Hugo Grotius (/ˈɡroʊʃiəs/; 10 April 1583 – 28 August
1645), also known as Huig de Groot (Dutch: [ˈɦœyɣ də
ɣroːt]) or Hugo de Groot (Dutch: [ˈɦyɣoː də ɣroːt]), was
a Dutch jurist. Along with the earlier works of Francisco de Vitoria
and Alberico Gentili, Grotius laid the foundations for international
law, based on natural law. A teenage intellectual prodigy, he was
imprisoned for his involvement in the intra-
Calvinist disputes of the
Dutch Republic, but escaped hidden in a chest of books. He wrote most
of his major works in exile in France.
It is thought that
Hugo Grotius was not the first to formulate the
international society doctrine, but he was one of the first to define
expressly the idea of one society of states, governed not by force or
warfare but by actual laws and mutual agreement to enforce those laws.
Hedley Bull declared in 1990: "The idea of international society
which Grotius propounded was given concrete expression in the
Westphalia, and Grotius may be considered the intellectual father of
this first general peace settlement of modern times."
Additionally, his contributions to
Arminian theology provided the
seeds for later Arminian-based movements, such as
Pentecostalism, and he is acknowledged as a significant figure in the
Arminianism–Calvinism debate. Because of his theological
underpinning of free trade, he is also considered an "economic
1 Early life
2 De Indis and Mare Liberum
Arminian controversy, arrest and exile
3.1 Controversy within Dutch Protestantism
3.2 Decretum pro pace ecclesiarum (1613–14)
3.3 De Imperio Summarum Potestatum circa Sacra
4 On The Truth of the Christian Religion
4.1 Governmental theory of atonement
5 De Jure Belli ac Pacis
6 Natural law
7 Later years
8 Personal life
9 Commentary on Grotius
10 Bibliography (selection)
11 See also
13 Further reading
14 External links
Grotius at age 16, by Jan Antonisz. van Ravesteyn, 1599
Delft during the Dutch Revolt, Hugo was the first child of Jan
de Groot and Alida van Overschie. His father was a man of learning,
once having studied with the eminent
Justus Lipsius at Leiden, as well
as of political distinction, and he groomed his son from an early age
in a traditional humanist and Aristotelian education. A prodigious
learner, Hugo entered the University of
Leiden when he was just eleven
years old. There he studied with some of the most acclaimed
intellectuals in northern Europe, including Franciscus Junius, Joseph
Justus Scaliger, and Rudolph Snellius.
At age sixteen he published his first book: a scholarly edition of the
late antique author Martianus Capella's work on the seven liberal
arts, Martiani Minei Felicis Capellæ Carthaginiensis viri
proconsularis Satyricon, in quo De nuptiis Philologiæ & Mercurij
libri duo, & De septem artibus liberalibus libri singulares.
Omnes, & emendati, & Notis, siue Februis Hug. Grotii
illustrati [The Satyricon by Martianus Minneus Felix Capella, a man
from Carthage, which includes the two books of 'On the Marriage of
Philology and Mercury', and the book named 'On the Seven Liberal
Arts'. Everything, including corrections, annotations as well as
deletions and illustrations by Hug. Grotius].
In Holland, Grotius earned an appointment as advocate to
The Hague in
1599 and then as official historiographer for the States of
1601. His first occasion to write systematically on issues of
international justice came in 1604, when he became involved in the
legal proceedings following the seizure by Dutch merchants of a
Portuguese carrack and its cargo in the Singapore Strait.[citation
De Indis and Mare Liberum
Page written in Grotius' hand from the manuscript of De Indis (circa
The Dutch were at war with
Portugal when the loaded merchant
ship Santa Catarina, a Portuguese carrack, was captured by captain
Jacob van Heemskerk
Jacob van Heemskerk off present-day Singapore in 1603.[citation
needed] Heemskerk was employed with the United
Amsterdam Company (part
of the Dutch East India Company), and though he did not have
authorization from the company or the government to initiate the use
of force, many shareholders were eager to accept the riches that he
brought back to them.
Not only was the legality of keeping the prize questionable under
Dutch statute, but a faction of shareholders (mostly Mennonite) in the
Company also objected to the forceful seizure on moral grounds, and of
course, the Portuguese demanded the return of their cargo. The scandal
led to a public judicial hearing and a wider campaign to sway public
(and international) opinion. It was in this wider
context that representatives of the Company called upon Grotius to
draft a polemical defence of the seizure.
Portrait of Grotius at age 25 (Michiel Jansz. van Mierevelt, 1608)
The result of Grotius' efforts in 1604/05 was a long, theory-laden
treatise that he provisionally entitled De Indis (On the Indies).
Grotius sought to ground his defense of the seizure in terms of the
natural principles of justice. In this, he had cast a net much wider
than the case at hand; his interest was in the source and ground of
war's lawfulness in general. The treatise was never published in full
during Grotius' lifetime, perhaps because the court ruling in favor of
the Company preempted the need to garner public support.[citation
In The Free Sea (Mare Liberum, published 1609) Grotius formulated the
new principle that the sea was international territory and all nations
were free to use it for seafaring trade. Grotius, by claiming 'free
seas' (Freedom of the seas), provided suitable ideological
justification for the Dutch breaking up of various trade monopolies
through its formidable naval power (and then establishing its own
monopoly). England, competing fiercely with the Dutch
for domination of world trade, opposed this idea and claimed That the
Dominion of the British Sea, or That Which Incompasseth the Isle of
Great Britain, is, and Ever Hath Been, a Part or Appendant of the
Empire of that Island.
Arminian controversy, arrest and exile
Further information: History of Calvinist–
Further information: Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae pietas
Part of a series on
Five Articles of Remonstrance
Arminianism in the Church of England
Synod of Dort participants
The Five Articles of
Aided by his continued association with Van Oldenbarnevelt, Grotius
made considerable advances in his political career, being retained as
Oldenbarnevelt's resident advisor in 1605, Advocate General of the
Fisc of Holland,
Friesland in 1607, and then as Pensionary
Rotterdam (the equivalent of a mayoral office) in 1613. In 1608
he married Maria van Reigersbergen, with whom he would have eight
children (four surviving beyond youth) and who would be invaluable in
helping him and the family to weather the storm to come.
In these years a great theological controversy broke out between the
chair of theology at
Jacobus Arminius and his followers (who
are called Arminians or Remonstrants) and the strongly Calvinist
Franciscus Gomarus whose supporters are termed Gomarists
or Counter-Remonstrants.
Leiden University "was under
the authority of the States of Holland – they were responsible,
among other things, for the policy concerning appointments at this
institution, which was governed in their name by a board of
Curators – and, in the final instance, the States were
responsible for dealing with any cases of heterodoxy among the
professors." The domestic dissension resulting over Arminius'
professorship was overshadowed by the continuing war with Spain, and
the professor died in 1609 on the eve of the Twelve Years' Truce. The
new peace would move the people's focus to the controversy and
Arminius' followers.
Controversy within Dutch Protestantism
The controversy expanded when the Remonstrant theologian Conrad
Vorstius was appointed to replace
Jacobus Arminius as the theology
chair at Leiden. Vorstius was soon seen by Counter-
moving beyond the teachings of Arminius into
Socinianism and he was
accused of teaching irreligion. Leading the call for Vorstius' removal
was theology professor Sibrandus Lubbertus. On the other side Johannes
Wtenbogaert (a Remonstrant leader) and Johan van Oldenbarnevelt, Grand
Holland had strongly promoted the appointment of Vortius
and began to defend their actions. Gomarus resigned his professorship
at Leyden, in protest that Vorstius was not removed.
Remonstrants were also supported in their opposition by
King James I of England "who thundered loudly against
the Leyden nomination and gaudily depicted Vorstius as a horrid
heretic. He ordered his books to be publicly burnt in London,
Cambridge, and Oxford, and he exerted continual pressure through his
ambassador in the Hague, Ralph Winwood, to get the appointment
cancelled." James began to shift his confidence from Oldenbarnevelt
Grotius joined the controversy by defending the civil authorities'
power to appoint (independently of the wishes of religious
authorities) whomever they wished to a university's faculty. He did
this by writing Ordinum Pietas, "a pamphlet...directed against an
Calvinist Franeker professor Lubbertus; it was ordered
by Grotius' masters the States of Holland, and thus written for the
occasion – though Grotius may already have had plans for such a
The work is twenty-seven pages long, is "polemical and acrimonious"
and only two-thirds of it speaks directly about ecclesiastical
politics (mainly of synods and offices). The work met with a
violent reaction from the Counter-Remonstrants, and "It might be said
that all Grotius' next works until his arrest in 1618 form a vain
attempt to repair the damage done by this book." Grotius would
later write De Satisfactione aiming "at proving that the Arminians are
far from being Socinians."
Decretum pro pace ecclesiarum (1613–14)
Led by Oldenbarnevelt, the States of
Holland took an official position
of religious toleration towards
Remonstrants and Counter-Remonstrants.
Grotius, (who acted during the controversy first as Attorney General
of Holland, and later as a member of the Committee of Counsellors) was
eventually asked to draft an edict to express the policy of
toleration. This edict, Decretum pro pace ecclesiarum was
completed in late 1613 or early 1614. The edict put into practice a
view that Grotius had been developing in his writings on church and
state (see Erastianism): that only the basic tenets necessary for
undergirding civil order (e.g., the existence of God and His
providence) ought to be enforced while differences on obscure
theological doctrines should be left to private conscience.
Hugo Grotius in Delft, the Netherlands
The edict "imposing moderation and toleration on the ministry", was
backed up by Grotius with "thirty-one pages of quotations, mainly
dealing with the Five Remonstrant Articles." In response to
Grotius' Ordinum Pietas, Professor Lubbertus published Responsio Ad
Pietatem Hugonis Grotii in 1614. Later that year Grotius anonymously
published Bona Fides Sibrandi Lubberti in response to Lubbertus.
Jacobus Trigland joined Lubberdus in expressing the view that
tolerance in matters of doctrine was inadmissible, and in his 1615
works Den Recht-gematigden Christen: Ofte vande waere Moderatie and
Advys Over een Concept van moderatie Trigland denounced Grotius'
It is generally assumed that Grotius first propounded the principle of
freedom of the seas, although all countries in the
Indian Ocean and
other Asian seas accepted the right of unobstructed navigation long
before Grotius wrote his De Jure Praedae (On the
Law of Spoils) in the
year of 1604. Additionally, 16th century Spanish theologian Francisco
de Vitoria had postulated the idea of freedom of the seas in a more
rudimentary fashion under the principles of jus gentium. Grotius's
notion of the freedom of the seas would persist until the
mid-twentieth century, and it continues to be applied even to this day
for much of the high seas, though the application of the concept and
the scope of its reach is changing.
In late 1615, when Middelburg professor
Antonius Walaeus published Het
Ampt der Kerckendienaren (a response to Johannes Wtenbogaert's 1610
Tractaet van 't Ampt ende authoriteit eener hoogher Christelijcke
overheid in kerckelijkcke zaken) he sent Grotius a copy out of
friendship. This was a work "on the relationship between
ecclesiastical and secular government" from the moderate
counter-remonstrant viewpoint. In early 1616 Grotius also received
the 36 page letter championing a remonstrant view Dissertatio
epistolica de Iure magistratus in rebus ecclesiasticis from his friend
The letter was "a general introduction on (in)tolerance, mainly on the
subject of predestination and the sacrament...[and] an extensive,
detailed and generally unfavourable review of Walaeus' Ampt, stuffed
with references to ancient and modern authorities." When Grotius
wrote asking for some notes "he received a treasure-house of
ecclesiastical history. ...offering ammunition to Grotius, who
gratefully accepted it". Around this time (April 1616) Grotius
Amsterdam as part of his official duties, trying to persuade
the civil authorities there to join Holland's majority view about
In early 1617 Grotius debated the question of giving
counter-remonstrants the chance to preach in the Kloosterkerk in The
Hague which had been closed. During this time lawsuits were brought
against the States of
Holland by counter-remonstrant ministers and
riots over the controversy broke out in Amsterdam.
De Imperio Summarum Potestatum circa Sacra
Loevestein Castle at the time of Grotius' imprisonment in 1618–21
As the conflict between civil and religious authorities escalated, in
order to maintain civil order Oldenbarnevelt eventually proposed that
local authorities be given the power to raise troops (the Sharp
Resolution of August 4, 1617). Such a measure putatively undermined
the authority of the stadtholder of the republic, Maurice of Nassau,
Prince of Orange. Maurice seized the opportunity to
solidify the preeminence of the Gomarists, whom he had supported, and
to eliminate the nuisance he perceived in Oldenbarnevelt (the latter
had previously brokered the
Twelve Years' Truce
Twelve Years' Truce with
Spain in 1609
against Maurice's wishes). During this time Grotius made another
attempt to address ecclesiastical politics by completing De Imperio
Summarum Potestatum circa Sacra, on "the relations between the
religious and secular authorities...Grotius had even cherished hopes
that publication of this book would turn the tide and bring back peace
to church and state".
Grotius' escape from
Loevestein Castle in 1621
As the religious dispute between the
Remonstrants and the
Remonstrants became increasingly heated during the Twelve
Years’ Truce (1609–1621), riots broke out. A national synod, the
Synod of Dort, was convened to settle the dispute and in 1619, it
outlawed Arminianism. Remonstrant members of the States of Holland
Johan van Oldenbarnevelt
Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and
Hugo Grotius were immediately
arrested and imprisoned. After half a year in remand, sentences were
passed. Van Oldenbarnevelt was sentenced to death and was beheaded in
1619. Grotius was controversially sentenced to life imprisonment and
From his imprisonment in Loevestein, Grotius made a written
justification of his position "as to my views on the power of the
Christian [civil] authorities in ecclesiastical matters, I refer to
my...booklet De Pietate Ordinum Hollandiae and especially to an
unpublished book De Imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra, where I
have treated the matter in more detail...I may summarize my feelings
thus: that the [civil] authorities should scrutinize God's Word so
thoroughly as to be certain to impose nothing which is against it; if
they act in this way, they shall in good conscience have control of
the public churches and public worship – but without
persecuting those who err from the right way." Because this
stripped Church officials of any power some of their members (such as
Johannes Althusius in a letter to Lubbertus) declared Grotius' ideas
The book chest in which Grotius escaped
Loevestein in 1621
In 1621, with the help of his wife and his maidservant, Elsje van
Houwening, Grotius managed to escape the castle in a book chest and
fled to Paris. In the Netherlands today, he is mainly famous for this
daring escape. Both the
Amsterdam and the museum Het
Delft claim to have the original book chest in their
Grotius was well received in
Paris by his former acquaintances and was
granted a royal pension under Louis XIII. It was there in
Grotius completed his most famous philosophical works.[citation
On The Truth of the Christian Religion
While in Paris, Grotius set about rendering into Latin prose a work
which he had originally written as Dutch verse in prison, providing
rudimentary yet systematic arguments for the truth of Christianity.
The Dutch poem, Bewijs van den waren Godsdienst, was published in
1622, the Latin treatise in 1627, under the title De veritate
Governmental theory of atonement
Grotius also developed a particular view of the atonement of Christ
known as the "Governmental" or "Moral government" theory. He theorized
that Jesus' sacrificial death occurred in order for the Father to
forgive while still maintaining his just rule over the universe. This
idea, further developed by theologians such as John Miley, became one
of the prominent views of the atonement in Methodist
De Jure Belli ac Pacis
Main article: De jure belli ac pacis
Title page from the second edition (
Amsterdam 1631) of De jure belli
Living in the times of the
Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War between
Spain and the
Netherlands and the
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War between Catholic and Protestant
European nations (Catholic
France being in the otherwise Protestant
camp), it is not surprising that Grotius was deeply concerned with
matters of conflicts between nations and religions. His most lasting
work, begun in prison and published during his exile in Paris, was a
monumental effort to restrain such conflicts on the basis of a broad
moral consensus. Grotius wrote:
Fully convinced...that there is a common law among nations, which is
valid alike for war and in war, I have had many and weighty reasons
for undertaking to write upon the subject. Throughout the Christian
world I observed a lack of restraint in relation to war, such as even
barbarous races should be ashamed of; I observed that men rush to arms
for slight causes, or no cause at all, and that when arms have once
been taken up there is no longer any respect for law, divine or human;
it is as if, in accordance with a general decree, frenzy had openly
been let loose for the committing of all crimes.
De jure belli ac pacis
De jure belli ac pacis libri tres (On the
War and Peace: Three
books) was first published in 1625, dedicated to Grotius' current
patron, Louis XIII. The treatise advances a system of principles of
natural law, which are held to be binding on all people and nations
regardless of local custom. The work is divided into three books:
Book I advances his conception of war and of natural justice, arguing
that there are some circumstances in which war is justifiable.
Book II identifies three 'just causes' for war: self-defense,
reparation of injury, and punishment; Grotius considers a wide variety
of circumstances under which these rights of war attach and when they
Book III takes up the question of what rules govern the conduct of war
once it has begun; influentially, Grotius argued that all parties to
war are bound by such rules, whether their cause is just or not.
Engraved portrait of Grotius
Grotius' concept of natural law had a strong impact on the
philosophical and theological debates and political developments of
the 17th and 18th centuries. Among those he influenced were Samuel
Pufendorf and John Locke, and by way of these philosophers his
thinking became part of the cultural background of the Glorious
England and the American Revolution. In Grotius'
understanding, nature was not an entity in itself, but God's creation.
Therefore, his concept of natural law had a theological
Old Testament contained moral precepts (e.g. the
Christ confirmed and therefore were still valid.
They were useful in interpreting the content of natural law. Both
biblical revelation and natural law originated in God and could
therefore not contradict each other.
Remonstrants began to return to the Netherlands after the
death of Prince Maurice in 1625 when toleration was granted to them.
In 1630 they were allowed complete freedom to build and run churches
and schools and to live anywhere in Holland. The
by Uytenbogaert set up a presbyterial organization. They established a
theological seminary at
Amsterdam where Grotius came to teach
alongside Episcopius, Limborch, Curcellaeus, and Le Clerc.
In 1634 Grotius was given the opportunity to serve as Sweden's
ambassador to France. The recently deceased Swedish king, Gustavus
Adolphus had been an admirer of Grotius (he was said to have always
carried a copy of
De jure belli ac pacis
De jure belli ac pacis in his saddle when leading
his troops). His successor's regent, Axel Oxenstierna, was keen to
have Grotius in his employ. Grotius accepted the offer and took up
diplomatic residence in Paris, which remained his home until he was
released from his post in 1645.
While departing from his last visit to Sweden, Grotius was shipwrecked
on the voyage. He washed up on the shore of Rostock, ill and
weather-beaten, and on August 28, 1645, he died; his body at last
returned to the country of his youth, being laid to rest in the Nieuwe
Kerk in Delft.
Grotius' personal motto was Ruit hora ("Time is running away"); his
last words were "By understanding many things, I have accomplished
nothing" (Door veel te begrijpen, heb ik niets bereikt).
Significant friends and acquaintances of his included the theologian
Franciscus Junius, the poet Daniel Heinsius, the philologist Gerhard
Johann Vossius, the historian Johannes Meursius, the engineer Simon
Stevin, the historian Jacques Auguste de Thou, and the Orientalist and
Arabic scholar Erpinius. He was also friends with the Flemish Jesuit
Grotius was the father of regent and diplomat Pieter de Groot.
Commentary on Grotius
Andrew Dickson White wrote in Seven Great Statesmen in the
Humanity with Unreason (1910):
Into the very midst of all this welter of evil, at a point in time to
all appearance hopeless, at a point in space apparently defenseless,
in a nation of which every man, woman, and child was under sentence of
death from its sovereign, was born a man who wrought as no other has
ever done for a redemption of civilization from the main cause of all
that misery; who thought out for Europe the precepts of right reason
in international law; who made them heard; who gave a noble change to
the course of human affairs; whose thoughts, reasonings, suggestions,
and appeals produced an environment in which came an evolution of
humanity that still continues.
Robert A. Heinlein
Robert A. Heinlein satirized the Grotian governmental
approach to theology in Methuselah's Children: "There is an old, old
story about a theologian who was asked to reconcile the doctrine of
Divine Mercy with the doctrine of infant damnation. 'The Almighty,' he
explained, 'finds it necessary to do things in His official and public
capacity which in His private and personal capacity He deplores.'"
Marble bas-relief of
Hugo Grotius among 23 reliefs of great historical
lawgivers in the chamber of the
U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives in the
United States Capitol
Annotationes ad Vetus Testamentum (1732)
Peace Palace Library
Peace Palace Library in
The Hague holds the Grotius Collection,
which has a large number of books by and about Hugo Grotius. The
collection was based on a donation from
Martinus Nijhoff of 55
De jure belli ac pacis
De jure belli ac pacis libri tres.
Works are listed in order of publication, with the exception of works
published posthumously or after long delay (estimated composition
dates are given). Where an English translation is available, the
most recently published translation is listed beneath the title.
Adamus exul (The Exile of Adam; tragedy) – The Hague, 1601
De republica emendanda (To Improve the Dutch Republic; manuscript
1601) – pub. The Hague, 1984
Parallelon rerumpublicarum (Comparison of Constitutions; manuscript
1601–02) – pub. Haarlem 1801–03
De Indis (On the Indies; manuscript 1604–05) – pub. 1868 as De
Commentary on the
Law of Prize and Booty, ed. Martine Julia van
Ittersum (Liberty Fund, 2006).
Christus patiens (The Passion of Christ; tragedy) – Leiden, 1608
Mare Liberum (The Free Seas; from chapter 12 of De Indis) – Leiden,
The Free Sea, ed. David Armitage (Liberty Fund, 2004).
De antiquitate reipublicae Batavicae (On the Antiquity of the Batavian
Republic) – Leiden, 1610
The Antiquity of the Batavian Republic, ed. Jan Waszink and others
(van Gorcum, 2000).
Meletius (manuscript 1611) – pub. Leiden, 1988
Meletius, ed. G.H.M. Posthumus Meyjes (Brill, 1988).
Annales et Historiae de rebus Belgicis (Annals and History of the Low
Countries' War; manuscript 1612-13) – pub. Amsterdam, 1657
The Annals and History of the Low-Countrey-warrs, ed. Thomas Manley
Modern Dutch translation of the "Annales" only in: Hugo de Groot,
"Kroniek van de Nederlandse Oorlog. De Opstand 1559-1588", ed. Jan
Waszink (Nijmegen, Vantilt 2014), with introduction, index, plates.
Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae pietas (The Piety of the States of
Holland and Westfriesland) – Leiden, 1613
Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae pietas, ed. Edwin Rabbie (Brill,
De imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra (On the power of sovereigns
concerning religious affairs; manuscript 1614–17) – pub. Paris,
De imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra, ed. Harm-Jan van Dam
De satisfactione Christi adversus Faustum Socinum (On the satisfaction
Christ against [the doctrines of] Faustus Socinus) – Leiden, 1617
Defensio fidei catholicae de satisfactione Christi, ed. Edwin Rabbie
(van Gorcum, 1990).
A defence of the Catholic faith concerning the satisfaction of Christ
against Faustus Socinus, tr. Frank Hugh Foster (W. F. Draper, 1889).
Inleydinge tot de Hollantsche rechtsgeleertheit (Introduction to Dutch
Jurisprudence; written in Loevenstein) – pub. The Hague, 1631
Jurisprudence of Holland, ed. R.W. Lee (Oxford, 1926).
Bewijs van den waaren godsdienst (Proof of the True Religion; didactic
poem) – Rotterdam, 1622
Apologeticus (Defense of the actions which led to his arrest) –
De jure belli ac pacis
De jure belli ac pacis (On the
War and Peace) – Paris, 1625
War and Peace, ed. Richard Tuck (Liberty Fund, 2005).
De veritate religionis Christianae (On the Truth of the Christian
religion) – Paris, 1627
The Truth of the Christian Religion, ed. John Clarke (Edinburgh,
Sophompaneas (Joseph; tragedy) – Amsterdam, 1635
De origine gentium Americanarum dissertatio (Dissertation of the
origin of the American peoples) –
Via ad pacem ecclesiasticam (The way to religious peace) – Paris,
Annotationes in Vetus Testamentum (Commentaries on the Old Testament)
– Amsterdam, 1644
Annotationes in Novum Testamentum (Commentaries on the New Testament)
Amsterdam and Paris, 1641–50
De fato (On Destiny) – Paris, 1648
Coenraad van Beuningen
Emer de Vattel
English school of international relations theory
^ Hedley Bull; Adam Roberts; Benedict Kingsbury) (eds.). Hugo Grotius
and International Relations. Oxford: Oxford UP.
^ Thumfart (2009)
^ See Vreeland (1919), chapter 1
^ Stahl, William H. (1965). "To a Better Understanding of Martianus
Capella". Speculum. 40: 104. doi:10.2307/2856467.
^ a b See Ittersum (2006), chapter 1.
^ Selden, John. Needham, Marchmont (trans.) (1652) Mare Clausum. Of
the Dominion, or, Ownership of the Sea. Vols. 1 & 2. London:
Printed by William Du-Gard, by appointment of the Council of State and
sold at the Sign of the Ship at the New Exchange.
^ Vreeland (1919), chapter 3.
^ Edwin Rabbie (1995). Hugo Grotius: Ordinum Hollandiae ac Westfrisiae
Pietas, 1613. Brill.
^ Willem Nijenhuis (1972–1994). Ecclesia reformata: Studies on the
Reformation. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Harm-Jan Van Dam (1994). "De Imperio
Summarum Potestatum Circa Sacra". In Henk J.M. Nellen & Edwin
Hugo Grotius Theologian – Essays in Honor of G.H.M.
Posthumus Meyjes. New York: E.J. Brill.
^ A translation edict is printed in full in the appendix to Vreeland
^ See his manuscript for Meletius (1611) and the more systematic De
imperio summarum potestatum circa sacra (finished 1617, published
^ Hans W. Blom, ed. (2009). Property, Piracy and Punishment: Hugo
War and Booty in De iure praedae. Brill.
^ Arthur Nussbaum (1947). A concise history of the law of nations.
Macmillan Co. p. 62.
^ Slot Loevestein
2017-03-23. Missing or empty title= (help)
^ "Hugo de Groot - Slot Loevestein". Slot
Loevestein (in Dutch).
War and Peace, trans. Francis Kelsey (Carnegie edition,
1925), Prol. sect. 28.
Jeremy Waldron (2002), God, Locke, and Equality: Christian
Foundations in Locke's Political Thought, Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge (UK), ISBN 978-0-521-89057-1, pp. 189, 208
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hugo Grotius.
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Wikisource has original works written by or about:
Hugo Grotius at Project Gutenberg
Works by or about
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LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Hugo Grotius in the Online Library of Liberty
Hugo Grotius at Post-
Reformation Digital Library
Hugo Grotius in Short Title Catalogue Netherlands (STCN)
Individual works by Grotius
On the Laws of
On the Laws of
Peace (Latin, first edition 1625)
Logicarum disputationum quarta de postpraedicamentis; disputation,
aged 14, at
Physicarum disputationum septima de infinito, loco et vacuo;
disputation, aged 14, at
Extensive catalogue of Grotius' writings at the
Peace Palace Library,
The Correspondence of Hugo de Groot (Grotius) in EMLO
Blom, Andrew. "Hugo Grotius". Internet Encyclopedia of
Miller, Jon. "Hugo Grotius". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia
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