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Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali

List

Muhammad
Muhammad
(maternal grandfather) Hasan (full brother) Zaynab (full sister) Umm Kulthum (full sister) Muhsin (full brother) Abbas (paternal half-brother)

Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib
Abi Talib
(Arabic: الحسين ابن علي ابن أبي طالب‎‎; 10 October 625 – 10 October 680) (3 Sha'aban AH 4 (in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar) – 10 Muharram
Muharram
AH 61) (his name is also transliterated as Husayn ibn ‘Alī, Husain, Hussain and Hussein), was a grandson of the Islamic Nabi (Arabic: نَـبِي‎, Prophet) Muhammad, and son of Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib
Abi Talib
(the first Shia
Shia
Imam
Imam
and the fourth Rashid caliph of Sunni Islam), and Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah. He is an important figure in Islam
Islam
as he was a member of the Bayṫ (Arabic: بَـيـت‎, Household) of Muhammad, and Ahl al-Kisā’ (Arabic: أَهـل الـكِـسَـاء‎, People of the Cloak), as well as being the third Shia
Shia
Imam. Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
became the Imam
Imam
of Shia
Shia
after the death of his older brother, Hasan, in AD 670 (AH 50). His father's supporters (Arabic: شِـيـعَـة عَـلِي‎, Shī‘aṫ ‘Alī) in Kufah gave their allegiance to him. However, he told them he was still bound to the peace treaty between Hasan and Muawiyah I and they should wait until Muawiyah's death. Later, Husayn did not accept the request of Muawiyah for the succession of his son, Yazid I, and considered this action a breach of the Hasan–Muawiya treaty.[8] When Muawiyah died in 680 AD, Husayn refused to pledge allegiance to Yazid, who had just been appointed as Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph by Muawiyah. He insisted on his legitimacy based on his own special position as a direct descendant of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his legitimate legatees. As a consequence, he left Medina, his hometown, to take refuge in Mecca
Mecca
in AH 60.[8][9] There, the people of Kufah sent letters to him, asking his help and pledging their allegiance to him. So he traveled towards Kufah,[8] but, at a place near it known as Karbala, his caravan was intercepted by Yazid's army. He was killed and beheaded in the Battle of Karbala’ on 10 October 680 (10th of Muḥarram
Muḥarram
(Arabic: مُـحَـرَّم‎), 61 AH) by Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan, along with most of his family and companions, including Husayn's six month old son, Ali
Ali
al-Asghar, with the women and children taken as prisoners.[8][10] Anger at Husayn's death was turned into a rallying cry that helped undermine the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliphate's legitimacy, and ultimately overthrow it by the Abbasid Revolution.[11][12] Husayn is highly regarded by Shi'ite Muslims
Muslims
for refusing to pledge allegiance to Yazid,[13] the Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph, because he considered the rule of the Umayyads unjust.[13] The annual memorial for him and his children, family and his companions is the first month in the Islamic calendar, that is Muharram, and the day he was martyred is the Ashura (tenth day of Muharram, a day of mourning for Shi'i Muslims). His action at Karbala
Karbala
fueled the later Shi'ite movements.[12]

Contents

1 Family 2 Birth and early life

2.1 The incident of the Mubahalah

3 Life under the first five Caliphs 4 Husayn and the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate

4.1 Reign of Muawiyah 4.2 Reign of Yazid

4.2.1 Martyrdom in the Battle of Karbala

5 Aftermath

5.1 Burial

5.1.1 Return of his head to the body 5.1.2 Transfer of his head in Fatimid belief

5.2 Commemoration

6 Views on Husayn

6.1 In culture

7 Inspiring modern movements 8 Selected sayings 9 See also 10 Notes 11 Footnotes 12 References 13 External links

Family[edit]

Ḥusayn ibn ‘Alī

Shiism: Imam; Proof of God, The Martyr
Martyr
of Martyrs, Master of the Martyrs All Islam: Ahl al-Bayt, Ṣaḥābī, Martyr; Master of the Youths of Paradise[14]

Venerated in All Islam
Islam
(Salafis honour rather than venerate him).

Major shrine Imam
Imam
Husayn Shrine, Karbala, Iraq

Main articles: Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
and Daughters of Husayn ibn Ali Husayn's maternal grandmother was Khadijah bint Khuwaylid, and his paternal grandparents were Abu Talib and Fatimah
Fatimah
bint Asad. Husayn and Hasan were regarded by Muhammad
Muhammad
as his own sons due to his love for them and as they were the sons of his daughter Fatima and he regarded her children and descendants as his own children and descendants. He said "Every mothers children are associated with their father except for the children of Fatimah
Fatimah
for I am their father and lineage" Thus descendants of Fatimah
Fatimah
are descendants of Muhammad, and part of his Bayt.[15] Children:

Ali
Ali
Zayn al-‘Ābidīn
Zayn al-‘Ābidīn
(Arabic: زَيـن الـعَـابِـدِيـن‎, "Adornment of the Worshipers") (b. AH 36), Sakinah (b. AH 38), (Mother:Shahr Banu) Ali
Ali
al-Akbar (b. AH 42), Fatimah
Fatimah
as-Sughra (b. AH 45) (Mother:Layla) Sukaynah (b. AH 56) and, Ali
Ali
al-Asghar (b. AH 60) (Mother: Rubab)[7]

Birth and early life[edit] Further information: The verse of purification
The verse of purification
and The verse of Mawadda

Entry gate of the mausoleum of Husayn in Karbala, Iraq

A copy of the Quran
Quran
reportedly written by Imam
Imam
Husain ibn Ali, from over 1300 years ago

Husayn was born on 10 October CE 625 (3  Sha'aban AH 4).[1] However, Shia
Shia
Hadith state that He was born AH 3.[16] Husayn and his brother Hasan were the last descendants of Muhammad
Muhammad
living during his lifetime and remaining after his death. There are many accounts of his love for them which refer to them together.[8] Muhammad
Muhammad
is reported to have said that "He who loves me and loves these two, their father and their mother, will be with me at my place on the Day of Resurrection."[17] and that "Hussain is of me and I am of him. Allah loves those who love Hussain. Hussain is a grandson among grandsons."[17] A narration declares them the "Masters of the Youth of Paradise"; this has been particularly important for the Shia
Shia
who have used it in support of the right of Muhammad's descendants to succeed him. The Shi'a maintain that the infallibility of the Imam
Imam
is a basic rule in the Imamate. "The theologians have defined the Imamate, saying: "Surely the Imamate
Imamate
is a grace from Allah, Who grants it to the most perfect and best of His servants to Him"[18] Other traditions record Muhammad
Muhammad
with his grandsons on his knees, on his shoulders, and even on his back during prayer at the moment of prostrating himself, when they were young.[19] According to Wilferd Madelung, Muhammad
Muhammad
loved them and declared them as people of his Bayt very frequently.[20] He has also said: "Every mother's children are associated with their father except for the children of Fatima for I am their father and lineage." Thus, the descendants of Fatimah
Fatimah
were descendants of Muhammad, and part of his Bayt.[15] According to popular Sunni belief, it refers to the household of Muhammad. Shia
Shia
popular view is the members of Muhammad's family that were present at the incident of Mubahalah. According to Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir Majlisi who compiled Bihar al-Anwar, a collection of ahadith (Arabic: أحـاديـث‎, 'accounts', 'narrations' or 'reports'), Chapter 46 Verse 15 (Al-Ahqaf) and Chapter 89 Verses 27-30 (Al-Fajr) of the Qur'an are regarding Al-Husayn.[citation needed] The incident of the Mubahalah[edit] Main article: Event of Mubahala In the year AH 10 (AD 631/32) a Christian
Christian
envoy from Najran
Najran
(now in southern Saudi Arabia) came to Muhammad
Muhammad
to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning ‘Īsā (Arabic: عِـيـسَى‎, Jesus). After likening Jesus' miraculous birth to Adam's (Adem) creation,[a]—who was born to neither a mother nor a father — and when the Christians did not accept the Islamic doctrine about Jesus, Muhammad
Muhammad
was instructed to call them to Mubahalah where each party should ask God to destroy the false party and their families.[21][22] "If anyone dispute with you in this matter [concerning Jesus] after the knowledge which has come to you, say: Come let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then let us swear an oath and place the curse of God on those who lie."[b][21][23] Sunni historians, except Tabari who do not name the participants, mention Muhammad, Fatimah, Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn as the participants, and some agree with the Shi‘ite tradition that ‘ Ali
Ali
was among them. Accordingly, in the verse of Mubahalah, in the Shi‘ite perspective, the phrase "our sons" would refer to Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn, "our women" would refer to Fatimah, and "ourselves" would refer "‘Ali".[21][23] Life under the first five Caliphs[edit] Mu'awiyah, who was the governor of Ash-Shām
Ash-Shām
(Arabic: اَلـشَّـام‎)[24][25] under Uthman ibn Affan, had refused Ali's demands for allegiance, and had long been in conflict with him.[26] After Ali
Ali
was assassinated and people gave allegiance to Hasan, Mu'awiyah prepared to fight with him. The battle led to inconclusive skirmishes between the armies of Hasan and Mu'awiyah. To avoid the agonies of the civil war, Hasan signed a treaty with Mu'awiyah, according to which Mu'awiyah would not name a successor during his reign, and let the Islamic Ummah
Ummah
(Arabic: أُمَّـة‎, Community) choose his successor.[27] Husayn and the Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphate[edit]

Calligraphic
Calligraphic
representation of Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
in Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey.

Reign of Muawiyah[edit] See also: Muawiyah I and Umayyad According to the Shi'ah, Husayn was the third Imam
Imam
for a period of ten years after the death of his brother Hasan in CE 669, all of this time but the last six months coinciding with the caliphate of Mu'awiyah.[28] After the peace treaty with Hasan, Mu'awiyah set out with his troops to Kufa, where at a public surrender ceremony Hasan rose and reminded the people that he and Husayn were the only grandsons of Muhammad, and that he had surrendered the reign to Mu‘awiyah in the best interest of the community: "O people, surely it was God who led you by the first of us and Who has spared you bloodshed by the last of us. I have made peace with Mu'awiyah, and I know not whether haply this be not for your trial, and that ye may enjoy yourselves for a time."[c][29] declared Hasan.[27] In the nine-year period between Hasan's abdication in 41/660 and his death in 49/669, Hasan and Husayn retired in Medina
Medina
trying to keep aloof from political involvement for or against Muawiyah.[27][30] Shi'ite feelings, however, though not visible above the surface, occasionally emerged in the form of small groups, mostly from Kufa, visiting Hasan and Husayn asking them to be their leaders - a request to which they declined to respond.[21] Even ten years later, after the death of Hasan, when Iraqis turned to his younger brother, Husayn, concerning an uprising, Husayn instructed them to wait as long as Muawiyah was alive due to Hasan's peace treaty with him.[27] Later on, however, and before his death, Muawiyah named his son Yazid as his successor.[8] Reign of Yazid[edit]

v t e

Second Fitna

Alid
Alid
risings

Karbala 'Ayn al-Warda Revolt of al-Mukhtar (Khazir Harura)

Ibn al-Zubayr's Revolt

Al-Harrah 1st Mecca Marj Rahit Maskin 2nd Mecca

One of the important points of the treaty made between Al-Hasan and Mu‘awiyah was that the latter should not designate anyone as his successor after his death. But after the death of Al-Hasan, Mu‘awiyah, thinking that no one would be courageous enough to object to his decision as the caliph, designated his son Yazid as his successor in AD 680, breaking the treaty.[31] Robert Payne quotes Mu‘awiyah in History of Islam
Islam
as telling his son Yazid to defeat Al-Husayn – because Mu‘awiyah thought he was surely preparing an army against him – but to deal with him gently thereafter as Al-Husayn was a descendant of Muhammad, but to deal with ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Zubair swiftly, as Mu‘awiyah feared him the most.[32] In April AD 680, Yazid succeeded his father as caliph. He immediately instructed the governor of Al-Medinah to compel Al-Husayn and few other prominent figures to give their Bay'ah (Arabic: بَـيـعَـة‎, Pledge of allegiance).[8] Al-Husain, however, refrained from it, believing that Yazid was openly going against the teachings of Islam
Islam
in public, and changing the sunnah (Arabic: سـنـة‎, deeds, sayings, etc.) of Muhammad.[33][34] In his view the integrity and survival of the Islamic community depended on the re-establishment of the correct guidance.[35] He, therefore, accompanied by his household, his sons, brothers, and the sons of Al-Hasan, left Al-Medinah to seek asylum in Mecca.[8] While in Mecca, ibn al-Zubayr, Abdullah ibn Umar and Abdullah ibn Abbas advised Al-Husayn to make Mecca
Mecca
his base, and fight against Yazid from there.[36] On the other hand, the people in Al-Kufah who were informed about Mu‘awiyah's death sent letters urging Husayn to join them and pledge to support him against the Umayyads. Al-Husayn wrote back to them saying that he would send his cousin Muslim
Muslim
ibn Aqeel to report to him on the situation. If he found them united as their letters indicated he would speedily join them, because the Imam should act in accordance with the Qur’an, uphold justice, proclaim the truth, and dedicate himself to the cause of God.[8] The mission of Muslim
Muslim
was initially successful, and, according to reports, 18,000 men pledged their allegiance. But the situation changed radically when Yazid appointed ‘ Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad
Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad
as the new governor of Al-Kufah, ordering him to deal severely with ibn ‘Aqil. Before news of the adverse turn of events arrived in Mecca, Al-Husayn set out for Al-Kufah.[8] On the way, Al-Husayn found that Muslim
Muslim
was killed in Al-Kufah. He broke the news to his supporters and informed them that people had deserted him. Then, he encouraged anyone who so wished, to leave freely without guilt. Most of those who had joined him at various stages on the way from Mecca
Mecca
now left him.[8] Martyrdom in the Battle of Karbala[edit] Main article: Battle of Karbala See also: Maqtal al-Husayn

The painting commemorating the death of Imam
Imam
Husayn at the Battle of Karbala, though its focus is his half brother Abbas ibn Ali
Ali
on a white horse[37]

On his path towards Kufah, Al-Husayn encountered the army of Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad. Husayn addressed the Kufans' army, reminding them that they had invited him to come because they were without an Imam. He told them that he intended to proceed to Kufah with their support, but if they were now opposed to his coming, he would return to where he had come from. However, the army urged him to choose another way. Thus, he turned to left and reached Karbala, where the army forced him not to go further, and stop at a location that was without water.[8] Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of Kufan army, sent a messenger to Husayn to inquire about the purpose of his coming to Iraq. Husayn answered again that he had responded to the invitation of the people of Kufa
Kufa
but was ready to leave if they now disliked his presence. When Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of Kufan army reported it back to ibn Ziyad, the governor instructed him to offer Ḥusayn and his supporters the opportunity to swear allegiance to Yazid. He also ordered Umar to cut off Husayn and his followers from access to the water of the Euphrates.[8] On the next morning, as ʿOmar b. Saʿd arranged the Kufan army in battle order, Al-Hurr ibn Yazid al Tamimi
Al-Hurr ibn Yazid al Tamimi
challenged him and went over to Al-Ḥusayn. He addressed the Kufans in vain, rebuking them for their treachery to the grandson of Muhammad, and was killed in the battle.[8] The Battle of Karbala
Karbala
lasted from morning till sunset of 10 October 680 ( Muharram
Muharram
10, AH 61). All of Al-Husayn's small army of companions fought with a large army under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad, and were killed near the river (Euphrates) from which they were not allowed to get any water. In total, around 72 men, and a few ladies and children, had been on the side of Al-Husayn.[38][39][40] The renowned historian Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
stated "… then fire was set to their camp and the bodies were trampled by the hoofs of the horses; nobody in the history of the human kind has seen such atrocities."[41] Aftermath[edit]

People visiting the Mosques of Husayn and Abbas in Karbala, Iraq, in the 21st century

Once the Umayyad
Umayyad
troops had massacred Al-Husayn and his male soldiers, they looted the tents, stripped the women of their jewellery, and took the skin upon which Ali
Ali
Zainal-Abidin was prostrate. Ali
Ali
had been unable to fight in the battle, due to an illness.[38][39][40] It is said that Shimr was about to kill him, but Husayn's sister Zaynab was able to convince his commander, Umar, to let him live. Zaynul-Abidin and other relatives of Husayn were taken hostage. They were taken to meet Yazid in Damascus, and eventually, they were allowed to return to Al-Medinah.[42][43] After learning of the martyrdom of Husayn, ibn al-Zubayr collected the people of Mecca
Mecca
and made the following speech:

"O people! No other people are worse than Iraqis and among the Iraqis, the people of Kufa
Kufa
are the worst. They repeatedly wrote letters and called Imam
Imam
Husayn to them and took bay'at (allegiance) for his caliphate. But when ibn Ziyad arrived in Kufa, they rallied around him and killed Imam
Imam
Husayn who was pious, observed the fast, read the Quran
Quran
and deserved the caliphate in all respects" [44]

After his speech, the people of Mecca
Mecca
joined him to take on Yazid. When he heard about this, Yazid had a silver chain made and sent to Mecca
Mecca
with the intention of having Walid ibn Utbah arrest Ibn al-Zubair with it[44] Eventually ibn al-Zubayr consolidated his power by sending a governor to Kufah. Soon, he established his power in Iraq, southern Arabia, the greater part of Al-Sham, and parts of Egypt. Yazid tried to end his rebellion by invading the Hijaz, and took Medina
Medina
after the bloody Battle of al-Harrah followed by the siege of Mecca
Mecca
but his sudden death ended the campaign and threw the Umayyads into disarray with civil war eventually breaking out. This essentially split the Islamic empire into two spheres with two different caliphs, but soon the Umayyad
Umayyad
civil war was ended, and he lost Egypt
Egypt
and whatever he had of Al-Sham
Al-Sham
to Marwan. This coupled with the Kharijite
Kharijite
rebellions in Iraq
Iraq
reduced his domain to only the Hijaz. In Mecca
Mecca
and Medinah, Husayn's family had a strong support base and the people were willing to stand up for them. However, Husayn's remaining family moved back to Al-Medinah. Abd Allah
Allah
ibn al-Zubayr was the grandson of Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and the cousin of Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abu Bakr. Both Abdullah and Qasim were Aisha's nephews. Qasim was also the grandfather of Imam
Imam
Jafar al-Sadiq. Ibn al-Zubayr was finally defeated and killed by Al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf, who was sent by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, on the battlefield in AD 692. He beheaded him and crucified his body, reestablishing Umayyad
Umayyad
control over the Empire. Yazid reportedly died in Rabi‘al-Awwal, 64 AH (November, AD 683), less than 4 years after coming to power.[8][45] As for other opponents of Al-Husayn, such as ibn Ziyad and Shimr, they were killed in a rebellion led by a vengeful contemporary of Husayn known as "Mukhtar al-Thaqafi."[46][47][48][49] Years later, the people of Kufah called upon Zayd ibn Ali
Ali
ibn Al-Husayn to come over. Zaydis believe that on the last hour of Zayd, Zayd was also betrayed by the people in Kufah who said to him: "May God have mercy on you! What do you have to say on the matter of Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab?" Zayd said, "I have not heard anyone in my family renouncing them both nor saying anything but good about them...when they were entrusted with government they behaved justly with the people and acted according to the Qur'an and the Sunnah."[50][51][52][53] Burial[edit]

The Zarih of Husayn in the Imam
Imam
Husayn Shrine, Karbala

Husayn's body is buried in Karbala, the site of his death. His head is said to have been returned from Damascus
Damascus
and interred with his body.[54] Fatimid and some Shia
Shia
believe that Husayn's head was first buried in the courtyard of Yazid (in what is now the Umayyad
Umayyad
Mosque), then transferred from Damascus
Damascus
to Ashkelon
Ashkelon
to Cairo.[citation needed] Return of his head to the body[edit] Several Shi'ite and Sunni sources confirm the return of Husayn's head to his body in Karbala. According to Shaykh Saduq, Husayn's son Ali took it back from Ash-Sham,[24][25] and returned it to Karbala.[55] Fetal Neyshabouri and Majlesi have confirmed this in their books, Rouzato-Waisin and Bihar al-Anwar
Bihar al-Anwar
respectively.[56][57] Sharif al-Murtaza also mentions this in his book Rasaael.[58] Ibn shahrashub verifies Sharif al-Murtaza stating the same thing about the head of Husayn. He also narrates Shaykh Tusi
Shaykh Tusi
that this event, i.e. returning the head to the body, happened forty days after Ashura and it is for this reason, there are specific rituals for this day.[59] This day is recognised by Shias and is known as Arba'een. Similar statements are documented by Shia
Shia
scholars e.g. Ahmad ibn Tawoos[60] and Muhaqeq Helli.[61] Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī
in his book The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries has stated that Husayn's head was returned to his body and was buried altogether on 20th of the lunar month of Safar (Arba'een).[62] There is no certainty about what Islamic sect Biruni believed in. Similar statement is mentioned by Sunni scholar Zakariya al-Qazwini, in his book ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt.[63] Qurtobi narrates from Shias on the return of the head to the body on Arba'een.[64] Transfer of his head in Fatimid belief[edit]

This section may lend undue weight to certain ideas, incidents, or controversies. Please help to create a more balanced presentation. Discuss and resolve this issue before removing this message. (October 2015)

The Shrine
Shrine
of Husayn's head in Umayyad
Umayyad
Mosque, Damascus, the Levant

The place where Husayn's head is kept, Umayyad
Umayyad
Mosque, Damascus, Ash-Shām
Ash-Shām
(Arabic: الـشَّـام‎, the Syrian region)

Muslim
Muslim
pilgrims to the Shrine
Shrine
of Hussein in Ashkelon, April 1943

The Mimbar of Imam
Imam
Husain Mashhad of Ashkelon
Ashkelon
now placed at the Ibrahimi Mosque, Hebron, Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
(Arabic: الأَرض الـمُـبَـارَكَـة‎, "The Land The Blessed")

This is believed by the Fatimids
Fatimids
to be the burial place of Husayn's head in Ashkelon, Israel

An Inscription on the Mimbar of the Ibrahimi Mosque at Hebron, Palestine

The Zarih of Husayn's head in Al-Hussein Mosque, Cairo, Egypt

[65] On the second day after the battle of Karbala, the forces of Yazid I
Yazid I
raised the head of Husayn on a lance. They took it to Kufa
Kufa
to present it to Ubayd- Allah
Allah
ibn Ziyad, the governor of Kufa, leaving behind the mutilated body of Husayn. According to a popular belief, the headless body was thus buried there by the tribe of Bani Assad, who were living in the vicinity of Karbala. However, according to the Shia
Shia
belief that the body of an Imam
Imam
is only buried by an Imam,[66][67][68] Husayn ibn Ali's body was buried by his son, Ali
Ali
Ibn Husayn.[69] After the exhibition and display of the head of Husayn, ibn Ziyad dispatched it to Damascus
Damascus
to be presented to Yazid as a trophy. Yazid celebrated the occasion with great pomp and show by displaying the head of Husayn in his crowded and decorated court. The head was then buried in a niche of one of the internal walls of Jame-Masjid, Damascus, Syria. Afterwards, the head of Husayn remained confiscated and confined in Damascus
Damascus
by the order of the Umayyad
Umayyad
monarch, Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik (d.86/705), in this condition for about two hundred and twenty years. When the Abbasids took power from the Umayyads, in the garb of taking revenge of Ahl al-Bayt, they also confiscated the head of Husayn and proved to be worse enemies than the Umayyads. It was the Abbasid emperor Al-Muqtadir
Al-Muqtadir
(d. 295/908), an enemy of the Ahl al-Bayt. He attempted many times to stop the pilgrimage to the head but in vain. He thus tried to completely eliminate the sign of the sacred place of Ziyarat; he transferred the head of Husayn to Ashkelon
Ashkelon
(located 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and 58 km (36 mi) south of Tel Aviv, Israel) in secrecy, so that the pilgrims could not find the place. The following part of a text is a translation of the Arabic inscriptions, which is still preserved on the Fatimid minbar:

".. among the miracles, a major glory with the wishes of Allah, is the recovery of the Head .. Imam.. Husain .. which was at the place of Ashkelon, .. hidden by the tyrants... .. Allah
Allah
has promised to reveal.. wishes to hide it from the enemies..to show it to Awliya ... to relieve the heart of ‘Devotees’ of Imam
Imam
Husain, as Allah
Allah
knew their pure heartedness in Walayat and Deen. ... May Allah
Allah
keep for long our Moula .. Al Mustansir’billah.. .The .. Commander of the forces.. the Helper of Imam.. the leader of Do’at .. Badr al Mustansari has discovered Raas al Imam
Imam
al Husain in Imam
Imam
Mustansir’s period and has taken it out from its hidden place. He specially built a Minbar for the Mashhad, at the place where this sacred Head lay buried. .. He (..Badrul’jamali) constructed this building ..the revenue from which is to be spent only on this Mashhad ... ."[70] The shrine was described as the most magnificent building in Ashkelon.[71] In the British Mandate period it was a "large maqam on top of a hill" with no tomb but a fragment of a pillar showing the place where the head had been buried.[72] In Taiyabi Ismaili
Taiyabi Ismaili
belief, after the 21st Fatimid Imam
Imam
At-Tayyib Abi l-Qasim went into seclusion, his uncle, Abd al Majid occupied the throne of the Fatimid Empire. Fearing disrespect and the atrocities of the traitors and enemies, the Majidi-monarch, Al-Zafir, ordered the transfer of the head to Qahera. The W’ali of the city of Ashkelon, Al Amir Sayf al Mamlaka Tamim along with the custodian of the Mashhad, Qazi Mohammad bin Miskin, took out the buried casket of Raas al Imam al Husayn from the Mashhad, and with due respect and great reverence, on Sunday 8 Jumada al-Thani, 548 (30 August 1153) carried the head from the city of Ashkelon
Ashkelon
to Qahera, Egypt. Syedi Hasan bin Asad (Hir’az, Yemen) discussed this event in his Risalah manuscript as follows: "When the Raas (head) al Imam
Imam
al Husain was taken out of the casket, in Ashkelon, drops of the fresh blood were visible on the Raas al Imam
Imam
al Husain and the fragrance of Musk spread all over."[citation needed] Historians, Al-Maqrizi, Ahmad al-Qalqashandi, and Ibn Muyassar (d. 1278) have mentioned that the casket reached Qahera on Tuesday 10 Jumada al-Thani (1 September 1153). Ust’ad Maknun accompanied it in one of the service boats which landed at the Kafuri (Garden). It was buried there in the place known as "Qubbat al Daylam" or "Turbat al Zafr’an" (currently known as "Al Mashhad al Husain", wherein lie buried underground thirteen Fatimid Imams from 9th Muhammad
Muhammad
at-Taqi (not the Twelver
Twelver
Imam) to 20th Al-Amir bi-Ahkami l-Lah). This place is also known as "B’ab Makhallif’at al Rasul" and located in Al-Hussein Mosque.[citation needed] During the golden era of the Fatimid caliphate, on the day of Ashurah, every year the people of Egypt
Egypt
from far and near used to gather and offer sacrifices of camels, cows, goats in the name of Allah, recite Marsiyah-elegies on the Ahl al Bait and the Ans’ar of Husayn and pronounced la‘naṫ (Arabic: لَـعـنَـة‎, curse) loudly on Yazid, Shimr Ibn Thil-Jawshan, ibn Ziyad and other murderers of Husayn. During the tenure of Saladin, all Marasim al Az’a, or mourning commemorations for Husayn, were officially banned as they were considered Bid‘ah (Arabic: بِـدعَـة‎, 'Innovation'). The burial place is now also known as Raous (head)-us-Husain, A silver Zarih (Maqsurah) is made on the place by Dawoodi Bohra Dai, and the place is visited regularly by all Shia. The presentation of the Maqsurah
Maqsurah
is also unique in the history of loyalty and faithfulness. The Maqsurah
Maqsurah
of Raas al Imam
Imam
al Husain was originally constructed for the Al Abbas Mosque
Al Abbas Mosque
at Karbala, Iraq. When this Maqsurah
Maqsurah
reached the mosque of Al-Abbas ibn Ali
Ali
it would not fit in the place. The size of the Maqsurah
Maqsurah
and the site of the fitting place differed at the time of fitting, although all technical aspects and measurements of the site were taken into account very precisely. The engineers were astonished, at what had happened, although every minute detail was handled very professionally. The loyalty of Al-Abbas ibn Ali
Ali
was also witnessed on that day too, as it had been witnessed on the day of 'Ashura'. There a divine guidance came to the effect by way of intuition that a sincere, faithful, loyal and devoted brother could not tolerate, that the head of Muhammad's grandson, Husayn, buried in Al Qahera, Egypt, should be without a Maqsurah, thus how could he accept this gift for himself. Hence even after Shahadat, Al-Abbas ibn Ali
Ali
paid his tribute to Husayn and presented his own Maqsurah
Maqsurah
for Raas (head) al Imam
Imam
al Husain. When this above-mentioned Maqsurah
Maqsurah
was brought from Karbala, Iraq
Iraq
to Al Moizziyat al Qahera, Egypt, it fitted upon the original position of the grave known as Mashhad of Raas al Imam
Imam
al Husain in such a manner, as if it had been fabricated for Raas al Imam
Imam
al Husain itself.[citation needed] Arab traveler Ibne Batuta also wrote in his safarname (rihla) that, after the incident of Karbala
Karbala
the head of Husain was in the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus. From there it was taken and buried in Ashkelon. During the crusade, the Fatimid ruler of Egypt
Egypt
exhumed the head and brought it to Egypt. Thereafter the head of Husain was buried again in the al Qarrafa graveyard in Cairo. The site of the graveyard became the mausoleum called Raasul Husain (inside Al-Hussein Mosque).[73] During the period of Saladin, and by his order, the minbar made by Dai Badr-ul Jamali was transferred from Ashkelon
Ashkelon
to the Masjid Khalil al Rahman (Cave of the Patriarchs), Hebron
Hebron
in the West Bank, Palestinian territories. Saladin
Saladin
did not know that this minbar contained an inscription showing the history of Husayn. The 51st al Dai al Fatemi/Dawoodi Bohra, Taher Saifuddin
Taher Saifuddin
(d.1385/1965) got the honour to visit Masjid Khalil al Rahman, and he discovered the Fatamid minbar, one thousand years after the seclusion of the Fatamid Imams. The Masjid of the Ashkelon
Ashkelon
known as "Masjid Al Mashhad al Husain" was blown up deliberately as part of a broader operation of defence force in 1950 at the instructions of Moshe Dayan, but the devotees of Ahl al Bait did not forget it.[74] In 2000, the 52nd Fatamid/Ismaili/Mustali/Dawoodi Bohra Dai Mohammed Burhanuddin, built a marble platform, as per traditional Fatimid architectural design, at the site, on the Barzilai Hospital grounds, Ashkelon
Ashkelon
and since then thousands of devotees have come from across the world, year-round to pay tribute to Husayn.[75] [76] Commemoration[edit] Main articles: Mourning of Muharram
Muharram
and day of Ashura See also: Arba'een
Arba'een
and Hussainia

Khema-gah, Memorial at Imam
Imam
Husain Camp location, Karbala

Mourning of Muharram
Muharram
in cities and villages of Iran

The Day of Ashura
Day of Ashura
is commemorated by the Shia
Shia
society as a day of mourning for the death of Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, at the Battle of Karbala. The commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali
Ali
has become a national holiday and different ethnic and religious communities participate in it. Al-Husayn's grave became the most visited place of Ziyarat
Ziyarat
for Shias. Some said that a pilgrimage to Karbala
Karbala
and Husayn's shrine therein has the merit of a thousand pilgrimages to Mecca, of a thousand martyrdoms, and of a thousand days fasting.[77] Shi‘ites have an important book about Al-Husayn which is called Ziyarat
Ziyarat
Ashura. Most of them believe that it is a Hadith-e-Qudsi (the "word of Allah").[78][dubious – discuss] The Imam Husayn Shrine
Imam Husayn Shrine
was later built over his grave. In 850 Abbasid caliph, al-Mutawakkil, destroyed his shrine in order to stop Shia
Shia
pilgrimages. However, pilgrimages continued.[79] Shia
Shia
Mourn during Moharram to pay respect to Husayn whose sacrifices kept true Islam
Islam
alive loving true Imamate. Lots of Christian
Christian
and Sunni also join them. [80] Views on Husayn[edit] See also: Karbala
Karbala
§ Ahadith The effect of the events in Karbala
Karbala
on Muslims
Muslims
has been deep and is beyond passion in Shiʿism. While the intent of the major players in the act has often been debated, it is clear that Husayn cannot be viewed as simply a rebel risking his and his family’s lives for his personal ambition. He continued to abide by the treaty with Muawiyah I despite his disapproval of Muawiyah's conduct. He did not pledge allegiance to Yazid, who had been chosen as successor by Muawiyah in violation of the treaty with Hasan ibn Ali. Yet he also did not actively seek martyrdom and offered to leave Iraq
Iraq
once it became clear that he no longer had any support in Kufa. His initial determination to follow the invitation of the Kufans in spite of the numerous warnings he received depicts a religious conviction of a mission that left him no choice, whatever the outcome. He is known to have said:

...Dying with honor is better than living with dishonor[81]

In culture[edit] Historian Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
was touched by the story of Al-Husayn, describing the events at Karbala
Karbala
as "a tragedy".[82][83] According to historian Syed Akbar Hyder, Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
attributed the historical progress of Islam, to the "sacrifices of Muslim
Muslim
saints like Husayn" rather than military force.[84] The traditional narration "Every day is Ashura and every land is Karbala!" is used by the Shia
Shia
as a mantra to live their lives as Husayn did on Ashura, i.e. with complete sacrifice for God and for others. The saying is also intended to signify that what happened on Ashura in Karbala
Karbala
must always be remembered as part of suffering everywhere. Inspiring modern movements[edit] See also: Battle of Karbala
Karbala
§ Impacts on culture and politics

The story of martyrdom of Husayn has been a strong source of inspiration for Shia
Shia
revolutionary movements. For Shias, Husayn's willing martyrdom justifies their own resistance against unjust authority. In the course of the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran against Pahlavi dynasty, Shia
Shia
beliefs and symbols were instrumental in orchestrating and sustaining widespread popular resistance with the Husayn legend providing a framework for labeling as evil and reacting against the Pahlavi Shah.[85] Selected sayings[edit]

This article contains embedded lists that may be poorly defined, unverified or indiscriminate. Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Where appropriate, incorporate items into the main body of the article. (September 2017)

"The most generous people are those who do kindness when it is least expected."[86] "Knowledge facilitates comprehension and experience increases wisdom."[87] "Patience in a person glows like a jewel."[88] "Those who are silent while others are being oppressed are just as guilty as the oppressors."[citation needed] "If you do not believe in any religion, and do not fear the Day of Resurrection, then at least be free in this world."[89]

See also[edit]

Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
portal Islam
Islam
portal Ashura portal

Quotations related to Imam
Imam
Husayn at Wikiquote

List of casualties in Husayn's army at the Battle of Karbala’ Sayyid Arba'een
Arba'een
Pilgrimage Zulfiqar Zuljanah Holiest sites in Islam
Islam
(Shia) Shi'a view of the Sahaba Sunni view of the Sahaba Sayyed Ibn Tawus Who is Hussain? The martyrs of al-Ukhdûd (Arabic: الأُخـدُود‎, "the Ditch", or a place near Najran)

Notes[edit]

^ Quran, 3: 59 ^ Quran, 3: 61 ^ Quran, 21:111

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b Shabbar, S.M.R. (1997). Story of the Holy Ka’aba. Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain. Retrieved 23 May 2017.  ^ Nakash, Yitzhak (1 January 1993). "An Attempt To Trace the Origin of the Rituals of Āshurā¸". Die Welt des Islams. 33 (2): 161–181. doi:10.1163/157006093X00063. Retrieved 19 July 2016.  ^ a b c d e f g h al-Qarashi, Baqir Shareef (2007). The life of Imam Husain. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. p. 58.  ^ Tirmidhi, Vol. II, p. 221 ; تاريخ الخلفاء، ص189 [History of the Caliphs] ^ A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. p. 95.  ^ Kitab al-Irshad. p. 198.  ^ a b S. Manzoor Rizvi. The Sunshine Book. books.google.com. ISBN 1312600942.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Madelung, Wilferd. "HOSAYN B. ALI". Iranica. Retrieved 12 January 2008.  ^ Dakake 2008, pp. 81–82. ^ Gordon, 2005, pp. 144–146. ^ Cornell, Vincent J.; Kamran Scot Aghaie (2007). Voices of Islam. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers. pp. 117 and 118. ISBN 9780275987329. Retrieved 4 November 2014.  ^ a b Robinson, Chase F (2010). "5 - The rise of Islam, 600–705". In Chase F. Robinson. The new Cambridge history of Islam, volume 1: Sixth to Eleventh Centuries. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 215. ISBN 9780521838238.  ^ a b "al-Hussein ibn 'Ali". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.  ^ Present in both Sunni and Shia
Shia
sources on basis of the hadith: “al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn are the sayyids of the youth of Paradise”. ^ a b Suyyuti, Jalayeddin. Kanz-ol-Ommal. pp. 152:6.  ^ Thiqatu Al-Islam, Abu Ja'far (2015). Al-Kafi Volume 1 (Second ed.). New York: The Islamic Seminary. p. 468. [permanent dead link] ^ a b Al-Sibai, Amal (30 October 2015). "Murder of the grandson of the Prophet". Saudi Gazette. Retrieved 30 October 2015.  ^ Sharif al-Qarashi, Baqir (2005). The Life of Imam
Imam
Musa bin Ja'far al-Kazim. Translated by al-Rasheed, Jasim (1st ed.). Qom, Iran: Ansariyan Publications. p. 98. ISBN 978-9644386398.  ^ L. Veccia Vaglieri, (al-) Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, Encyclopedia of Islam. ^ Madelung (1997), pp. 14–16. ^ a b c d Momen, Moojan (1985). An Introduction to Shi'i Islam. Yale University Press. p. 14,26,27. ISBN 978-0-300-03531-5.  ^ Madelung 1997, pp. 15–16. ^ a b Madelung 1997, p. 16. ^ a b Article "AL-SHĀM" by C.E. Bosworth, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume 9 (1997), page 261. ^ a b Kamal S. Salibi (2003). A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon Reconsidered. I.B.Tauris. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-1-86064-912-7. To the Arabs, this same territory, which the Romans considered Arabian, formed part of what they called Bilad al-Sham, which was their own name for Syria. From the classical perspective, however, Syria, including Palestine, formed no more than the western fringes of what was reckoned to be Arabia between the first line of cities and the coast. Since there is no clear dividing line between what is called today the Syrian and Arabian deserts, which actually form one stretch of arid tableland, the classical concept of what actually constituted Syria
Syria
had more to its credit geographically than the vaguer Arab concept of Syria
Syria
as Bilad al-Sham. Under the Romans, there was actually a province of Syria, with its capital at Antioch, which carried the name of the territory. Otherwise, down the centuries, Syria
Syria
like Arabia and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was no more than a geographic expression. In Islamic times, the Arab geographers used the name arabicized as Suriyah, to denote one special region of Bilad al-Sham, which was the middle section of the valley of the Orontes river, in the vicinity of the towns of Homs
Homs
and Hama. They also noted that it was an old name for the whole of Bilad al-Sham which had gone out of use. As a geographic expression, however, the name Syria
Syria
survived in its original classical sense in Byzantine
Byzantine
and Western European usage, and also in the Syriac literature of some of the Eastern Christian
Eastern Christian
churches, from which it occasionally found its way into Christian
Christian
Arabic usage. It was only in the nineteenth century that the use of the name was revived in its modern Arabic form, frequently as Suriyya rather than the older Suriyah, to denote the whole of Bilad al-Sham: first of all in the Christian
Christian
Arabic literature of the period, and under the influence of Western Europe. By the end of that century it had already replaced the name of Bilad al-Sham even in Muslim
Muslim
Arabic usage.  ^ "Alī ibn Abu Talib". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 16 December 2010.  ^ a b c d Jafri, Syed Husain Mohammad (2002). The Origins and Early Development of Shi’a Islam; Chapter 6. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195793871.  ^ Tabatabaei, (1979), p.196. ^ Donaldson, Dwight M. (1933). The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam
Islam
in Persia and Irak. BURLEIGH PRESS. pp. 66–78.  ^ Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. pp. 324–327. ISBN 0-521-64696-0.  ^ Halm (2004), p.13. ^ John Dunn, The Spread of Islam, pg. 51. World History Series. San Diego: Lucent Books, 1996. ISBN 1560062851 ^ Al Bidayah wa al-Nihayah
Al Bidayah wa al-Nihayah
[1][permanent dead link] ^ Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah [2][permanent dead link] ^ Dakake (2007), pp. 81 and 82. ^ Balyuzi, H. M.: Muhammad
Muhammad
and the course of Islam. George Ronald, Oxford (U.K.), 1976, p.193. ^ "Brooklyn Museum: Arts of the Islamic World: Battle of Karbala". Brooklyn, New York: Brooklyn Museum. Retrieved 7 July 2013.  ^ a b Hoseini-e Jalali, Mohammad-Reza (1382). Jehad al- Imam
Imam
al-Sajjad (in Persian). Translated by Musa Danesh. Iran, Mashhad: Razavi, Printing & Publishing Institute. pp. 214–217.  ^ a b "در روز عاشورا چند نفر شهید شدند؟". Archived from the original on 26 March 2013.  ^ a b "فهرست اسامي شهداي كربلا". Velaiat.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.  ^ Chelkowski, Peter J. (1979). Ta'ziyeh: Ritual and Drama in Iran. New York. p. 2.  ^ Madelung, Wilferd. "ʿALĪ B. ḤOSAYN B. ʿALĪ B. ABĪ ṬĀLEB". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. Retrieved 1 August 2011.  ^ Donaldson, Dwight M. (1933). The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam
Islam
in Persia and Irak. BURLEIGH PRESS. pp. 101–111.  ^ a b Najeebabadi, Akbar Shah (2001). The History of Islam
Islam
V.2. Riyadh: Darussalam. pp. 110. ISBN 9960892883. ^ Bosworth, C.E. (1960). "Muʿāwiya II". In Bearman, P. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
(2nd ed.). Brill. ISBN 9789004161214.  ^ "al-Mukhtār ibn Abū ʿUbayd al-Thaqafi". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2013. Retrieved 22 November 2013.  ^ al-Syyed, Kamal. "The Battle of al-Khazir". Mukhtar al-Thaqafi. Qum, Iran: Ansariyan Foundation. p. 21. Retrieved 22 November 2013.  ^ Al-Kashee, Ikhtiyaar Ma`arifah Al-Rijaal, pg. 127, hadeeth # 202. ^ Al-Khoei, Mu`jam Rijaal Al-Hadeeth, vol. 18, pg. 93, person # 12158. ^ Islam
Islam
re-defined: an intelligent man's guide towards understanding Islam
Islam
- Page 54 [3] ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2006). Rebellion and Violence in Islamic Law. Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 9780521030571.  ^ The waning of the Umayyad caliphate
Umayyad caliphate
by Tabarī, Carole Hillenbrand, 1989, p37, p38. ^ The Encyclopedia of Religion Vol.16, Mircea Eliade, Charles J. Adams, Macmillan, 1987, p243. "They were called "Rafida by the followers of Zayd". ^ Halm (2004), pp. 15 and 16. ^ Amali of Shaykh Sadouq, Majlis 31, p. 232. ^ Rouzato-Waisin, Fetal Neyshabouri, p 192. ^ Bihar al-Anwar, Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir Majlisi vol. 45, p 140. ^ Rasaael, Sharif al-Murtaza, vol. 3, p. 130. ^ Manaqib Al Abi-Taleb, Ibn shahrashub, vol. 4, p. 85. ^ Lohouf, Ahmad ibn Tawoos p. 114. ^ Mathir al ahzan, Ibn Nama Helli, p. 85. ^ The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī p. 331. ^ ʿAjā'ib al-makhlūqāt wa gharā'ib al-mawjūdāt, Zakariya al-Qazwini p 45. ^ Tazkerah fi omour al-mawta wa omour al-akherah, Qurtobi vol. 2 p. 668. ^ Brief History of Transfer of the Sacred Head of Hussain ibn Ali, From Damascus
Damascus
to Ashkelon
Ashkelon
to Qahera By: Qazi Dr. Shaikh Abbas Borhany PhD (USA), NDI, Shahadat al A'alamiyyah (Najaf, Iraq), M.A., LLM (Shariah) Member, Ulama Council of Pakistan. Published in Daily News, Karachi, Pakistan on 3 January 2009. ^ Osul-al-Kafi, Vol 1. pp. 384, 385.  ^ Ithbat-ol-Wasiyah. pp. 207, 208.  ^ Ikhtiar Ma'refat-o-Rijal. pp. 463–465.  ^ باقر شريف قرشى. حياة الإمام الحسين عليه السلام, Vol 3. Qom, Iran
Iran
(published in AH 1413): مدرسه علميه ايروانى. p. 325.  ^ Williams, Caroline. 1983. "The Cult of ' Alid
Alid
Saints in the Fatimid Monuments of Cairo. Part I: The Mosque of al-Aqmar". In Muqarnas I: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Oleg Grabar (ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press, 37-52. p.41, Wiet,"notes," pp.217ff.; RCEA,7:260-63. ^ Moshe Gil, A History of Palestine, 634–1099 (1997) p 193–194. ^ Taufik Canaan (1927). Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine. London: Luznac & Co. p. 151.  ^ Safarname Ibne Batuta. ^ Meron Rapoport, History Erased, Haaretz, 5 July 2007. [4] ^ Sacred Surprise behind Israel
Israel
Hospital, by Batsheva Sobelman, special Los Angeles Times. ^ [5]; Prophet's grandson Hussein honoured on grounds of Israeli hospital ^ Braswell, Islam: Its Prophet, Peoples, Politics and Power,1996, p.28. ^ Al Muntazar University of Islamic Studies. " Ziyarat
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Ashoora - Importance, Rewards and Effects". Duas. Retrieved 25 May 2017.  ^ Halm (2004), p. 15. ^ [6]; who-was-hussein-and-why-.. ^ Ibn Shahr Ashoub. Manabiq Al Abi Talib, Vol 4. p. 68.  ^ Cole, Juan. "Barack Hussein Obama, Omar Bradley, Benjamin Franklin and other Semitically Named American Heroes". Informed Comment.  [self-published source] ^ "In a distant age and climate, the tragic scene of the death of Husein will awaken the sympathy of the coldest reader." The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 2, p. 218. ^ Reliving Karbala: Martyrdom in South Asian memory, By Syed Akbar Hyder, Oxford University Press, p. 170. ^ Skocpol, Teda. "Rentier state and Shi'a Islam
Islam
in the Iranian Revolution (Chapter 10) - Social Revolutions in the Modern World". Cambridge Core. Retrieved 24 June 2017.  ^ Muhammadi Reishahri, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2010). Mizan al-Hikmah. 2. Qum: Dar al-Hadith. p. 390.  ^ Muhammadi Reishahri, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2010). Mizan al-Hikmah. 2. Qum: Dar al-Hadith. p. 186.  ^ Muhammadi Reishahri, Muhammad
Muhammad
(2010). Mizan al-Hikmah. 3. Qum: Dar al-Hadith. p. 217.  ^ Muhammad
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Baqir Majlisi. Bihar al-Anwar. 45. p. 51. 

References[edit]

Books

Al-Bukhari, Muhammad
Muhammad
Ibn Ismail (1996). The English Translation of Sahih Al Bukhari With the Arabic Text, translated by Muhammad
Muhammad
Muhsin Khan. Al-Saadawi Publications. ISBN 1-881963-59-4.  Canaan, Tawfiq (1927). Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine. London: Luzac & Co.  Dakake, Maria Massi (2007). The Charismatic Community: Shi'ite Identity in Early Islam. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-7033-4.  Gordon, Matthew (2005). The Rise Of Islam. Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-32522-7.  Halm, Heinz; Janet Watson; Marian Hill (2004). Shi'ism. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1888-0.  Madelung, Wilferd (1997). The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-64696-0.  Tabatabae; Sayyid
Sayyid
Mohammad Hosayn (translator) (1979). Shi'ite Islam. Suny Press. ISBN 0-87395-272-3. 

Encyclopedia

Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.  Encyclopædia Iranica. Center for Iranian Studies, Columbia University. ISBN 1-56859-050-4.  Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an. Brill Publishers, Leiden. ISBN 90-04-14743-8.  Encyclopaedia of Islam. 

Blog

Sacred Surprise behind Israel
Israel
Hospital, by Batsheva Sobelman, special Los Angeles Times

External links[edit]

Find more aboutHussein ibn Aliat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata

Hussein ibn ' Ali
Ali
an article of Encyclopædia Britannica. Biography of Imam
Imam
Husayn on YouTube Hussein ibn ' Ali
Ali
by Wilferd Madelung, an article of Encyclopædia Iranica. Hussein ibn ' Ali
Ali
in popular Shiism
Shiism
by Jean Calmard, an article of Encyclopædia Iranica. Imam
Imam
Hussein in the eyes of non-Muslims The Third Imam Martyr
Martyr
Of Karbala An account of the death of Husayn ibn Ali Interactive Family Tree by Happy Books Story of Karbala: Maqtal e Abi Mukhnaf Brief History of Transfer of the Sacred Head of Hussain ibn Ali, From Damascus
Damascus
to Ashkelon
Ashkelon
to Qahera By Qazi Dr. Shaikh Abbas Borhany PhD (USA), NDI, Shahadat al A'alamiyyah (Najaf, Iraq), M.A., LLM (Shariah) Member, Ulama Council of Pakistan. Published in Daily News, Karachi, Pakistan on 3 January 2009.

Husayn ibn Ali of the Ahl al-Bayt Banu Hashim Clan of the Quraish Born: 3 Sha‘bān AH 4 in the ancient (intercalated) Arabic calendar 10 October AD 625 Died: 10 Muharram
Muharram
AH 61 10 October AD 680

Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
titles

Preceded by Hasan ibn Ali Disputed by Nizari 2nd Imam
Imam
of Ismaili Shia
Shia
3rd Imam
Imam
of Sevener, Twelver, and Zaydi
Zaydi
Shia 669–680 Succeeded by ‘Alī ibn Ḥusayn

Succeeded by Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Kaysanites successor

v t e

Shia
Shia
Imams

Twelver

Ali Hasan ibn Ali Husayn Ibn Ali Ali ibn Husayn
Ali ibn Husayn
Zayn al-Abidin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Musa al-Kadhim Ali
Ali
al-Ridha Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Jawad Ali
Ali
al-Hadi Hasan al-Askari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Mahdi

Tayyibi

Ali
Ali
("Asās" or "Wāsih" of Nabi Muhammad)

Hasan Husayn al-Sajjad al-Baqir Jafar al-Sādiq Ismā'il Muhammad Abadullāh (Wāfi Ahmad) Ahmad (Tāqi Muhammad) Husayn (Rādhi Abdullāh) Abdullah al-Mahdi Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Qā'im Ismāʿīl al-Mansur Ma'ādd al-Mu'izz Nizār al-Aziz Mansur al-Hākim Ali
Ali
az-Zāhir Ma'ādd al-Mustansir Ahmad al-Mustāʿli Mansur al-Amir Abu'l-Qāsim at-Tāyyib

Nizari

Ali Husayn ibn Ali Ali ibn Husayn
Ali ibn Husayn
Zayn al-Abidin Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Ja'far al-Sadiq Isma'il ibn Jafar Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Isma'il Ahmad al-Wafi Muhammad
Muhammad
at-Taqi Abdullah ar-Radi Abdullah al-Mahdi Billah al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah al-Mansur Billah Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah Al-Aziz Billah Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah Ali
Ali
az-Zahir al-Mustansir Billah Nizar al-Hādī al-Mutadī al-Qāhir Hassan II Nur al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
II Jalaluddin Hasan ‘Alā’ ad- Dīn
Dīn
Muḥammad III Rukn al-Din Khurshah Shamsu-d- Dīn
Dīn
Muḥammad Qāsim Shāh Islām Shāh Muḥammad ibn Islām Shāh al-Mustanṣir billāh II ʿAbdu s-Salām Shāh Gharīb Mīrzā Abū Dharr ʻAlī Murād Mīrzā Dhū-l-Fiqār ʻAlī Nūru d- Dīn
Dīn
ʻAlī Khalīlullāh II ʻAlī Nizār II as- Sayyid
Sayyid
ʻAlī Ḥasan ʻAlī Qāsim ʻAlī Abū-l-Hasan ʻAlī Shāh Khalīlullāh III Aga Khan I Aga Khan II Aga Khan III Aga Khan IV

v t e

Mourning of Muharram

Events

Battle of Karbala

Figures

Husayn ibn Ali Ali
Ali
Akbar ibn Husayn Ali
Ali
Asghar ibn Husayn al-Abbas ibn Ali Zaynab bint Ali Sukayna bint Husayn Muslim
Muslim
ibn Aqeel

Places

Imam
Imam
Husayn Shrine Hussainiya

Holidays

Day of Ashura Arba'een

Customs

Majlis-e-Aza Marsia Noha Maddahi Soaz Ta'zieh Tatbir Tabuik Hosay Chup Tazia Rawda Khwani Hosseini infancy conference

Related portals

Ashura Shia
Shia
Islam

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89661385 LCCN: n79142777 ISNI: 0000 0000 8972 227X GND: 118982532 SELIBR: 251680 SUDOC: 128525290 BNF: cb14583092f (d

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