parampara 5.2 Influential leaders since 1977

6 Women in ISKCON

6.1 Krishna
Krishna
mothers 6.2 Procreation and marriage

7 Problems and controversies

7.1 Food For Life controversy 7.2 Rasika-bhakti 7.3 Other controversial issues within the society

8 Litigation

8.1 Brainwashing cases 8.2 Murder cases 8.3 Child abuse cases

9 In popular culture 10 Image gallery 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links

History and belief[edit]

Pancha-Tattva deities: Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Nityananda, Advaita Acharya, Gadadhara
Gadadhara
and Srivasa, installed in a Gaudiya Vaishnava temple

ISKCON's Bhajan
Bhajan
during Navratri
Navratri
Golu at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

For further information see: Achintya Bheda Abheda and Gaudiya Vaishnavism

ISKCON
ISKCON
devotees follow a disciplic line of Gaudiya Bhagavata Vaishnavas and are the largest branch of Gaudiya Vaishnavism.[16] Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
means 'worship of Vishnu', and Gauḍa refers to the area where this particular branch of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
originated, in the Gauda region of West Bengal. Gaudiya Vaishnavism
Gaudiya Vaishnavism
has had a following in India, especially West Bengal
West Bengal
and Odisha, for the past five hundred years. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Bhaktivedanta Swami
disseminated Gaudiya Vaishnava Theology
Gaudiya Vaishnava Theology
in the Western world through extensive writings and translations,[17] including the Bhagavad Gita, Srimad Bhagavatam
Srimad Bhagavatam
(Bhagavata Purana), Chaitanya Charitamrita, and other scriptures. These works are now available in more than seventy languages and serve as the canon of ISKCON. Many are available online.[18] Krishna
Krishna
is described as the source of all the avatars of God.[19] Thus ISKCON
ISKCON
devotees worship Krishna
Krishna
as the highest form of God, svayam bhagavan, and often refer to Him as "the Supreme Personality of Godhead" in writing, which was a phrase coined by Prabhupada
Prabhupada
in his books on the subject. To devotees, Radha
Radha
represents Krishna's divine female counterpart, the original spiritual potency, and the embodiment of divine love. The individual soul is an eternal personal identity which does not ultimately merge into any formless light or void as suggested by the monistic (Advaita) schools of Hinduism. Prabhupada most frequently offers Sanatana-dharma
Sanatana-dharma
and Varnashrama dharma
Varnashrama dharma
as more accurate names for the religious system which accepts Vedic authority.[20] It is a monotheistic tradition which has its roots in the theistic Vedanta
Vedanta
traditions.[21] Hare Krishna
Krishna
mantra[edit]

Mahamantra in Bengali script

Main article: Hare Krishna
Krishna
(mantra) The popular nickname of "Hare Krishnas" for devotees of this movement comes from the mantra that devotees sing aloud (kirtan) or chant quietly (japa) on tulsi beads. This mantra, known also as the Maha Mantra, contains the names of God
God
Krishna
Krishna
and Rama. The Maha Mantra:

Hare Krishna
Krishna
Hare Krishna Krishna
Krishna
Krishna
Krishna
Hare Hare Hare Rama
Rama
Hare Rama Rama
Rama
Rama
Rama
Hare Hare

Srila Prabhupada, in his book, Krsna Consciousness: the Topmost Yoga System, states, "The transcendental vibration established by the chanting of Hare Krsna, Hare Krsna, Krsna Krsna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama
Rama
Rama, Hare Hare, is the sublime method for reviving our transcendental consciousness."[22] Seven purposes of ISKCON[edit]

Deities of Krishna- Balaram
Balaram
at ISKCON
ISKCON
Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
temple

Deities of Lord Balabhadra-Devi Subhadra- Lord Jagannath
Lord Jagannath
at ISKCON Bhubaneswar
Bhubaneswar
temple

Ratha Yatra
Ratha Yatra
festival in Moscow, Russia.

Prabhupada
Prabhupada
Samadhi, Vrindavan

ISKCON
ISKCON
Vrindavan

Public street festivals are a significant part of ISKCONs outreach programmes. Seen here is a Ratha Yatra
Ratha Yatra
festival in central London.

When Srila Prabhupada
Prabhupada
first incorporated ISKCON
ISKCON
in 1966, he gave it seven purposes:[23]

To systematically propagate spiritual knowledge to society at large and to educate all people in the techniques of spiritual life in order to check the imbalance of values in life and to achieve real unity and peace in the world. To propagate a consciousness of Krishna, as it is revealed in the Bhagavad-gita
Bhagavad-gita
and the Srimad-Bhagavatam. The principle of reincarnation is accepted. To bring the members of the Society together with each other and nearer to Krishna, the prime entity, thus to develop the idea within the members, and humanity at large, that each soul is part and parcel of the quality of Godhead (Krishna). To teach and encourage the sankirtana movement, congregational chanting of the holy names of God
God
as revealed in the teachings of Lord Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. To erect for the members, and for society at large, a holy place of transcendental pastimes, dedicated to the personality of Krishna. To bring the members closer together for the purpose of teaching a simpler and more natural way of life. With a view towards achieving the aforementioned purposes, to publish and distribute periodicals, magazines, books and other writings.

Four regulative principles[edit] Bhaktivedanta Swami
Bhaktivedanta Swami
prescribed four regulative principles, in relation to the four legs of dharma,[24] as the basis of the spiritual life:

No meat-eating, including fish or eggs; No illicit sex (including that which, even within marriage, is not for the procreation of children); No gambling; No intoxicants.

The four legs of Dharma
Dharma
are:[24]

Daya: Mercy Tapas: Self-Control or Austerity Satyam: Truthfulness Śaucam: Cleanliness of body and mind

Preaching activities[edit] ISKCON
ISKCON
advocates preaching.[citation needed] Members try to spread Krishna
Krishna
consciousness, primarily by singing the Hare Krishna
Krishna
mantra in public places and by selling books written by Bhaktivedanta Swami.[25] Both of these activities are known within the movement as Sankirtan. Street preaching is one of the most visible activities of the movement. ISKCON
ISKCON
street evangelists sometimes invite members of the public to educative activities, such as a meal with an accompanying talk. A study conducted by E. Burke Rochford Jr. at the University of California found that there are four types of contact between those in ISKCON
ISKCON
and prospective members. Those are: individually motivated contact, contact made with members in public arenas, contact made through personal connections, and contact with sympathizers of the movement who strongly encourage people to join.[26] According to the doctrine of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, one does not need to be born in a Hindu
Hindu
family to take up the practice of Vaishnavism. There are ISKCON
ISKCON
communities around the world with schools, restaurants and farms. In general, funds collected by ISKCON
ISKCON
are treated as communal property and used to support the community as a whole and to promote the preaching mission.[27] Many temples also have programs (like Food for Life) to provide meals for the needy. In addition, ISKCON
ISKCON
has recently brought the academic study of Krishna into eastern academia as Krishnology. The ISKCON
ISKCON
Ministry of Education regulates educational activities within ISKCON, and oversees the operation of primary, secondary, tertiary, and seminary schools and centres of education. The Ministry of Education also oversees education for religious and sastric study, developed and monitored by the UK-based Vaisnava Training and Education organisation.[citation needed] Bhaktivedanta Institute[edit] The Bhaktivedanta Institute (BI) is the scientific research branch of the International Society for Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness. Founded in 1976 by Bhaktivedanta Swami
Bhaktivedanta Swami
and Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami
Swami
(Dr. T.D. Singh), it aims to advance the study of the nature and origin of life, utilising Vedic
Vedic
insights into consciousness, the self, and the origin of the universe. The institute's motto, in the Sanskrit language, is "Athato brahma jijnasa," which translates as "One should inquire into the Supreme." Under the directorship of Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Swami, the Bhaktivedanta Institute organised four international conferences and hundreds of panel discussions and talks, and published over thirty books. Currently there are a number of branches of BI, with one of the main branches in Mumbai. Ravi Gomatam
Ravi Gomatam
is the Director of BI Berkeley and BI Mumbai.[28] The director of BI Kolkata is Vrajapati Das. Food for Life[edit] Main article: Hare Krishna
Krishna
Food for Life

Member of Food for Life Russia giving food

ISKCON
ISKCON
has inspired, and sometimes sponsored, a project called Food for Life. The goal of the project is to "liberally distribute pure vegetarian meals (prasadam) throughout the world", as inspired by Bhaktivedanta Swami's instruction, given to his disciples in 1974, "No one within ten miles of a temple should go hungry ... I want you to immediately begin serving food".[29] The international headquarters known as Food for Life Global, established by Paul Rodney Turner and Mukunda Goswami,[30] coordinates the project. Food for Life is currently active in over sixty countries and serves up to 2 million free meals every day.[30] Its welfare achievements have been noted by The New York Times
The New York Times
and other media worldwide.[31][32][33][34] Management structure[edit]

Hare Krishna
Krishna
Temple, Mysore

Bhaktivedanta Swami
Bhaktivedanta Swami
spent much of the last decade of his life setting up the institution of ISKCON. As a charismatic leader, Bhaktivedanta Swami's personality and management had been responsible for much of the growth of ISKCON
ISKCON
and the reach of his mission.[35][36] The Governing Body Commission
Governing Body Commission
(or GBC) was created by Bhaktivedanta Swami
Swami
in 1970.[37] In a document Direction of Management written on 28 July 1970 Prabhupada
Prabhupada
appointed the following members to the commission, all of them non sannyasi:[35]

Śrīmān Gopal Krishna
Krishna
Adhikari Śrīmān Bhagavandas Adhikari Śrīmān Syamsundar Das Adhikari Śrīmān Satsvarupa Das Adhikari Śrīmān Karandhar Das Adhikari Śrīmān Hansadutta Das Adhikari Śrīmān Tamala Kṛṣṇa Das Adhikari Śrīmān Sudama Das Adhikari Śrīmān Bali Mardan Das Brahmachari Śrīmān Jagadisa Das Adhikari Śrīmān Hayagriva
Hayagriva
Das Adhikari Śrīmān Kṛṣṇadas Adhikar

The letter outlined the following purposes of the commission: 1) improving the standard of temple management, 2) the spread of Krishna consciousness, 3) the distribution of books and literature, 4) the opening of new centers, 5) the education of the devotees. GBC has since grown in size to include 48 senior members from the movement who make decisions based on consensus of opinion rather than any one person having ultimate authority.[35][38] It has continued to manage affairs since Prabhupada's death in 1977 although it is currently a self-elected organisation and does not follow Srila Prabhupada's instruction that members are to be elected by temple presidents. The Guru
Guru
and the Parampara[edit] Main article: ISKCON
ISKCON
guru system ISKCON
ISKCON
adheres to the traditional system of paramparā, or disciplic succession, in which teachings upheld by scriptures are handed down from master to disciple, generation after generation.[39] Influential leaders since 1977[edit]

Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi
with Soviet Hare Krishna
Krishna
devotees in New Delhi (1989).

See also: Principal disciples of A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami.

Before his death, Prabhupada
Prabhupada
"deputed"[40] or appointed the following eleven of his disciples to serve as gurus[41][42] or to continue to direct the organisation:[43] Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami,[44][45] Jayapataka Swami,[46] Hridayananda Dasa Goswami, Tamal Krishna Goswami,[47] Bhavananda Goswami, Hansadutta Swami, Ramesvara Swami, Harikesa Swami, Bhagavan
Bhagavan
Dasa, Kirtanananda Swami, and Jayatirtha Dasa. These eleven "Western Gurus were selected as spiritual heads" of the ISKCON
ISKCON
after 1977, however "many problems followed from their appointment and the movement had since veered away from investing absolute authority in a few, fallible, human teachers",[48] however of these eleven, the first three have remained prominent leaders within the movement, as was Tamal Krishna
Krishna
Goswami until his death in a car accident in March 2002. Bhavananda no longer holds the post of an initiating guru. Ramesvara, Bhagavan
Bhagavan
and Harikesa resigned as spiritual leaders in 1985, 1987 and 1999 respectively and the remaining three were all expelled from the movement by the Governing Body Commission during the 1980s.[49] Of Prabhupada's disciples, who number 4,734 in total,[50] approximately 70 are diksha gurus within ISKCON. As of April 2011, ISKCON
ISKCON
had a total of 100 sannyasis, most of whom were acting as gurus.[citation needed] Women in ISKCON[edit] Krishna
Krishna
mothers[edit] Within ISKCON, women are renowned and regarded as completely equal in regards to spirituality.[51] Prabhupada
Prabhupada
in his original writings encouraged the complete equality of women in the eye of Krishna
Krishna
based on the teachings of Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
that soul does not have any gender and everybody is eligible for spiritual liberation.[52][53] He also rebuked several of his male followers for discriminating against women. Since mother is the most respected position in Vedic
Vedic
culture, women within the Hare Krishna
Krishna
community are all viewed as mothers, especially for celibate male members Brahmacharis. "Mother is a term of respect for women in the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON), and is often prefixed to the Sanskrit name they receive in initiation. Even unmarried women are referred to as mothers".[54] The women are referred to in this way because it reduces the possibility of the women being seen in a sexual manner. Procreation and marriage[edit] Within ISKCON, both men and women can advance spiritually by chanting Hare Krishna, studying the Bhagavad-gita
Bhagavad-gita
As It Is, the Srimad Bhagavatam, Caitanya caritamrta, and other Vaisnava literature and rendering devotional service to the spiritual master and Krishna. Marriage is highly recommended and married women can also "...advance through motherhood and devotion to their husbands in the tradition of stridharma, the wifely duty of submission to the husband and the bearing of sons".[54] Problems and controversies[edit] Food For Life controversy[edit] Some Food for Life programs have suffered severe criticism from ISKCON leaders and devotees who believe them to be a major deviation from Srila Prabhupada's original preaching mission by their promotion of so-called "mundane welfare activities". According to these opponents, Srila Prabhupada
Prabhupada
was strongly opposed to food distribution done without chanting of the names of Krsna and without preaching.[55][56][57] Rasika-bhakti[edit] The elder sannyasi Srila Bhaktivedanta Narayana
Narayana
Goswami was a disciple of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami's sannyasa guru and was long a well-wisher of ISKCON. A small group of prominent ISKCON
ISKCON
leaders were closer to his association and Srila Bhaktivedanta Narayana
Narayana
made no effort to conceal his relationship with them, which as time went on became increasingly intimate. His emphasis on gopi-bhava, the mood of Krishna's cowherd lovers, particularly disturbed his ISKCON
ISKCON
audiences since Srila Bhaktivedanta Swami
Bhaktivedanta Swami
had stressed that the path of spontaneous devotion was only for liberated souls. At the annual GBC meeting in 1993, members questioned their affiliation with Srila Bhaktivedanta Narayana
Narayana
Goswami. Those involved minimized the seriousness of the relationship, though for some it had been going on for as long as five years. By the next annual meeting, the GBC forced the involved members to promise to greatly restrict further association with their new teacher. Though adhering externally, their sympathies for Srila Bhaktivedanta Narayana's teachings were unabated. In 1995 GBC position was firm and the controversy was first on the 1995 annual meeting's agenda. A week of thorough investigation brought the implicated members in line. Asked to suggest what they might do to make amends, the leaders involved with the controversy tendered their resignations, which the GBC promptly refused. They further volunteered to refrain from initiating new disciples or visiting Vrindavana
Vrindavana
until their case could be reassessed the following year and at the March 1996 meeting GBC insisted on maintaining most of the restrictions.[58] The capitulation of the GBC members previously following Srila Bhaktivedanta Narayana
Narayana
Maharaj did not prevent the departure of devotees who felt unable to repose full faith in the ISKCON
ISKCON
Governing Body Commission authority.[48][58] Other controversial issues within the society[edit] ISKCON
ISKCON
has experienced a number of significant internal problems, the majority of which occurred from the late seventies onwards, and especially within the decade following Prabhupada's death.[59] ISKCON has also been scrutinised by some anti-cult movements.[60][61][62] Litigation[edit] Brainwashing cases[edit] In a landmark 1976 case, People vs. Murphy, the Supreme Court of NY found that “'The Hare Krishna
Krishna
religion is a bona fide religion with roots in that go back thousands of years.” Although the parents of two Hare Krishna
Krishna
members claimed ISKCON
ISKCON
had brainwashed their children, the court found they hadn’t and that their children had freely followed the tenets of their chosen faith.[63][64] A brainwashing lawsuit filed by an Orange County mother and daughter Robin George in 1977 led to numerous appeals reaching the Supreme Court. In a long-awaited ruling on religious liberty, the state appeals court dismissed a claim that the Hare Krishna
Krishna
sect brainwashed a 15-year-old girl. In addition to the brainwashing claim, the 4th District Court of Appeal in dismissed claims that the intentionally caused Robin George emotional distress and libeled her.[65] Murder cases[edit] Kirtanananda Swami, or Swami
Swami
Bhaktipada, a leader of ISKCON
ISKCON
expelled from the organisation in 1987 for various deviations,[66] pleaded guilty before his 1996 retrial to one count of racketeering and after serving 8 years of a 20-year prison sentence was subsequently released in 2004. Previously in 1991 the jury found him not guilty on charges of conspiracy to commit the murders-for-hire of two devotees, but found him guilty of racketeering and mail fraud. These convictions were later overturned on appeal, only to result in the later retrial.[67][68][69] The case placed a spotlight on New Vrindaban, which by then had nearly 500 members, making it the largest and most famous Hare Krishna community in the United States at that time.[70] Child abuse cases[edit] A suit for $900 million was filed in Texas State Court by alleged victims of abuse in the temples' schools in the 1970s and '80s.[71][72] ISKCON
ISKCON
had to later file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.[73] Known as the Turley Case, the eventual 2008 settlement was $15 million.[74] In 1998, ISKCON
ISKCON
published an expose of widespread physical, emotional and sexual abuse of children in boarding schools in the United States and India. The Hare Krishna
Krishna
monks and young devotees caring for the children had no training in the task and often resented having to perform it, the report said. At a meeting in 1996, former Krishna pupils testified that they had been regularly beaten at school, denied medical care, and sexually molested and raped.[72] The Child Protection Policy and Procedure Guidelines was revised and ratified by the GBC in June 2012. This document is ecclesiastical in nature.[75] In popular culture[edit] Main article: Hare Krishna
Krishna
in popular culture The Hare Krishna
Krishna
mantra appears in a number of famous songs, notably in former Beatle
Beatle
George Harrison's 1970–71 hit "My Sweet Lord".[76][77] John Lennon
John Lennon
also included the phrase "Hare Krishna" in his lyrics to "Give Peace a Chance" and the Beatles' 1967 track "I Am the Walrus", as did Ringo Starr
Ringo Starr
in his 1971 hit "It Don't Come Easy", written with the help of Harrison. Later Paul McCartney
Paul McCartney
produced a single with a picture of Krishna
Krishna
riding on a swan on the cover, although there was no chanting of Krishna's names inside. Of the four Beatles, only Harrison fully embraced Krishna Consciousness; he also provided financial support for ISKCON's UK branch[78] and enjoyed a warm friendship with Swami Prabhupada,[79][80] who provided the inspiration for Harrison songs such as "Living in the Material World".[81] After he posthumously received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame
in 2009, his son Dhani Harrison uttered the phrase "Hare Krishna" during the ceremony.[82] The contemporary Broadway musical Hair also included a song (credited as "Be-In") that included the mantra. One song from 1969 by Radha
Radha
Krishna
Krishna
Temple (London), produced by Harrison and simply titled "Hare Krishna
Krishna
Mantra", reached number 12 on the UK singles chart,[83] resulting in ISKCON
ISKCON
devotees twice appearing on the music show Top of the Pops.[84] The single was similarly successful in Germany, Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
and other countries.[83] Less well-known but equally relevant to fans of pop music culture are recordings of the Hare Krishna
Krishna
mantra by The Fugs on their 1968 album Tenderness Junction
Tenderness Junction
(featuring poet Allen Ginsberg) and by Nina Hagen.[85] Image gallery[edit]

Krishna
Krishna
Vally temple near Melbourne

Iskcon temple in Andhra Pradesh, India

Eco-house – promoting sustainable living at Krishna
Krishna
Vally near Melbourne

Prabhupada's Palace of Gold at New Vrindaban
New Vrindaban
community near Moundsville, West Virginia.

ISCON Temple in Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh

See also[edit]

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

Hare Krishna
Krishna
movement and sexual orientation

Notes[edit]

^ " ISKCON
ISKCON
Headquarters – among the world's most visited sacred places".  ^ "Second Largest ISKCON
ISKCON
Temple in the World to Open in Kanpur".  ^ https://iskconnews.org/hare-krishna-movement-celebrates-50th-anniversary-in-2016,5308. Retrieved Mar 17, 2018.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ http://directory.krishna.com/mayapur-west-bengal-iskcon-india.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ https://krishna.org/iskcons-world-headquarters-devastated-yet-again-by-mother-ganges/.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Gibson 2002, p. 4 ^ Gibson 2002, p. 6 ^ Klostermaier, Klaus (1998). A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-175-2.  ^ Bharati, Baba Premanand. Hinduism.enacademic.com. Retrieved on 2013-07-26. ^ "Svami Sadananda Dasa: Disciple of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati and Guru
Guru
of Vamandas (Walther Eidlitz)". sadananda.com.  ^ Urban, Hugh B. (2015). New Age, Neopagan and New Religious Movements. Oakland, California: University of California
University of California
Press. ISBN 978-0520281189.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ srimadbhagavatam.com Archived 23 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Bhag.Purana 1.3.28, "All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krishna
Krishna
is the original Personality of Godhead." ^ Beck 2005, p. 39, "According to Orthodox Gaudiya. Krishna's svarupa, or true form manifests in three ways. His svayam-rupa or transcendent form is self-existent, not dependent on anything. His tadekatma rupa is identical in essence to his true form, though it differs in appearance (and would include such forms of Krishna
Krishna
as Narayana
Narayana
and Vasudeva). His avesa form has Krishna
Krishna
appearing though in varying degrees of possession" ^ "Directory of ISKCON". Directory.krishna.com. Retrieved 2009-10-01.  ^ Cole & Dwyer 2007, p. 38 ^ Bryant & Ekstrand 2004, p. 34 ^ A Hinduism, Page 8, Lynne Gibson, 2002 ^ "Bhaktivedanta Vedabase Online". Bhaktivedanta Vedabase Online.  ^ Gibson 2002, p. 18 ^ Brzezinski, J. "Vol 6, No 2 December 1998 ICJ". www.iskcon.com.  ^ Laderman, Gary (2003). "ISKCON". Religion and American Cultures: An Encyclopedia of Traditions, Diversity, and Popular Expressions. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-57607-238-X.  ^ Swami
Swami
Prabhupada, A.C. Bhaktivedanta (1972). Krsna Consciousness: The Topmost Yoga
Yoga
System. Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. ISBN 978-0-912776-11-8.  ^ Satsvarupa, Dasa Goswami (2002) [1981]. "Srila Prabhupada
Prabhupada
Lilamrta Vol 1". BBT: 1133. ISBN 0-89213-357-0.  ^ a b "The Four Legs of Dharma". Vedabase.net. Archived from the original on 11 August 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009.  ^ Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness in the West – David G. Bromley, Prof. Larry D. Shinn, 1989, Page 149 ^ Rochford, E Burke, Jr.Recruitment Strategies, Ideology, and Organization in the Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement Social Problems Vol.29, No 4 1982 ^ Hare Krishna
Krishna
Transformed, E. Burke Rochford, 2007. Page 67 ^ "Director, Bhaktivedanta Institute, Mumbai
Mumbai
and Berkeley". Bhaktivedanta Institute. Retrieved 2016-05-02.  ^ "History of Food for Life". ffl.org. 12 December 1995. Retrieved 2009-10-01.  ^ a b "About Food for Life Global". Ffl.org. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2009.  ^ "New York Times, Dec 1995". Ffl.org. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 2009-10-01.  ^ "The Hindu: A meal from Lord Krishna". Thehindujobs.com. 21 November 2002. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009.  ^ "European Vegetarian and Animal News Agency". EVANA. 2 January 2006. Retrieved 2009-10-01.  ^ "AHN Global News". Allheadlinenews.com. Archived from the original on 6 July 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009.  ^ a b c Das Goswami, S. (1982). "Srila Prabhupada-lilamrta, Vol 4: In Every Town and Village, Around the World, 1968–71". Los Angeles: Bhaktivedanta Book Trust.  ^ Knot, Kim "Insider and Outsider Perceptions of Prabhupada" in ISKCON Communications Journal Vol. 5, No 1, June 1997: "In an evaluation of the nature of the guru, Larry Shinn, a scholar of religions, utilised Max Weber's analysis of charisma in order to understand Prabhupada
Prabhupada
and the issue of leadership in ISKCON. He noted that ' Prabhupada
Prabhupada
profited from two intertwined sources of authority' (1987:40), the traditional authority of the disciplic lineage, parampara, inherited from his own guru, and his own charismatic authority, derived from his spiritual attainment and presence ... (49) Shinn offered an analysis based on sociological rather than spiritual (Vaishnava) authority in order to make sense of the role of guru in ISKCON
ISKCON
and the unique qualities of Prabhupada." See also Larry D. Shinn (1987), The Dark Lord: Cult Images and the Hare Krishnas in America. Philadelphia: The Westview Press.available online ^ Cole & Dwyer 2007, pp. 181–183; 30: "Out of some of his most committed disciples, Srila Prabhupada
Prabhupada
created ISKCON's international Governing Body Commission
Governing Body Commission
(GBC)" ^ Maria Ekstrand; Bryant, Edwin H. (2004). The Hare Krishna
Krishna
movement: the postcharismatic fate of a religious transplant. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 205. ISBN 0-231-12256-X. A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupada. Letter of 28 July 1970. "As we have increased our volume of activities, now I think a Governing Body Commission (hereinafter referred to as the G.B.C.) should be established. I am getting old, 75 years old, therefore at any time I may be out of the scene, therefore I think it is necessary to give instruction to my disciples how they shall manage the whole institution. They are already managing individual centers represented by one president, one secretary and one treasurer, and in my opinion they are doing nice. But we want still more improvement in the standard of Temple management, propaganda for Krishna
Krishna
consciousness, distribution of books and literatures, opening of new centers and educating devotees to the right standard." ^ See the brief essay From Master to Disciple by Jayadvaita Swami. ^ AC Bhaktivedanta Swami
Bhaktivedanta Swami
(1977). Room conversation October 18, 1977. Vrindavana, India: Bhaktivedanta Archives. Prabhupāda: ... One Bengali gentleman has come from New York? Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Yes. Mr. Sukamal Roy Chowdury. Prabhupāda: So I have deputed some of you to initiate. Hm? Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Yes. Actually ... Yes, Śrīla Prabhupāda. Prabhupāda: So I think Jayapatākā can do that if he likes. I have already deputed. Tell him. Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Yes. Prabhupāda: So, deputies, Jayapatākā's name was there? Bhagavān: It is already on there, Śrīla Prabhupāda. His name was on that list. Prabhupāda: So I depute him to do this at Māyāpura, and you may go with him. I stop for the time being. Is that all right? Tamāla Kṛṣṇa: Stopped doing what, Śrīla Prabhupāda? Prabhupāda: This initiation. I have deputed the, my disciples. Is it clear or not? Girirāja: It's clear.  ^ Smith, Huston; Harry Oldmeadow (2004). Journeys East: 20th century Western encounters with Eastern religious traditions. Bloomington, Ind: World Wisdom. p. 272. ISBN 0-941532-57-7. Before his death Prabhupada
Prabhupada
appointed eleven American devotees as gurus.  ^ Rochford, E. Burke (1985). Hare Krishna
Krishna
in America. New Brunswick, N.J: Rutgers University Press. p. 222. ISBN 0-8135-1114-3. In the months preceding his death Srila Prabhupada
Prabhupada
appointed eleven of his closest disciples to act as initiating gurus for ISKCON  ^ Ron Rhodes (2001). Challenge of the Cults and New Religions. Zondervan. p. 179. ISBN 0-310-23217-1. Before Prabhupada died in 1977, he selected senior devotees who would continue to direct the organization.  ^ Rodney Stark (1985). Religious movements. Paragon House Publishers. p. 100. ISBN 0-913757-43-8. Satsvarupa dasa Goswami, one of the eleven initiating gurus Bhaktivedanta appointed to succeed him ...  ^ S.G.Goswami. "sdgonline.org". sdgonline.org. Retrieved 2009-10-01.  ^ "ISKCON.NET".  ^ "Tamal Krishna
Krishna
Goswami homepage". Goswami.com. Retrieved 2009-10-01.  ^ a b Flood, G.D. (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. p. 272. ISBN 0-521-43878-0. Upon demise of Prabhupada
Prabhupada
eleven Western Gurus were selected as spiritual heads of the Hare Krsna movement, but many problems followed from their appointment and the movement had since veered away from investing absolute authority in a few, fallible, human teachers.  ^ The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement by Tamal Krishna
Krishna
Goswami ^ "Srila Prabhupada
Prabhupada
Disciple Database". Prabhupada.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2010. Retrieved 12 June 2010.  ^ ""Women in ISKCON
ISKCON
in Prabhupada's Times by Jyotirmayi Devi Dasi Reposted November 29, 2002"".  ^ "Bhaktivedanta Vedabase Online". Bhaktivedanta Vedabase Online.  ^ "Bhaktivedanta Vedabase Online". Bhaktivedanta Vedabase Online.  ^ a b Palmer, Susan (1994). Moon Sisters, Krishna
Krishna
Mothers, Rajneesh Lovers: Women's Role in New Religions. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press. pp. 15, 17. ISBN 978-0-8156-0297-2.  ^ DAS, Murari. "Mundane Welfare Work in ISKCON" (PDF).  ^ SWAMI, Jayadvaita. "Food for Death Seminar".  ^ SWAMI, Bhakti
Bhakti
Vikasa. "Some Concerns About ISKCON
ISKCON
lecture series".  ^ a b The Perils of Succession: Heresies of Authority and Continuity In the Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement (Part 2) by Tamala Krishna
Krishna
Goswami ^ "Hare Krishna! iskcon.com is your official guide to the International Society For Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness". iskcon.com.  ^ Knott, K. (2000). "In Every Town and Village: Adaptive Strategies in the Communication of Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness in the UK, the First Thirty Years". Social Compass. 47 (2): 153. doi:10.1177/003776800047002002.  ^ Larry Shinn. "The Maturation of the Hare Krishnas in America". Retrieved 2008-04-18.  ^ Berg, T.V.; Kniss, F. (2008). " ISKCON
ISKCON
AND IMMIGRANTS: The Rise, Decline, and Rise Again of a New Religious Movement". Sociological Quarterly. 49 (1): 79–104. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.2007.00107.x.  ^ "People vs. Murphy". The Leagle. March 16, 1977.  ^ "Judge Rejects Charges of Brainwashing against Hare Krishna Leaders". New York Times. March 18, 1977.  ^ "Krishnas Did Not Brainwash Girl, Court Rules". Los Angeles Times. August 31, 1989.  ^ " Krishna
Krishna
Expels Leader of Group Under U.S. Probe". latimes.  ^ Fox, Margalit (24 October 2011). " Swami
Swami
Bhaktipada, Ex-Hare Krishna Leader, Dies at 74" – via NYTimes.com.  ^ "Disgraced former leader of US Hare Krishna
Krishna
community dies at 74". Telegraph.co.uk. 26 October 2011.  ^ "Kirtanananda Swami: US Hare Krishna
Krishna
leader, deposed after a racketeering conviction". The Independent.  ^ "Can Hare Krishnas at Palace of Gold in W.Va. rebuild its tarnished community?". Washington Post.  ^ "BBC News - AMERICAS - Krishnas to file for bankruptcy". bbc.co.uk.  ^ a b Goodstein, Laurie (9 October 1998). "Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement Details Past Abuse at Its Boarding Schools". The New York Times.  ^ "Hare Krishnas Say Suit Spurs Bankruptcy Filing". latimes.  ^ "Children of ISKCON
ISKCON
vs. ISKCON
ISKCON
Timeline". Surrealist.org.  ^ " ISKCON
ISKCON
Child Protection Office". childprotectionoffice.org.  ^ Graham M. Schweig, "Krishna: The Intimate Deity", in Bryant and Ekstrand, p. 14. ^ Lavezzoli 2006, p. 186 ^ Cole & Dwyer 2007, pp. 31–32 ^ Greene 2006, pp. 148, 198–199 ^ Carol Clerk, "George Harrison", Uncut, February 2002; available at Rock's Backpages (subscription required). ^ Lavezzoli 2006, pp. 194–195 ^ "Content not available – omg! news on Yahoo!". Omg.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2009-10-01. [permanent dead link] ^ a b "The Radha
Radha
Krishna
Krishna
Temple". Apple Records. Retrieved 2014-09-16.  ^ Greene 2006, p. 146 ^ Radha
Radha
Krsna Temple Archived 8 December 2002 at the Wayback Machine..

References[edit]

Beck, Guy L., ed. (2005). Alternative Krishnas: Regional and Vernacular Variations on a Hindu
Hindu
Deity. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-6415-6.  Bryant, Edwin F.; Ekstrand, Maria, eds. (2004). The Hare Krishna Movement: The Postcharismatic Fate of a Religious Transplant. New York, NY: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12256-X.  Cole, Richard; Dwyer, Graham (2007). The Hare Krishna
Krishna
Movement: Forty Years of Chant and Change. London: I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-407-8.  Dwyer, Graham; Cole, Richard J. Cole (2013). Hare Krishna
Krishna
in the Modern World: Reflections by Distinguished Academics and Scholarly Devotees. London: Arktos. ISBN 978-1-907166-47-1. Gibson, Lynne (2002). Modern World Religions: Hinduism – Pupil Book Core (Modern World Religions). Oxford (England): Heinemann Educational Publishers. ISBN 0-435-33619-3.  Greene, Joshua M. (2006). Here Comes the Sun: The Spiritual and Musical Journey of George Harrison. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-12780-3.  " ISKCON
ISKCON
in Indonesia".  Klostermaier, Klaus (1998). A Concise Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-175-2.  Klostermaier, Klaus K. (2000). Hinduism: A Short History. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-213-9.  Lavezzoli, Peter (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. New York, NY: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-2819-3.  Rochford, E. Burke (2007). Hare Krishna
Krishna
Transformed. p. 249. ISBN 0-8147-7579-9.  Rosen, Steven J. (1992). Vaisnavism: Contemporary Scholars Discuss the Gaudiya Tradition. New York: Folk Books. ISBN 0-9619763-6-5.  Satsvarupa, dasa Goswami (1984). Srila Prabhupada
Prabhupada
Nectar, Vol 2. Philadelphia: GN Press, Inc. ISBN 0-911233-23-7.  Sharma, Arvind (1996). Hinduism
Hinduism
for Our Times. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-563749-6.  Shinn, Larry (January 1994). "The Maturation of the Hare Krishnas in America". ISKCON
ISKCON
Communications Journal. 2 (1). 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to International Society for Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness.

Official website

v t e

Chaitanya Sampradaya

Sampradaya
Sampradaya
Acharyas Pre Chaitanya

Kṛṣṇa Brahmā Nārada Vyāsa Madhvacharya Padmanabha Tirtha Narahari Tirtha Madhava Tirtha Akshobhya Tirtha Jaya Tīrtha Jñānasindhu Dayānidhi Vidyānidhi Rājendra Jayadharma Puruṣottama Brahmaṇya Tīrtha Vyāsa Tīrtha Lakshmipati Tirtha Mādhavendra Purī Īśvara Purī Advaita
Advaita
Acharya

Post Chaitanya

Sri Krishna
Krishna
Chaitanya Haridasa Nitai Rūpa

Svarūpa Sanātana

Raghunātha, Jīva Kṛṣṇadāsa Narottama Viśvanātha Jagannātha

Modern (Pre- ISKCON
ISKCON
Guru
Guru
System)

Bhaktivinoda Gaurakiśora Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Prabhupāda

Topics

Bhakti Supreme Personality of Godhead Japa Yoga Meditation Hare Krishna Mantras Puja Arati Bhajan Kirtan Sattvic diet Ahimsa Rishis Tilaka Guru Diksha

Avataras of God

Matsya Kurma Varaha Krishna Balarama Rama Narasimha Vamana Buddha Parashurama Kalki Dhanvantari Kapila

Holy texts

Vedanta
Vedanta
( Dvaitadvaita * Dvaita
Dvaita
* Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
* Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
* Achintya Bheda Abheda) Bhagavad Gita Shrimad Bhagavatam Vedas Chaitanya Charitamrita Ramayana Mahabharata Puranas Upanishads Chaitanya Bhagavata

Organizations

Gaudiya Math ISKCON

Sampradayas

Sri Sampradaya
Sri Sampradaya
( Laxmi
Laxmi
- Ramanuja) Brahma Sampradaya ( Brahmā
Brahmā
- Madhvacharya) Rudra Sampradaya ( Rudra
Rudra
- Vishnuswami) Nimbarka Sampradaya
Nimbarka Sampradaya
(Four Kumāras - Nimbarka) Chaitanya Vaisnava sampradaya

Spiritual abodes

Goloka Vrindavana Vaikuntha Ayodhya

Holy attributes

Lotus Sudarshana Chakra Narayanastra Kaumodaki Nandaki Sharangam Shankha

Famous bhaktas

Hanuman Arjuna Prahlada Narada Haridasa Six Goswamis of Vrindavana

Holy days

Rama
Rama
Navami Janmashtami Gaura-purnima Ekadashi

Writers

Vrindavana
Vrindavana
Dasa Thakura Vyasa Valmiki

Pancha-tattva

Nitai Advaita
Advaita
Acharya Gadadhara
Gadadhara
Pandita Srivasa
Srivasa
Thakura

Names of Godhead

Sahasranama Rama
Rama
sahasranama Vishnu
Vishnu
sahasranama List of names of Vishnu List of titles and names of Krishna Hari

Worship

Karatalas Mridangam Harmonium Incense of India Om Hindu
Hindu
temple Japamala

Comparative study

Nastika Advaita Adevism Anti-Hinduism Criticism of Hinduism Persecution of Hindus Asura Hinduism
Hinduism
and other religions (Buddhism and Hinduism
Hinduism
* Gautama Buddha in Hinduism Jainism and Hinduism Rama
Rama
in Jainism Hindu–Islamic relations Hinduism
Hinduism
and Judaism Hinduism
Hinduism
and Sikhism Ayyavazhi
Ayyavazhi
and Hinduism Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
and Hinduism Christianity in India) Reincarnation Karma Diet in Hinduism God
God
in Hinduism Moksha Samsara Vegetarianism Astika

Other

Jagannatha Narayana Brahman Paramatma Bhagavan Tulasi Devis list Tridevi Radharani Sita Deva Demigods list Trimurti Indian philosophy Dharma Artha Arthashastra Kama Indian idealism Varna Ashrama Swami Goswami Krishnology Vaishnava
Vaishnava
theology Hinduism
Hinduism
by country Hindu
Hindu
cosmology Hindu
Hindu
units of time Hindu
Hindu
views on evolution Hindu
Hindu
calendar Hindu
Hindu
astrology List of numbers in Hindu
Hindu
scriptures Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Hindu
Hindu
reform movements

Ayyavazhi Arya Samaj Brahma
Brahma
Kumaris BAPS Chinmaya Mission Divine Life Society ISKCON Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
Ashram Swadhyay Parivar Swaminarayan
Swaminarayan
Sampraday YSS

Topics

Bhakti Brahmacharya Caste Persecution of Hindus Shuddhi Women in Hinduism

Reformers and revivalist writers

Arumuka Navalar Bal Gangadhar Tilak Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Dayananda Saraswati Debendranath Tagore Keshub Chandra Sen Mahatma Gandhi Mirra Alfassa Narasimha
Narasimha
Chintaman Kelkar Pandurang Shastri Athavale Ram Mohan Roy Ramakrishna Sister Nivedita Sivananda Saraswati Sri Aurobindo Swami
Swami
Shraddhanand Swami
Swami
Vipulananda Swaminarayan Vivekananda more

v t e

Modern Gaudiya Vaishnavas (1875 to date)

Pre-ISKCON

Bhakti
Bhakti
Hridaya Bon Swami Bhakti
Bhakti
Prajnana Kesava Goswami Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura Bhaktivinoda Thakur Gaurakishora Dasa Babaji Jagannatha
Jagannatha
Dasa Babaji Sadananda Vamana
Vamana
Dasa

Governing Body Commission, and other ISKCON
ISKCON
Gurus

A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupada* Aindra Dasa* Bhakti
Bhakti
Caitanya Swami* Bhakti
Bhakti
Charu Swami* Bhaktisvarupa Damodar Swami* Bhakti
Bhakti
Tirtha Swami* Giriraja Swami* Gopala Krishna
Krishna
Goswami* Gour Govinda Swami* Hanumatpresaka Swami* Indradyumna
Indradyumna
Swami* Jayadvaita Swami* Jayapataka Swami* Kadamba Kanana Swami* Krishna
Krishna
Kshetra Dasa* Lokanatha Swami* Mukunda Goswami* Radhanath Swami* Ravindra Svarupa Dasa* Romapada Swami* Sacinandana Swami* Satsvarupa dasa Goswami* Sivarama Swami* Suhotra Swami* Tamala Krishna
Krishna
Goswami*

After the Founding of ISKCON (1966 to date)

Richard Shaw Brown Michael Cremo Alfred Ford Geoffrey Giuliano Hansadutta Swami Harikesa Swami Hridaya Caitanya Dasa Jayananda Dasa Jayatirtha
Jayatirtha
Dasa Kirtanananda Swami Krishna
Krishna
Dharma Kurt Mausert Malati Dasi Radhika Ramana Dasa Ramesh Kallidai Ramesvara Swami Ranchor Prime Sadhu Priya Das Steven J. Rosen Graham Schweig Shaunaka Rishi Das Tulsi
Tulsi
Gabbard Richard L. Thompson Tripurari Swami Urmila Devi Dasi Visnujana Swami Yadunandana Swami

Gaudiya Math and other vaishnava

Bhakti
Bhakti
Ballabh Tirtha

* ISKCON
ISKCON
guru

v t e

Bengali Hindus

Society

Groups

Babu Bangal Bhadralok Ghoti

Castes

Aguri Bagdi Baidya Baishya Kapali Baishya Saha Barujibi Bauri Brahmin Chunaru Dom Gandhabanik Subarna Banik Hari Kaibartya Kansabanik Karmakar Kayastha Mahato Mahishya Malla Namasudra (Namassej) Pirali Brahmin Pundra Sadgop Shunri Yogi

Religion

Books

Bhagavad Gita Chandi Panchali Matuasmritokotha

Sects

Brahmo Kartabhaja Shaiva Shakta Vaishnava

Orders

Adi Brahmo
Brahmo
Samaj Ananda Marga Bharat Sevashram Sangha Brahmo
Brahmo
Conference Organisation Brahmo
Brahmo
Samaj Gaudiya Math International Society for Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness Matua Mahasangha Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Math Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Order Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Sarada Math Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Sarada Mission Sadharan Brahmo
Brahmo
Samaj Self-Realization Fellowship Sri Aurobindo
Sri Aurobindo
Ashram Vedanta
Vedanta
Society World Brahmo
Brahmo
Council Yogoda Satsanga Society of India

Festivals

Poila Baisakh Rabindra Jayanti Akshaya Tritiya Buddho Purnima Shashthi Savitri Brata Ambubachi Mela Dhamrai Jagannath
Jagannath
Roth Jhulan Purnima Janmashtami Bhadu Ganesh Chaturthi Vishwakarma Puja Durga Puja Lakshmi
Lakshmi
Puja Diwali Kali Puja Bhai Phonta Nabanna Jagaddhatri
Jagaddhatri
Puja Kalpataru Day Swami
Swami
Vivekananda's Birthday Makar Sankranti Maghotsab Saraswati Puja Maha Shivaratri Dol Purnima Holi Gajan Pratapaditya Utsav Ekadashi Kumbh Mela Gangasagar

Culture

Music

Rabindra Sangeet Shyama Sangeet Kirtan

Dance

Gaudiya Nritya Rabindra Nritya Natya

Literature

Vaishnava
Vaishnava
Padavali Mangal-Kavya Panchali Kallol Hungry generation

Folk Culture

Folk Art

Dhokra Sholapith

Folk Dance

Raibenshe Chhau Paika Dhamail

Folk Dance

Alkap Gombhira Kavigan

Others

Bengali Hindu
Hindu
mythology and culture Bengali Hindu
Hindu
diaspora

v t e

Nadia district
Nadia district
topics

General

Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary Gopal Bhar

History

Battle of Plassey Lakshman Sen Sena dynasty

Religion

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Gaudiya Math International Society for Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness

Subdivisions

Kalyani Krishnanagar Ranaghat Tehatta

Municipalities

Gayespur Kalyani Haringhata Krishnanagar Nabadwip Ranaghat Shantipur

Community development blocks

Krishnanagar Sadar

Kaliganj Nakashipara Chapra Krishnanagar I Krishnanagar II Nabadwip Krishnaganj

Ranaghat

Hanskhali Santipur Ranaghat
Ranaghat
I Ranaghat
Ranaghat
II

Tehatta

Karimpur I Karimpur II Tehatta I Tehatta II

Kalyani

Chakdaha Haringhata

Rivers

Churni Bhagirathi Ichamati Jalangi Jamuna River (West Bengal)

Transport

NH 34 Eastern Railway zone Kolkata Suburban Railway Sealdah– Ranaghat
Ranaghat
line Lalgola and Gede branch lines

Railway Stations

Gede Ranaghat

Institutes of higher learning

Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata University of Kalyani Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya Kalyani Government Engineering College

Lok Sabha constituencies

Krishnanagar Ranaghat Nabadwip
Nabadwip
– now defunct

Vidhan Sabha constituencies

Karimpur Tehatta Palashipara Kaliganj Nakashipara Chapra Krishnanagar Uttar Nabadwip Krishnanagar Dakshin Santipur Ranaghat
Ranaghat
Uttar Paschim Krishnaganj Ranaghat
Ranaghat
Uttar Purba Ranaghat
Ranaghat
Dakshin Chakdaha Kalyani Haringhata

Former Vidhan Sabha constituencies

Hanskhali

See also

Cities, towns and locations in Nadia district People from Nadia district Villages in Nadia district

v t e

Jagannath
Jagannath
worship

Deities

Jagannath Balabhadra Subhadra Sudarshana Chakra

Temples

Odisha

Puri Gundicha Temple Baripada Gunupur Koraput Nayagarh Bhubaneswar Kendrapara Chhatia Bata Dharakote Patali Srikhetra Barbil

Other parts of India

Agartala Ahmedabad Bangalore Chennai Delhi Hyderabad Ranchi Medinipur Alwar Mahesh Hajo

Abroad

Comilla Dhamrai Pabna South Africa Sialkot

Festivals and ceremonies

Chandan Yatra Dola Yatra Panchaka Nabakalebara

2015

Rath Yatra Snana Yatra Besha

Suna Besha

Texts

Bhagavata Purana Brahma
Brahma
Purana Gita Govinda Kapila
Kapila
Purana Madala Panji Skanda Purana Dahuka boli

Devotees

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Jayadeva Salabega Sarala Dasa

Indradyumna

See also

Gahana Vije Mahaprasad Nilachal Nila Chakra Neela Madhava Samkha Kshetra Shri Jagannath
Jagannath
Temple Act, 1955 ISKCON

Category

v t e

New religious movements

Major groups

Ahmadiyya Ananda Marga Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis Anthroposophical Society Antoinism Armstrongism Azali Bábism Bahá'í Faith BAPS Brahma
Brahma
Kumaris Branch Davidians Christadelphians Christian Science Church of Divine Science Church of Satan
Church of Satan
(LaVeyan Satanism) Church of Scientology Church of the SubGenius Creativity Discordianism Falun Gong Family International Friends of Man Heathenry Heaven's Gate International Society for Krishna
Krishna
Consciousness Invitation to Life Jehovah's Witnesses Latter Day Saints Maha Bodhi Society Nation of Islam New Apostolic Church The New Church Noahidism Peoples Temple Pilgrims of Arès The Process Church Quakers Raëlism Rajneesh Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
Mission Rastafari Religious Science Sahaja Yoga Sathya Sai Baba Seventh-day Adventist Church Shakers Shambhala Buddhism Shri Ram Chandra Mission Soka Gakkai Sukyo Mahikari Temple of Set Tenrikyo Thelema Theosophy Theosophical Society Transcendental Meditation True Buddha
Buddha
School Twelve Tribes Unification Church (Family Federation for World Peace and Unification · Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity) Unitarian Universalist Association Unity Church Universal Church of the Kingdom of God Universal White Brotherhood The Way International Wicca Word of Faith World Mission Society Church of God

Notable figures

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Herbert W. Armstrong Shoko Asahara Sri Aurobindo Subh-i-Azal Báb Sathya Sai Baba Bahá'u'lláh Alice Bailey David Berg Helena Blavatsky Sri Chinmoy Aleister Crowley Mary Baker Eddy Charles Fillmore Hak Ja Han L. Ron Hubbard Li Hongzhi Anton LaVey Lu Sheng-yen Maharishi Mahesh Yogi Meher Baba Sun Myung Moon Elijah Muhammad Nakayama Miki A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami
Bhaktivedanta Swami
Prabhupada Phineas Quimby Rajneesh Ramakrishna Prem Rawat Helena Roerich Charles Taze Russell Joseph Franklin Rutherford Ahn Sahng-hong Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar Swaminarayan Joseph Smith Nirmala Srivastava Emanuel Swedenborg Rudolf Steiner Joseph W. Tkach Chögyam Trungpa Ellen G. White

Concepts

African initiated church Buddhist modernism Charismatic Movement Christian denomination Classifications of religious movements Cult Cybersectarianism Doomsday cult Goddess movement Heresy Hindu
Hindu
reform movements Japanese new religions Modern Paganism Neoshamanism New Age New Thought Open-source religion Pacific Northwest Personal development Religious conversion Schism Sect Self religion Spiritual evolution Syncretism Thelema UFO religion Vipassana movement

Public education

INFORM
INFORM
(Information Network Focus on Religious Movements)

Scholarship

Academic study of new religious movements CESNUR Journal of Contemporary Religion Nova Religio Sociology of religion

Opposition

Anti-cult movement Anti-Mormonism Christian countercult movement Persecution of Ahmadis Persecution of Bahá'ís Persecution of Falun Gong Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses

Lists

In popular culture New religious moveme

.