Huayna Capac, Huayna Cápac, Guayna Capac (in Hispanicized spellings)
or Wayna Qhapaq (Quechua wayna young, young man, qhapaq the mighty
one, "the young mighty one") (1464/1468–1527) was the third
Sapa Inca of the Inca Empire, born in Tomebamba  sixth of the
Hanan dynasty, and eleventh of the Inca civilization. His original
name was Tito Husi Hualpa. He was the successor to Topa Inca
1 Background and family
2 Political and military career
3 Death and legacy
4 Lost mummy
6 Further reading
Background and family
The exact date of Huayna Capac's birth are unknown; it may have been
in 1468, in
Tumebamba (modern Cuenca) where he also may have spent
part of his childhood, but then raised in Cuzco. He was the son of
Topa Inca (ruled 1471-1493) had extended Inca rule north
into present-day Ecuador, a process continued by Huayna Capac.
Huayna Capac's legitimate wife and full sister was Coya Cusirimay.
The couple produced no male heirs, but
Huayna Capac sired more than 50
sons with other women.
Huayna Capac took another sister, Araua Ocllo,
as his royal wife; they had a son called Tupac Cusi Hualpa, also known
as Huáscar. Other children included Ninan Cuyochi, Atahualpa, Túpac
Huallpa, Manco Inca Yupanqui, General Atoc, Paullu Inca, and Quispe
Sisa.:112,118 Many of them later once held the title of Sapa Inca,
although some were installed by the Spaniards.
Political and military career
The Inca empire at its peak under Huanya Capac.
Since he was a "boy chief" or "boy sovereign", he had a tutor,
Hualpya, nephew of Inca Yupanqui. This tutor's plot to assume the
Incaship, was discovered by the Governor Huaman Achachi, who had
Huayna Capac extended the Tawantinsuyu (Inca Empire) significantly to
the south into present-day
Argentina and tried to annex
territories towards the north, in what is now
Ecuador and southern
In Ecuador, formerly known as the Kingdom of Quito, Huayna Capac
absorbed the Quito Confederation into the
Inca Empire after marrying
the Quito Queen Paccha Duchicela Shyris XVI in order to halt a long
protracted war. From this marriage
Atahualpa was born (1502 AD) in
Atahualpa was to inherit the Kingdom of Quito, by
the will of his father Huayna Capac, and later Inca Emperor after
defeating his brother, the Inca Emperor Huascar in the Inca Civil War,
where the Inca Huascar attempted to conquer the Kingdom of Quito after
7 years of peace.
Huayna Capac spent most of his time in
he became fond of and as a result founded cities like Atuntaqui. The
capital city of the Tawantinsuyu was in
Cuzco and rebuilt Quito making
it the second capital of the Inca Empire.
Huayna Capac built
astronomical observatories in
Ecuador such as Ingapirca. Moreover,
Huayna Capac hoped to establish a northern stronghold in the city of
Ecuador where the Cañari people lived.
The sparse remains of Huanya Capac's royal estate and his country
palace, called Quispiguanca, are in the
Sacred Valley in the
present-day town of Urubamba, Peru.
In present-day Bolivia, he was responsible for developing Cochabamba
as an important agriculture and administrative center, with more than
two thousand silos (qollas) for corn storage built in the area.
Further north in Ecuador, Huayna Capac's forces attempted to expand
into the lowlands of the Amazon basin, reaching the Chinchipe River,
but they were pushed back by the Shuar.
The Inca empire reached the height of its size and power under his
rule, stretching over much of present-day Bolivia, Peru, Argentina,
Chile, Ecuador, and southwestern Colombia. It included varying terrain
from high frozen
Andes to the densest swamps, and more than two
hundred distinct ethnic groups, each with their own customs and
languages. The empire spanned 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi) north
to south comprising the
Pacific Ocean coast on the west, the Andes,
and extending to the
Amazon Basin on the east.
Despite the geographical and cultural challenges, Inca or
Tawantinsuyu, "the united four regions", was sophisticated for its
time and place. At its height, it had monumental cities, temples,
fortresses of stone marvelously engineered, roads cut through granite
mountain slopes, and massive agricultural terraces and hydraulic
A dedicated ruler,
Huayna Capac did much to improve the lives of his
people. In addition to building temples and other works, Huayna
greatly expanded the road network.:144 He had storehouses
(qollqas) built along it for food so that aid could be quickly rushed
to any who were in danger of starvation.
Huayana knew of the Spanish arrival off the coast of his empire:131
Death and legacy
Huayna contracted a fever, perhaps from measles or smallpox upon
returning to Quito,:117:115 while campaigning in Colombia
(though some historians dispute this). The Spaniards had carried
smallpox to South America, and the Native Americans had not acquired
immunity against it. Huayna and millions of other South and Central
Americans died in that epidemic, including his brother, Auqui Tupac
Inca, and successor eldest son, Ninan Cuyochi.
Huayna Capac died in
1524,.:82–83,85 His sons
Atahualpa Inca and
Huáscar Inca were
granted two separate realms of the Inca Empire: his favorite
Atahualpa, the northern portion centered on Quito, and his legitimate
heir Huáscar, the southern portion centered on Cuzco.:146 The two
sons reigned peacefully for four to five years before
had second thoughts.:89
Huáscar quickly secured power in
Cuzco and had his brother Atahualpa
Atahualpa escaped from his imprisonment with the help of
his wife and began securing support from Huayna Capac's best generals
Chalkuchimac and Quizquiz, who happened to be near Quito, the nearest
Atahualpa rebelled against his brother and won the ensuing
civil war, imprisoning
Huáscar at the end of the war.:89–94
Pizarro and his men had the fortune of ascending into the
Atahualpa was returning to
Cuzco after successful conclusion of his
northern campaigns. After launching a surprise attack in
massacring upward of 6,000 Incan soldiers,
Pizarro took Atahualpa
prisoner. To secure his release,
Atahualpa pledged to fill a room of
approximately 88 cubic meters with precious golden objects, the famous
Atahualpa's Ransom Room. Over the next months, trains of porters
carted precious objects from across the empire, including jars, pots,
vessels, and huge golden plates pried off the walls of the Sun Temple
Qurikancha in Cuzco. On May 3, 1533,
Pizarro ordered the vast
accumulation of golden objects melted down, a process that took many
weeks. Finally, on July 16, the melted loot was distributed among his
men, and 10 days later,
All the Inca emperors had their bodies mummified after death. Huanya
Capac's mummy was on display in his palace in
Cuzco and was viewed by
the Spanish conquistadors of the Inca Empire. Later, it was taken from
Cuzco to his royal estate of
Quispiguanca where it was hidden from the
Spanish by Huanya Capac's relatives and servants. At some point it was
taken back to Cuzco, where it was discovered in 1559 by the Spanish.
Along with mummies of 10 other Inca emperors and their wives, the
mummy was taken to Lima where it was displayed in the San Andres
Hospital. The mummies deteriorated in the damp climate of Lima and
eventually they were either buried or destroyed by the Spanish.
An attempt to find the mummies of the Inca emperors beneath the San
Andres hospital in 2001 was unsuccessful. The archaeologists found a
crypt, but it was empty. Possibly the mummies had been removed when
the building had been repaired after an earthquake.
^ Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi
yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary): wayna. - adj.
s. m. Joven. Hombre que está en la juventud. qhapaq. - adj.
Principal. Primero en importancia. Noble, ilustre. Qhapaq. / Rico,
-ca. Noble, adinerado. / adj. y s. Poderoso, -sa. Acaudalado,
adinerado. El que tiene extensas tierras.
^ Diccionario Quechua - Español - Quechua, Academía Mayor de la
Lengua Quechua, Gobierno Regional Cusco, Cusco 2005: qhapaq - s. Hist.
Término utilizado en el inkanato para denominar al poderosos,
ilustre, eminente, regio, próspero, glorioso, de sangre real, etc.
^ Sarmiento de Gamboa 173
^ a b c d e de Gamboa, P.S., 2015, History of the Incas, Lexington,
^ Niles, Susan A. (1999), The Shape of Inca History, Iowa City:
University of Iowa Press, p. 253; Sarmiento de Gamboa p. 171
^ Niles, Susan (May 1, 1999). The Shape of Inca History: Narrative and
Architecture in an Andean Empire. University Of Iowa Press.
p. 109. ISBN 0877456739.
^ http://www.antonioante.gob.ec/web/?page_id=7[permanent dead link]
^ Ernesto Salazar (1977). An Indian federation in lowland Ecuador
(PDF). International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. p. 13.
Retrieved 16 February 2013.
^ "Maya, Aztecs, Inca, Inuit: before Columbus." Archived 2011-03-20 at
the Wayback Machine. Worldwide Story for Civilization. (retrieved 3
^ a b Prescott, W.H., 2011, The History of the Conquest of Peru,
Digireads.com Publishing, ISBN 9781420941142
^ Leon, P., 1998, The Discovery and Conquest of Peru, Chronicles of
the New World Encounter, edited and translated by Cook and Cook,
Durham: Duke University Press, ISBN 9780822321460
^ McCaa; et al. "Why Blame Smallpox? The Death of the Inca Huayna
Capac and the Demographic Destruction of Tawantinsuyu (Ancient Peru)".
Retrieved 7 Jan 2012.
^ a b c de la Vega, G., "El Inca", 2006, Royal Commentaries of the
Incas and General History of Peru, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing
Co., Inc., ISBN 9780872208438
^ McCaa, Robert, Nimlos, Aleta, and Hampe Martinez, Teodoro (nd) "Why
accessed 27 Jan 2017; Pringle, Harriet (2011), "Inca Empire", National
accessed 27 Jan 2017
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Library resources about
Resources in your library
Resources in other libraries
Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro. The History of the Incas. Austin:
University of Texas Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-292-71485-4.
Topa Inca Yupanqui
As ruler of the Inca Empire
(see also Ninan Cuyochi)