thumb|right|upright=1.2|Original map by John Snow showing the clusters
cases in the London [[epidemic of 1854, which is a classical case of using human geography]]
Human geography or anthropogeography is the branch of [[geography]] that is associated and deals with humans and their relationships with communities, cultures, economies, and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across locations.
It analyzes patterns of human social interaction, their interactions with the environment, and their spatial interdependencies by application of qualitative
and quantitative research
Geography was not recognized as a formal academic discipline until the 18th century, although many scholars had undertaken geographical scholarship for much longer, particularly through cartography
The Royal Geographical Society
was founded in England
in 1830, although the United Kingdom did not get its first full Chair of geography until 1917. The first real geographical intellect to emerge in United Kingdom
's geographical minds was Halford John Mackinder
, appointed reader at Oxford University
The National Geographic Society
was founded in the United States in 1888 and began publication of the ''National Geographic'' magazine which became, and continues to be, a great popularizer of geographic information. The society has long supported geographic research and education on geographical topics.
The Association of American Geographers was founded in 1904 and was renamed the American Association of Geographers
in 2016 to better reflect the increasingly international character of its membership.
One of the first examples of geographic methods being used for purposes other than to describe and theorize the physical properties of the earth is John Snow
's map of the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak
. Though Snow was primarily a physician
and a pioneer of epidemiology
rather than a geographer, his map is probably one of the earliest examples of health geography
The now fairly distinct differences between the subfields of physical and human geography have developed at a later date. This connection between both physical and human properties of geography is most apparent in the theory of environmental determinism
, made popular in the 19th century by Carl Ritter
and others, and has close links to the field of evolutionary biology
of the time. Environmental determinism is the theory that people's physical, mental and moral habits are directly due to the influence of their natural environment. However, by the mid-19th century, environmental determinism was under attack for lacking methodological rigor associated with modern science, and later as a means to justify racism
A similar concern with both human and physical aspects is apparent during the later 19th and first half of the 20th centuries focused on regional geography
. The goal of regional geography, through something known as regionalisation
, was to delineate space into regions and then understand and describe the unique characteristics of each region through both human and physical aspects. With links to possibilism
and cultural ecology
some of the same notions of causal effect of the environment on society and culture remain with environmental determinism.
By the 1960s, however, the quantitative revolution
led to strong criticism of regional geography. Due to a perceived lack of scientific rigor in an overly descriptive nature of the discipline, and a continued separation of geography from its two subfields of physical and human geography and from geology
, geographers in the mid-20th century began to apply statistical and mathematical models in order to solve spatial problems.
Much of the development during the quantitative revolution is now apparent in the use of geographic information systems
; the use of statistics, spatial modeling, and positivist approaches are still important to many branches of human geography. Well-known geographers from this period are Fred K. Schaefer
, Waldo Tobler
, William Garrison
, Peter Haggett
, Richard J. Chorley
, William Bunge
, and Torsten Hägerstrand
From the 1970s, a number of critiques of the positivism now associated with geography emerged. Known under the term 'critical geography
,' these critiques signaled another turning point in the discipline. Behavioral geography
emerged for some time as a means to understand how people made perceived spaces and places, and made locational decisions. The more influential 'radical geography' emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. It draws heavily on Marxist
's theory and techniques, and is associated with geographers such as David Harvey
and Richard Peet
. Radical geographers seek to say meaningful things about problems recognized through quantitative methods, provide explanations rather than descriptions, put forward alternatives and solutions, and be politically engaged, rather than using the detachment associated with positivists. (The detachment and objectivity
of the quantitative revolution was itself critiqued by radical geographers as being a tool of capital). Radical geography and the links to Marxism and related theories remain an important part of contemporary human geography (See: ''Antipode
''). Critical geography also saw the introduction of 'humanistic geography', associated with the work of Yi-Fu Tuan
, which pushed for a much more qualitative
approach in methodology.
The changes under critical geography have led to contemporary approaches in the discipline such as feminist geography
, new cultural geography
, "demonic" geographies, and the engagement with postmodern
theories and philosophies.
The primary fields of study in human geography focus around the core fields of:
is the study of cultural products and norms - their variation across spaces and places, as well as their relations. It focuses on describing and analyzing the ways language, religion, economy, government, and other cultural phenomena vary or remain constant from one place to another and on explaining how humans function spatially.
* Subfields include: Social geography
, Animal geographies
, Language geography
, Sexuality and space
, Children's geographies
, and Religion and geography
is the study of the Earth's geography with reference to the standard of living
and the quality of life
of its human inhabitants, study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities, across the Earth. The subject matter investigated is strongly influenced by the researcher's methodological approach.
examines relationships between human economic systems, states, and other factors, and the biophysical environment.
* Subfields include: Marketing geography
and Transportation geography
Medical or health geography
is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health
, and health care
. Health geography deals with the spatial relations and patterns between people and the environment. This is a sub-discipline of human geography, researching how and why diseases are spread and contained.
is the study of the human, physical, fictional, theoretical, and "real" geographies of the past. Historical geography studies a wide variety of issues and topics. A common theme is the study of the geographies of the past and how a place or region changes through time. Many historical geographers study geographical patterns through time, including how people have interacted with their environment, and created the cultural landscape.
is concerned with the study of both the spatially uneven outcomes of political processes and the ways in which political processes are themselves affected by spatial structures.
* Subfields include: Electoral geography
, Strategic geography
and Military geography
is the study of ways in which spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations are related to their environment or location.
, including urban geography
, is the study of urban
and rural area
s with specific regards to spatial, relational and theoretical aspects of settlement. That is the study of areas which have a concentration of building
s and infrastructure
. These are areas where the majority of economic
activities are in the secondary sector
and tertiary sectors
. In case of urban settlement, they probably have a high population density
is the study of cities, towns, and other areas of relatively dense settlement. Two main interests are site (how a settlement is positioned relative to the physical environment) and situation (how a settlement is positioned relative to other settlements). Another area of interest is the internal organization of urban areas with regard to different demographic groups and the layout of infrastructure. This subdiscipline also draws on ideas from other branches of Human Geography to see their involvement in the processes and patterns evident in an urban area
* Subfields include: Economic geography
, Population geography
, and Settlement geography
. These are clearly not the only subfields that could be used to assist in the study of Urban geography
, but they are some major players.
Philosophical and theoretical approaches
Within each of the subfields, various philosophical approaches can be used in research; therefore, an urban geographer could be a Feminist or Marxist geographer, etc.
Such approaches are:
* Animal geographies
* Behavioral geography
* Cognitive geography
* Critical geography
* Feminist geography
* Marxist geography
* Non-representational theory
* Psychoanalytic geography
* Spatial analysis
* Time geography
List of notable human geographers
As with all social sciences, human geographers publish research and other written work in a variety of academic journals. Whilst human geography is interdisciplinary, there are a number of journals that focus on human geography.
* ''ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies''
* ''Economic geography
* ''Environment and Planning
* ''Geografiska Annaler
* ''Global Environmental Change: Human and Policy Dimensions
* ''Human Geography''
* ''Migration Letters
* ''Social & Cultural Geography''
* ''Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers
* ''Progress in Human Geography
* ''Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie
* Physical geography
* Geography of food
* Integrated geography
* Political ecology
* Emotional geography
* AP Human Geography
is a major component of human and population geography, especially over the past 100 years as population shift has moved to urban areas.
[In only 200 years, the world's urban population has grown from 2 percent to nearly 50 percent of all people.]
– Mapping project using social data sets
Category:Branches of geography
Category:Environmental social science