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iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that presently powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. It is the second most popular mobile operating system globally after Android. Originally unveiled in 2007 for the iPhone, iOS has been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPod Touch (September 2007) and the iPad (January 2010). As of January 2017[update], Apple's App Store contains more than 2.2 million iOS applications, 1 million of which are native for iPads. These mobile apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times. The iOS user interface is based upon direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders, switches, and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap, pinch, and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device (one common result is the undo command) or rotating it in three dimensions (one common result is switching between portrait and landscape mode). Apple has been significantly praised for incorporating thorough accessibility functions into iOS, enabling users with vision and hearing disabilities to properly use its products. Major versions of iOS are released annually. The current version, iOS 11, was released on September 19, 2017. It is available for all iOS devices with 64-bit processors; the iPhone 5S
iPhone 5S
and later iPhone models, the iPad (2017), the iPad Air
iPad Air
and later iPad Air
iPad Air
models, all iPad Pro models, the iPad Mini 2
iPad Mini 2
and later iPad Mini models, and the sixth-generation iPod Touch.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Software updates

2 Features

2.1 Home screen

2.1.1 System font 2.1.2 Folders 2.1.3 Notification Center

2.2 Accessibility 2.3 Multitasking

2.3.1 Switching applications 2.3.2 Ending tasks 2.3.3 Task completion

2.4 Siri 2.5 Game Center

3 Hardware 4 Development 5 Market share 6 Jailbreaking 7 Unlocking 8 Digital rights
Digital rights
management 9 Kernel 10 Security

10.1 Secure Boot 10.2 Secure Enclave 10.3 Passcode 10.4 Touch ID 10.5 Address Space Layout Randomization 10.6 Non-Executable Memory 10.7 Encryption 10.8 Keychain 10.9 App Security 10.10 Network Security 10.11 Two-Factor Authentication

11 Devices 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

History

Original iOS logo, used until 2013 (left) and logo used 2013–17 (right)

In 2005, when Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
began planning the iPhone, he had a choice to either "shrink the Mac, which would be an epic feat of engineering, or enlarge the iPod". Jobs favored the former approach but pitted the Macintosh
Macintosh
and iPod teams, led by Scott Forstall
Scott Forstall
and Tony Fadell, respectively, against each other in an internal competition, with Forstall winning by creating the iPhone OS. The decision enabled the success of the iPhone as a platform for third-party developers: using a well-known desktop operating system as its basis allowed the many third-party Mac developers to write software for the iPhone with minimal retraining. Forstall was also responsible for creating a software development kit for programmers to build iPhone apps, as well as an App Store within iTunes.[9][10] The operating system was unveiled with the iPhone at the Macworld Conference & Expo on January 9, 2007, and released in June of that year.[11][12][13] At the time of its unveiling in January, Steve Jobs claimed: "iPhone runs OS X" and runs "desktop applications",[14][15] but at the time of the iPhone's release, the operating system was renamed "iPhone OS".[16] Initially, third-party native applications were not supported. Jobs' reasoning was that developers could build web applications through the Safari web browser that "would behave like native apps on the iPhone".[17][18] In October 2007, Apple announced that a native Software Development Kit (SDK) was under development and that they planned to put it "in developers' hands in February".[19][20][21] On March 6, 2008, Apple held a press event, announcing the iPhone SDK.[22][23] The iOS App Store was opened on July 10, 2008 with an initial 500 applications available.[24] This quickly grew to 3,000 in September 2008,[25] 15,000 in January 2009,[26] 50,000 in June 2009,[27] 100,000 in November 2009,[28][29] 250,000 in August 2010,[30][31] 650,000 in July 2012,[32] 1 million in October 2013,[33][34] 2 million in June 2016,[35][36][37] and 2.2 million in January 2017.[38][39] As of March 2016[update], 1 million apps are natively compatible with the iPad tablet computer.[40] These apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times.[35] App intelligence firm Sensor Tower has estimated that the App Store will reach 5 million apps by the year 2020.[41] In September 2007, Apple announced the iPod Touch, a redesigned iPod based on the iPhone form factor.[42] In January 2010, Apple announced the iPad, featuring a larger screen than the iPhone and iPod Touch, and designed for web browsing, media consumption, and reading.[43] In June 2010, Apple rebranded iPhone OS as "iOS". The trademark "IOS" had been used by Cisco
Cisco
for over a decade for its operating system, IOS, used on its routers. To avoid any potential lawsuit, Apple licensed the "IOS" trademark from Cisco.[44] In October 2016, Apple opened its first iOS Developer Academy in Naples
Naples
inside University of Naples
Naples
Federico II's new campus.[45][46] Software updates Main article: iOS version history See also: iPhone OS 1, iPhone OS 2, iPhone OS 3, iOS 4, iOS 5, iOS 6, iOS 7, iOS 8, iOS 9, iOS 10, and iOS 11

Platform usage as measured by the App Store on January 18, 2018.[47]   iOS 11 (65%)   iOS 10 (28%)   iOS 9 and earlier (7%)

Apple provides major updates to the iOS operating system annually via iTunes and also, for iOS 5 and later, over-the-air.[48] The latest version is iOS 11, released on September 19, 2017.[49] It is available for iPhone 5S
iPhone 5S
and later, iPad Air
iPad Air
and later, iPad Pro, iPad Mini 2
iPad Mini 2
and later, and sixth-generation iPod Touch.[50] Originally, iPod Touch users had to pay for system software updates. This was due to accounting rules making the device not a "subscription device" like iPhone or Apple TV, and significant enhancements to the device required payments.[51][52] The requirement to pay to upgrade caused iPod Touch owners to stay away from updates.[53] However, in September 2009, a change in accounting rules won tentative approval, significantly affecting both Apple's earnings and stock price, and allowing iPod Touch updates to be delivered for free.[54][55] Features Home screen Main article: SpringBoard

iOS 11 running on an iPhone (left) and on an iPad Pro
iPad Pro
(right)

The home screen, rendered by SpringBoard, displays application icons and a dock at the bottom where users can pin their most frequently used apps. The home screen appears whenever the user unlocks the device or presses the physical "Home" button whilst in another app.[56] Before iOS 4 on the iPhone 3GS
iPhone 3GS
(or later), the screen's background could be customized only through jailbreaking, but can now be changed out-of-the-box. The screen has a status bar across the top to display data, such as time, battery level, and signal strength. The rest of the screen is devoted to the current application. When a passcode is set and a user switches on the device, the passcode must be entered at the Lock Screen before access to the Home screen is granted.[57] In iPhone OS 3, Spotlight was introduced, allowing users to search media, apps, emails, contacts, messages, reminders, calendar events, and similar content. In iOS 7 and later, Spotlight is accessed by pulling down anywhere on the home screen (except for the top and bottom edges that open Notification Center
Notification Center
and Control Center).[58][59] In iOS 9, there are two ways to access Spotlight. As with iOS 7 and 8, pulling down on any homescreen will show Spotlight. However, it can also be accessed as it was in iOS 3 – 6. This gives a Spotlight endowed with Siri
Siri
suggestions, which include app suggestions, contact suggestions and news.[60] In iOS 10, Spotlight is at the top of the now-dedicated "Today" panel.[61] Since iOS 3.2, users are able to set a background image for the Home screen. This feature is only available on third-generation devices—iPhone 3GS, third-generation iPod touch (iOS 4.0 or newer), all iPad models (since iOS 3.2)—or newer. Researchers found that users organize icons on their homescreens based on usage-frequency and relatedness of the applications, as well as for reasons of usability and aesthetics.[62] System font iOS originally used Helvetica
Helvetica
as the system font. Apple switched to Helvetica
Helvetica
Neue exclusively for the iPhone 4
iPhone 4
and its Retina Display, and retained Helvetica
Helvetica
as the system font for older iPhone devices on iOS 4.[63] With iOS 7, Apple announced that they would change the system font to Helvetica
Helvetica
Neue Light, a decision that sparked criticism for inappropriate usage of a light, thin typeface for low-resolution mobile screens. Apple eventually chose Helvetica
Helvetica
Neue instead.[64][65] The release of iOS 7 also introduced the ability to scale text or apply other forms of text accessibility changes through Settings.[66][67] With iOS 9, Apple changed the font to San Francisco, an Apple-designed font aimed at maximum legibility and font consistency across its product lineup.[68][69] Folders iOS 4 introduced folders, which can be created by dragging an application on top of another, and from then on, more items can be added to the folder using the same procedure. A title for the folder is automatically selected by the category of applications inside, but the name can also be edited by the user.[70] When apps inside folders receive notification badges, the individual numbers of notifications are added up and the total number is displayed as a notification badge on the folder itself.[70] Originally, folders on an iPhone could include up to 12 apps, while folders on iPad could include 20.[71] With increasing display sizes on newer iPhone hardware, iOS 7 updated the folders with pages similar to the home screen layout, allowing for a significant expansion of folder functionality. Each page of a folder can contain up to nine apps, and there can be 15 pages in total, allowing for a total of 135 apps in a single folder.[72] In iOS 9, Apple updated folder sizes for iPad hardware, allowing for 16 apps per page, still at 15 pages maximum, increasing the total to 240 apps.[73] Notification Center Main article: Notification Center Before iOS 5, notifications were delivered in a modal window and couldn't be viewed after being dismissed. In iOS 5, Apple introduced Notification Center, which allows users to view a history of notifications. The user can tap a notification to open its corresponding app, or clear it.[74] Notifications are now delivered in banners that appear briefly at the top of the screen. If a user taps a received notification, the application that sent the notification will be opened. Users can also choose to view notifications in modal alert windows by adjusting the application's notification settings. Introduced with iOS 8, widgets are now accessible through the Notification Center, defined by 3rd parties. When an app sends a notification while closed, a red badge appears on its icon. This badge tells the user, at a glance, how many notifications that app has sent. Opening the app clears the badge. Accessibility iOS offers various accessibility features to help users with vision and hearing disabilities. One major feature, VoiceOver, provides a voice reading information on the screen, including contextual buttons, icons, links and other user interface elements, and allows the user to navigate the operating system through gestures. Any apps with default controls and developed with a UIKit framework gets VoiceOver functionality built in.[75] One example includes holding up the iPhone to take a photo, with VoiceOver
VoiceOver
describing the photo scenery.[76] As part of a "Made for iPhone" program, introduced with the release of iOS 7 in 2013, Apple has developed technology to use Bluetooth
Bluetooth
and a special technology protocol to let compatible third-party equipment connect with iPhones and iPads for streaming audio directly to a user's ears. Additional customization available for Made for iPhone products include battery tracking and adjustable sound settings for different environments.[77][78] Apple made further efforts for accessibility for the release of iOS 10 in 2016, adding a new pronunciation editor to VoiceOver, adding a Magnifier setting to enlarge objects through the device's camera, software TTY support for deaf people to make phone calls from the iPhone, and giving tutorials and guidelines for third-party developers to incorporate proper accessibility functions into their apps.[79] In 2012, Liat Kornowski from The Atlantic
The Atlantic
wrote that "the iPhone has turned out to be one of the most revolutionary developments since the invention of Braille",[80] and in 2016, Steven Aquino of TechCrunch described Apple as "leading the way in assistive technology", with Sarah Herrlinger, Senior Manager for Global Accessibility
Accessibility
Policy and Initiatives at Apple, stating that "We see accessibility as a basic human right. Building into the core of our products supports a vision of an inclusive world where opportunity and access to information are barrier-free, empowering individuals with disabilities to achieve their goals".[81] Multitasking Multitasking for iOS was first released in June 2010 along with the release of iOS 4.[82][83] Only certain devices—iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, and iPod Touch 3rd generation—were able to multitask.[84] The iPad did not get multitasking until iOS 4.2.1 in November.[85] Currently, multitasking is supported on iPhone 3GS+, iPod Touch 3rd generation+, and all iPad models.[86] Implementation of multitasking in iOS has been criticized for its approach, which limits the work that applications in the background can perform to a limited function set and requires application developers to add explicit support for it.[84][87] Before iOS 4, multitasking was limited to a selection of the applications Apple included on the device. Users could, however "jailbreak" their device in order to unofficially multitask.[88] Starting with iOS 4, on third-generation and newer iOS devices, multitasking is supported through seven background APIs:[89]

Background audio – application continues to run in the background as long as it is playing audio or video content[90] Voice over IP – application is suspended when a phone call is not in progress[90] Background location – application is notified of location changes[90] Push notifications Local notifications – application schedules local notifications to be delivered at a predetermined time[90] Task completion – application asks the system for extra time to complete a given task[90] Fast app switching – application does not execute any code and may be removed from memory at any time[90]

In iOS 5, three new background APIs were introduced:

Newsstand – application can download content in the background to be ready for the user[90] External Accessory – application communicates with an external accessory and shares data at regular intervals[90] Bluetooth
Bluetooth
Accessory – application communicates with a bluetooth accessory and shares data at regular intervals[90]

In iOS 7, Apple introduced a new multitasking feature, providing all apps with the ability to perform background updates. This feature prefers to update the user's most frequently used apps and prefers to use WiFi networks over a cellular network, without markedly reducing the device's battery life. Switching applications In iOS 4.0 to iOS 6.x, double-clicking the home button activates the application switcher. A scrollable dock-like interface appears from the bottom, moving the contents of the screen up. Choosing an icon switches to an application. To the far left are icons which function as music controls, a rotation lock, and on iOS 4.2 and above, a volume controller. With the introduction of iOS 7, double clicking the home button also activates the application switcher. However, unlike previous versions it displays screenshots of open applications on top of the icon and horizontal scrolling allows for browsing through previous apps, and it is possible to close applications by dragging them up, similar to how WebOS
WebOS
handled multiple cards.[91] With the introduction of iOS 9, the application switcher received a significant visual change; whilst still retaining the card metaphor introduced in iOS 7, the application icon is smaller, and appears above the screenshot (which is now larger, due to the removal of "Recent and Favorite Contacts"), and each application "card" overlaps the other, forming a rolodex effect as the user scrolls. Now, instead of the home screen appearing at the leftmost of the application switcher, it appears rightmost.[92] In iOS 11, the application switcher receives a major redesign. In the iPad, the Control Center and app switcher are combined. The app switcher in the iPad can also be accessed by swiping up from the bottom. In the iPhone, the app switcher cannot be accessed if there are no apps in the RAM. Ending tasks In iOS 4.0 to iOS 6.x, briefly holding the icons in the application switcher makes them "jiggle" (similarly to the homescreen) and allows the user to force quit the applications by tapping the red minus circle that appears at the corner of the app's icon.[93] Clearing applications from multitasking stayed the same from iOS 4.0 through 6.1.6, the last version of iOS 6. As of iOS 7, the process has become faster and easier. In iOS 7, instead of holding the icons to close them, they are closed by simply swiping them upwards off the screen. Up to three apps can be cleared at a time compared to one in versions up to iOS 6.1.6.[94] Task completion Task completion allows apps to continue a certain task after the app has been suspended.[95][96] As of iOS 4.0, apps can request up to ten minutes to complete a task in the background.[97] This doesn't extend to background up- and downloads though (e.g. if you start a download in one application, it won't finish if you switch away from the application). Siri Main article: Siri Siri
Siri
(pronounced /ˈsɪəri/) is an intelligent personal assistant integrated into iOS. The assistant uses voice queries and a natural language user interface to answer questions, make recommendations, and perform actions by delegating requests to a set of Internet
Internet
services. The software adapts to users' individual language usages, searches, and preferences, with continuing use. Returned results are individualized. Originally released as an app for iOS in February 2010,[98] it was acquired by Apple two months later,[99][100][101] and then integrated into iPhone 4S
iPhone 4S
at its release in October 2011.[102][103] At that time, the separate app was also removed from the iOS App Store.[104] Siri
Siri
supports a wide range of user commands, including performing phone actions, checking basic information, scheduling events and reminders, handling device settings, searching the Internet, navigating areas, finding information on entertainment, and is able to engage with iOS-integrated apps.[105] With the release of iOS 10 in 2016, Apple opened up limited third-party access to Siri, including third-party messaging apps, as well as payments, ride-sharing, and Internet
Internet
calling apps.[106][107] With the release of iOS 11, Apple updated Siri's voices for more clear, human voices, it now supports follow-up questions and language translation, and additional third-party actions.[108][109] Game Center Main article: Game Center Game Center
Game Center
is an online multiplayer "social gaming network"[110] released by Apple.[111] It allows users to "invite friends to play a game, start a multiplayer game through matchmaking, track their achievements, and compare their high scores on a leaderboard." iOS 5 and above adds support for profile photos.[110] Game Center
Game Center
was announced during an iOS 4 preview event hosted by Apple on April 8, 2010. A preview was released to registered Apple developers in August.[110] It was released on September 8, 2010 with iOS 4.1 on iPhone 4, iPhone 3GS, and iPod Touch 2nd generation through 4th generation.[112] Game Center
Game Center
made its public debut on the iPad with iOS 4.2.1.[113] There is no support for the iPhone 3G, original iPhone and the first-generation iPod Touch (the latter two devices did not have Game Center
Game Center
because they did not get iOS 4). However, Game Center is unofficially available on the iPhone 3G
iPhone 3G
via a hack.[114] Hardware The main hardware platform for iOS is the ARM architecture. iOS releases before iOS 7 can only be run on iOS devices with 32-bit
32-bit
ARM processors ( ARMv6
ARMv6
and ARMv7-A
ARMv7-A
architectures). In 2013, iOS 7 was released with full 64-bit support (which includes native 64-bit kernel, libraries, drivers as well as all built-in applications),[115] after Apple announced that they were switching to 64-bit ARMv8-A processors with the introduction of the Apple A7
Apple A7
chip.[116] 64-bit support was also enforced for all apps in the App Store; All new apps submitted to the App Store with a deadline of February 2015, and all app updates submitted to the App Store with a deadline of June 1, 2015.[117] iOS 11 drops support for all iOS devices with 32-bit
32-bit
ARM processors as well as 32-bit
32-bit
applications,[118][119] making iOS 64-bit only.[120] Development Main article: iOS SDK The iOS SDK (Software Development Kit) allows for the development of mobile apps on iOS. While originally developing iPhone prior to its unveiling in 2007, Apple's then- CEO Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
did not intend to let third-party developers build native apps for iOS, instead directing them to make web applications for the Safari web browser.[121] However, backlash from developers prompted the company to reconsider,[121] with Jobs announcing in October 2007 that Apple would have a software development kit available for developers by February 2008.[122][123] The SDK was released on March 6, 2008.[124][125] The SDK is a free download for users of Mac personal computers.[126] It is not available for Microsoft Windows
Microsoft Windows
PCs.[126] The SDK contains sets giving developers access to various functions and services of iOS devices, such as hardware and software attributes.[127] It also contains an iPhone simulator to mimic the look and feel of the device on the computer while developing.[127] New versions of the SDK accompany new versions of iOS.[128][129] In order to test applications, get technical support, and distribute apps through App Store, developers are required to subscribe to the Apple Developer Program.[126] Combined with Xcode, the iOS SDK helps developers write iOS apps using officially supported programming languages, including Swift and Objective-C.[130] Other companies have also created tools that allow for the development of native iOS apps using their respective programming languages.[131][132] Market share Main article: Usage share of operating systems iOS is the second most popular mobile operating system in the world, after Android. Sales of iPads in recent years are also behind Android, while, by web use (a proxy for all use), iPads (using iOS) are still most popular.[133] By the middle of 2012, there were 410 million devices activated.[134] At WWDC
WWDC
2014, Tim Cook
Tim Cook
said 800 million devices had been sold by June 2014.[135] During Apple's quarterly earnings call in January 2015, the company announced that they had sold over one billion iOS devices since 2007.[136][137] By late 2011, iOS accounted for 60% of the market share for smartphones and tablets.[138] By the end of 2014, iOS accounted for 14.8% of the smartphone market[139] and 27.6% of the tablet and two-in-one market.[140] In February 2015, StatCounter
StatCounter
reported iOS was used on 23.18% of smartphones and 66.25% of tablets worldwide, measured by internet usage instead of sales.[141] In the third quarter of 2015, research from Strategy Analytics showed that iOS adoption of the worldwide smartphone market was at a record-low 12.1%, attributed to lackluster performance in China and Africa. Android accounted for 87.5% of the market, with Windows
Windows
Phone and BlackBerry accounting for the rest.[142][143] Jailbreaking Main article: iOS jailbreaking Since its initial release, iOS has been subject to a variety of different hacks centered around adding functionality not allowed by Apple.[144] Prior to the 2008 debut of Apple's native iOS App Store, the primary motive for jailbreaking was to bypass Apple's purchase mechanism for installing the App Store's native applications.[145] Apple claimed that it will not release iOS software updates designed specifically to break these tools (other than applications that perform SIM unlocking); however, with each subsequent iOS update, previously un-patched jailbreak exploits are usually patched.[146] Since the arrival of Apple's native iOS App Store, and—along with it—third-party applications, the general motives for jailbreaking have changed.[147] People jailbreak for many different reasons, including gaining filesystem access, installing custom device themes, and modifying SpringBoard. An additional motivation is that it may enable the installation of pirated apps. On some devices, jailbreaking also makes it possible to install alternative operating systems, such as Android and the Linux
Linux
kernel. Primarily, users jailbreak their devices because of the limitations of iOS. Depending on the method used, the effects of jailbreaking may be permanent or temporary.[148] In 2010, the Electronic Frontier Foundation
Electronic Frontier Foundation
(EFF) successfully convinced the U.S. Copyright Office to allow an exemption to the general prohibition on circumvention of copyright protection systems under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act
Digital Millennium Copyright Act
(DMCA). The exemption allows jailbreaking of iPhones for the sole purpose of allowing legally obtained applications to be added to the iPhone.[149] The exemption does not affect the contractual relations between Apple and an iPhone owner, for example, jailbreaking voiding the iPhone warranty; however, it is solely based on Apple's discretion on whether they will fix jailbroken devices in the event that they need to be repaired. At the same time, the Copyright Office exempted unlocking an iPhone from DMCA's anticircumvention prohibitions.[150] Unlocking an iPhone allows the iPhone to be used with any wireless carrier using the same GSM or CDMA technology for which the particular phone model was designed to operate.[151] Unlocking Main article: SIM lock Initially most wireless carriers in the US did not allow iPhone owners to unlock it for use with other carriers. However AT&T allowed iPhone owners who have satisfied contract requirements to unlock their iPhone.[152] Instructions to unlock the device are available from Apple,[153] but it is ultimately the sole discretion of the carrier to authorize the device to be unlocked.[154] This allows the use of a carrier-sourced iPhone on other networks. Modern versions of iOS and the iPhone fully support LTE across multiple carriers despite where the phone was originally purchased from.[155] There are programs to remove SIM lock restrictions, but are not supported by Apple and most often not a permanent unlock – a soft-unlock.[156] Digital rights
Digital rights
management The closed and proprietary nature of iOS has garnered criticism, particularly by digital rights advocates such as the Electronic Frontier Foundation, computer engineer and activist Brewster Kahle, Internet-law specialist Jonathan Zittrain, and the Free Software Foundation who protested the iPad's introductory event and have targeted the iPad with their "Defective by Design" campaign.[157][158][159][160] Competitor Microsoft, via a PR spokesman, criticized Apple's control over its platform.[161] At issue are restrictions imposed by the design of iOS, namely digital rights management (DRM) intended to lock purchased media to Apple's platform, the development model (requiring a yearly subscription to distribute apps developed for the iOS), the centralized approval process for apps, as well as Apple's general control and lockdown of the platform itself. Particularly at issue is the ability for Apple to remotely disable or delete apps at will. Some in the tech community have expressed concern that the locked-down iOS represents a growing trend in Apple's approach to computing, particularly Apple's shift away from machines that hobbyists can "tinker with" and note the potential for such restrictions to stifle software innovation.[162][163] Former Facebook
Facebook
developer Joe Hewitt protested against Apple's control over its hardware as a "horrible precedent" but praised iOS's sandboxing of apps.[164] Kernel The iOS kernel is the XNU
XNU
kernel of Darwin. The original iPhone OS (1.0) up to iPhone OS 3.1.3 used Darwin 9.0.0d1. iOS 4 was based on Darwin 10. iOS 5 was based on Darwin 11. iOS 6 was based on Darwin 13. iOS 7 and iOS 8 are based on Darwin 14. iOS 9 is based on Darwin 15. iOS 10 is based on Darwin 16. iOS 11 is based on Darwin 17.[165] Security iOS utilizes many security features in both hardware and software. Below are summaries of the most prominent features. Secure Boot Before fully booting into iOS, there is low-level code that runs from the Boot ROM. Its task is to verify that the Low-Level Bootloader is signed by the Apple Root CA public key before running it. This process is to ensure that no malicious or otherwise unauthorized software can be run on an iOS device. After the Low-Level Bootloader finishes its tasks, it runs the higher level bootloader, known as iBoot. If all goes well, iBoot will then proceed to load the iOS kernel as well as the rest of the operating system.[166] Secure Enclave The Secure Enclave is a coprocessor found in iOS devices that contain Touch ID
Touch ID
or Face ID. It has its own secure boot process to ensure that it is completely secure. A hardware random number generator is also included as a part of this coprocessor. Each device's Secure Enclave has a unique ID that is given to it when it is made and cannot be changed. This identifier is used to create a temporary key that encrypts the memory in this portion of the system. The Secure Enclave also contains an anti-replay counter to prevent brute force attacks.[166] Passcode iOS devices can have a passcode that is used to unlock the device, make changes to system settings, and encrypt the device's contents. Until recently, these were typically four numerical digits long. However, since unlocking the devices with a fingerprint by using Touch ID has become more widespread, six-digit passcodes are now the default on iOS with the option to switch back to four or use an alphanumeric passcode.[166] Touch ID Main article: Touch ID Touch ID
Touch ID
is a fingerprint scanner that is embedded in the home button and can be used to unlock the device, make purchases, and log into applications among other functions. When used, Touch ID
Touch ID
only temporarily stores the fingerprint data in encrypted memory in the Secure Enclave, as described above. There is no way for the device's main processor or any other part of the system to access the raw fingerprint data that is obtained from the Touch ID
Touch ID
sensor.[166] Address Space Layout Randomization Main article: Address Space Layout Randomization Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) is a low-level technique of preventing memory corruption attacks such as buffer overflows. It involves placing data in randomly selected locations in memory in order to make it harder to predict ways to corrupt the system and create exploits. ASLR makes app bugs more likely to crash the app than to silently overwrite memory, regardless of whether the behavior is accidental or malicious.[167] Non-Executable Memory iOS utilizes the ARM architecture's Execute Never (XN) feature. This allows some portions of the memory to be marked as non-executable, working alongside ASLR to prevent buffer overflow attacks including return-to-libc attacks.[166] Encryption As mentioned above, one use of encryption in iOS is in the memory of the Secure Enclave. When a passcode is utilized on an iOS device, the contents of the device are encrypted. This is done by using a hardware AES 256 implementation that is very efficient because it is placed directly between the flash storage and RAM.[166] Keychain The iOS keychain is a database of login information that can be shared across apps written by the same person or organization.[166] This service is often used for storing passwords for web applications.[168] App Security Third-party applications such as those distributed through the App Store must be code signed with an Apple-issued certificate. This continues the chain of trust all the way from the Secure Boot process as mentioned above to the actions of the applications installed on the device by users. Applications are also sandboxed, meaning that they can only modify the data within their individual home directory unless explicitly given permission to do otherwise. For example, they cannot access data that is owned by other user-installed applications on the device. There is a very extensive set of privacy controls contained within iOS with options to control apps' ability to access a wide variety of permissions such as the camera, contacts, background app refresh, cellular data, and access to other data and services. Most of the code in iOS, including third-party applications, run as the "mobile" user which does not have root privileges. This ensures that system files and other iOS system resources remain hidden and inaccessible to user-installed applications.[166] Network Security iOS supports TLS with both low- and high-level APIs for developers. By default, the App Transport Security framework requires that servers use at least TLS 1.2. However, developers are free to override this framework and utilize their own methods of communicating over networks. When Wi-Fi is enabled, iOS uses a randomized MAC address
MAC address
so that devices cannot be tracked by anyone sniffing wireless traffic.[166] Two-Factor Authentication Main article: Multi-factor authentication Two-factor authentication is an option in iOS to ensure that even if an unauthorized person knows an Apple ID
Apple ID
and password combination, they cannot gain access to the account. It works by requiring not only the Apple ID
Apple ID
and password, but also a verification code that is sent to a device that is already known to be trusted.[166] If an unauthorized user attempts to sign in using another user's Apple ID, the owner of the Apple ID
Apple ID
receives a notification that allows them to deny access to the unrecognized device.[169] Devices Main article: List of iOS devices

Sources: Apple press release library,[170] Mactracker Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
model database[171] See also

Information technology portal Apple portal

Comparison of mobile operating systems iOS version history List of iOS devices iPhone

References

^ Juli Clover (March 29, 2018). "Apple Releases iOS 11.3 With Battery Health Tool, ARKit 1.5, Business Chat, New Animoji, and More". MacRumors.  ^ "iOS 11.3 (15E216 15E218) - Releases - Apple Developer". Apple Developer. Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
March 29, 2018.  ^ Juli Clover (April 2, 2018). "Apple Seeds First Beta of iOS 11.4 to Developers". MacRumors. Retrieved April 2, 2018.  ^ "iOS 11.3 beta 1 (15F5037c) - Releases - Apple Developer". developer.apple.com. April 2, 2018. Retrieved April 2, 2018.  ^ "Apple – iPad Pro
iPad Pro
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(May 2016). "iOS Security Guide" (PDF). apple.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 27, 2016.  ^ "ASLR – The iPhone Wiki". www.theiphonewiki.com. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016.  ^ "iOS Keychain Services Tasks". developer.apple.com. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016.  ^ "Two-factor authentication for Apple ID". Apple Support. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 6, 2016.  ^ Apple Inc., Apple press release library, Retrieved September 19, 2007. ^ Mactracker (mactracker.ca), Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
model database, version as of 26 July 2007.

Further reading

Hillegass, Aaron; Conway, Jon (March 22, 2012). iOS Programming: The Big Nerd Ranch Guide (3rd ed.). Pearson. p. 590. ISBN 978-0-321-82152-2.  Turner, Kirby (December 19, 2011). Learning iPad Programming: A Hands-on Guide to Building iPad Apps with iOS 5 (1st ed.). Pearson. p. 816. ISBN 978-0-321-75040-2.  Mark, Dave; LaMarche, Jeff (July 21, 2009). Beginning iPhone 3 Development: Exploring the iPhone SDK (1st ed.). Apress. p. 584. ISBN 1-4302-2459-2.  Mark, Dave; LaMarche, Jeff (December 29, 2009). More iPhone 3 Development: Tackling iPhone SDK 3 (1st ed.). Apress. p. 552. ISBN 1-4302-2505-X. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to iOS software.

Official website Official website Dev Center at Apple Developer Connection iOS Reference Library – on the Apple Developer Connection website

v t e

iOS and iOS-based products

History Outline

Hardware

Apple TV

2nd 3rd

iPad

1st 2 3rd 4th Air

1st 2

2017 2018

iPad Mini

1st 2 3 4

iPad Pro

1st 2nd

iPhone

1st 3G 3GS 4 4S 5 5C 5S 6 & 6 Plus 6S & 6S Plus SE 7 & 7 Plus 8 & 8 Plus X

iPod Touch

1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th

Software

AirDrop AirPlay AirPrint CarPlay Cocoa Touch Control Center Core Animation HomeKit iTunes iOS

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 All

Notification Center SDK Siri Spotlight SpringBoard VoiceOver WebKit

Bundled apps

Calendar Clock Contacts FaceTime Files Find My Friends Find My iPhone Health Home iBooks Mail Maps Messages Music News Notes Photos Reminders Safari TV Videos Wallet Weather Watch

Discontinued

Newsstand

Apple apps

AirPort Utility Clips iLife

GarageBand iMovie

iWork

Keynote Numbers Pages

Logic Remote Remote

Discontinued

Beats Music Cards iPhoto Nike + iPod

Services

Apple Pay App Store Game Center iBookstore iCloud iMessage iTunes Connect iTunes Store Multitasking Push Notifications TestFlight

Discontinued

iAd iTunes Radio MobileMe

Other

300-page bill Apple mobile application processors FairPlay Free and open-source iOS applications Games History of iPhone iFund Jailbreaking Metal Swift WWDC

v t e

iPod

Models

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Mini Shuffle Nano Touch

Accessories

Earbuds iPod Hi-Fi Nike+iPod

Software

Comparison of iPod managers iOS

Store

iPod game iTunes

Store version history

Other

Advertising Click wheel Dock Connector

Italics indicate discontinued products.

v t e

Operating systems by Apple Inc.

Apple II/III/Lisa

Apple II
Apple II
series

Apple DOS ProDOS GS/OS

Apple III

SOS

Lisa

Lisa OS MacWorks

Macintosh (overview)

Classic Mac OS

System 1 System 2, 3, and 4 System 5 System 6 System 7 Mac OS 8 Mac OS 9

Mac OS X
Mac OS X
/ OS X
OS X
/ macOS

History

NeXTSTEP OpenStep Rhapsody Public Beta

Core

Darwin

Desktop

Mac OS X
Mac OS X
10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 OS X
OS X
10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 macOS 10.12 10.13

Server

1.0 macOS Server

Other projects

Shipped

A/ROSE A/UX AIX for Apple Network Servers MAE MkLinux PowerOpen Environment

Cancelled

Star Trek Taligent Copland

iPod/iPhone/iPad

iPod Software iPhone OS

1 2 3

iOS

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Other devices

Newton

Newton OS

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watchOS

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Italics indicate discontinued products · List · Category

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Darwin-derived operating systems

History

Pre-Darwin

Unix BSD Mach NeXTSTEP OpenStep

GNUstep

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Mac OS X
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Mac OS X Server 1.0
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Mac OS X Public Beta
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OS X
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Apple TV

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Derived from Mac OS X
Mac OS X
10.4 Tiger: 1 2 3 Derived from iOS 4-8: 4 5 6 7

tvOS

Derived from iOS 9-11: 9 10 11

iPhone / iPod Touch / iPad

iPhone OS / iOS

Derived from "OS X": iPhone OS 1 2 3 iOS 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Apple Watch

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Derived from iOS 8-11: 1 2 3 4

HomePod

audioOS

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Others

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macOS version history

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iOS version history watchOS version history tvOS version history audioOS version history

v t e

Unix
Unix
and Unix-like
Unix-like
operating systems

BSD

386BSD

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NeXTSTEP Darwin

macOS iOS watchOS tvOS audioOS

SunOS Ultrix

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Operating systems

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Kernel

Architectures

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Process management

Concepts

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Scheduling algorithms

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Memory management
Memory management
and resource protection

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List

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Miscellaneous concepts

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v t e

Mobile operating systems

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v t e

Apple Inc.

History Outline

Founders

Steve Jobs Steve Wozniak Ronald Wayne

Board of directors

Current

James A. Bell Tim Cook
Tim Cook
(CEO) Albert Gore Jr. Robert A. Iger Andrea Jung Arthur D. Levinson (Chairman) Ronald D. Sugar Susan L. Wagner

Former

Gil Amelio Fred D. Anderson Bill Campbell Mickey Drexler Al Eisenstat Larry Ellison Steve Jobs Delano Lewis Mike Markkula Arthur Rock Eric Schmidt John Sculley Edgar S. Woolard Jr. Jerry York

Executives

Current

Tim Cook
Tim Cook
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Jonathan Ive
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Former

Gil Amelio Fred D. Anderson John Browett Guerrino De Luca Paul Deneve Al Eisenstat Tony Fadell Scott Forstall Ellen Hancock Nancy R. Heinen Steve Jobs Ron Johnson Mike Markkula David Nagel Peter Oppenheimer Mark Papermaster Jon Rubinstein Michael Scott John Sculley Bertrand Serlet Bruce Sewell Michael Spindler Sina Tamaddon Avie Tevanian Ronald Wayne Steve Wozniak

Products

Hardware

Mac

iMac iMac Pro Mac Book
Book
family Mac Mini Mac Pro

iPod

Classic Nano Shuffle Touch

iPhone iPad

Mini Air Pro Accessories

HomePod Apple TV Apple Watch

Software

Classic Mac OS macOS

History Server Software

iOS

Version history

tvOS watchOS audioOS Core Foundation Developer Tools Final Cut Pro Logic Pro QuickTime CarPlay HomeKit

Services

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iAd TestFlight WWDC

Game Center iCloud

MobileMe

iWork News

Newsstand

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Support

AppleCare Apple Specialist Certifications Genius Bar ProCare One to One

Companies

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Braeburn Capital FileMaker Inc.

Acquisitions

Anobit AuthenTec Inc. Beats Electronics

Beats Music

Cue Emagic FingerWorks Intrinsity Lala NeXT Nothing Real Metaio P.A. Semi PrimeSense Shazam Siri Spotsetter Texture Topsy

Related

Advertising

1984 Think different Get a Mac iPods Product Red

Campus Park Design

IDg Typography Book

Didi Chuxing History

Codenames Community Criticism Litigation

FBI–Apple encryption dispute

iOS app approvals

Apple Music
Apple Music
Festival Welcome to Macintosh
Macintosh
(2008 documentary) Artistic depictions of Steve Jobs Original programs distributed by Apple

Book  Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 184460395 LCCN: n2010039603 GN

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