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Huayna Capac, Huayna Cápac, Guayna Capac (in Hispanicized spellings) or Wayna Qhapaq (Quechua wayna young, young man, qhapaq the mighty one,[1][2] "the young mighty one") (1464/1468–1527) was the third Sapa Inca
Sapa Inca
of the Inca Empire, born in Tomebamba[3] [4] sixth of the Hanan dynasty, and eleventh of the Inca civilization. His original name was Tito Husi Hualpa.[5] He was the successor to Topa Inca Yupanqui.[6]:108

Contents

1 Background and family 2 Political and military career 3 Death and legacy 4 Lost mummy 5 References 6 Further reading

Background and family[edit] The exact date of Huayna Capac's birth are unknown; it may have been in 1468, in Tumebamba
Tumebamba
(modern Cuenca) where he also may have spent part of his childhood, but then raised in Cuzco. He was the son of Topa Inca. Topa Inca
Topa Inca
(ruled 1471-1493) had extended Inca rule north into present-day Ecuador, a process continued by Huayna Capac.[7] Huayna Capac's legitimate wife and full sister was Coya Cusirimay.[8] The couple produced no male heirs, but Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
sired more than 50 sons with other women. Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
took another sister, Araua Ocllo, as his royal wife; they had a son called Tupac Cusi Hualpa, also known as Huáscar. Other children included Ninan Cuyochi, Atahualpa, Túpac Huallpa, Manco Inca Yupanqui, General Atoc, Paullu Inca, and Quispe Sisa.[6]:112,118 Many of them later once held the title of Sapa Inca, although some were installed by the Spaniards. Political and military career[edit]

The Inca empire at its peak under Huanya Capac.

Since he was a "boy chief" or "boy sovereign", he had a tutor, Hualpya, nephew of Inca Yupanqui. This tutor's plot to assume the Incaship, was discovered by the Governor Huaman Achachi, who had Hualpya killed.[6]:109 Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
extended the Tawantinsuyu (Inca Empire) significantly to the south into present-day Chile
Chile
and Argentina
Argentina
and tried to annex territories towards the north, in what is now Ecuador
Ecuador
and southern Colombia. In Ecuador, formerly known as the Kingdom of Quito, Huayna Capac absorbed the Quito Confederation into the Inca Empire
Inca Empire
after marrying the Quito Queen Paccha Duchicela Shyris XVI in order to halt a long protracted war. From this marriage Atahualpa
Atahualpa
was born (1502 AD) in Caranqui, Ecuador. Atahualpa
Atahualpa
was to inherit the Kingdom of Quito, by the will of his father Huayna Capac, and later Inca Emperor after defeating his brother, the Inca Emperor Huascar in the Inca Civil War, where the Inca Huascar attempted to conquer the Kingdom of Quito after 7 years of peace. Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
spent most of his time in Ecuador
Ecuador
which he became fond of and as a result founded cities like Atuntaqui. The capital city of the Tawantinsuyu was in Cuzco
Cuzco
and rebuilt Quito making it the second capital of the Inca Empire.[9] Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
built astronomical observatories in Ecuador
Ecuador
such as Ingapirca. Moreover, Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
hoped to establish a northern stronghold in the city of Tumebamba, Ecuador
Ecuador
where the Cañari people lived. The sparse remains of Huanya Capac's royal estate and his country palace, called Quispiguanca, are in the Sacred Valley
Sacred Valley
in the present-day town of Urubamba, Peru. In present-day Bolivia, he was responsible for developing Cochabamba as an important agriculture and administrative center, with more than two thousand silos (qollas) for corn storage built in the area.[10] Further north in Ecuador, Huayna Capac's forces attempted to expand into the lowlands of the Amazon basin, reaching the Chinchipe River, but they were pushed back by the Shuar.[11] The Inca empire reached the height of its size and power under his rule, stretching over much of present-day Bolivia, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, and southwestern Colombia. It included varying terrain from high frozen Andes
Andes
to the densest swamps, and more than two hundred distinct ethnic groups, each with their own customs and languages. The empire spanned 3,500 kilometres (2,200 mi) north to south comprising the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
coast on the west, the Andes, and extending to the Amazon Basin
Amazon Basin
on the east.[12] Despite the geographical and cultural challenges, Inca or Tawantinsuyu, "the united four regions", was sophisticated for its time and place. At its height, it had monumental cities, temples, fortresses of stone marvelously engineered, roads cut through granite mountain slopes, and massive agricultural terraces and hydraulic works. A dedicated ruler, Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
did much to improve the lives of his people. In addition to building temples and other works, Huayna greatly expanded the road network.[13]:144 He had storehouses (qollqas) built along it for food so that aid could be quickly rushed to any who were in danger of starvation. Huayana knew of the Spanish arrival off the coast of his empire[6]:131 since 1515. Death and legacy[edit] Huayna contracted a fever, perhaps from measles or smallpox upon returning to Quito,[6]:117[14]:115 while campaigning in Colombia (though some historians dispute this).[15] The Spaniards had carried smallpox to South America, and the Native Americans had not acquired immunity against it. Huayna and millions of other South and Central Americans died in that epidemic, including his brother, Auqui Tupac Inca, and successor eldest son, Ninan Cuyochi. Huayna Capac
Huayna Capac
died in 1524,.[16]:82–83,85 His sons Atahualpa
Atahualpa
Inca and Huáscar
Huáscar
Inca were granted two separate realms of the Inca Empire: his favorite Atahualpa, the northern portion centered on Quito, and his legitimate heir Huáscar, the southern portion centered on Cuzco.[13]:146 The two sons reigned peacefully for four to five years before Huáscar
Huáscar
Inca had second thoughts.[16]:89 Huáscar
Huáscar
quickly secured power in Cuzco
Cuzco
and had his brother Atahualpa arrested. But Atahualpa
Atahualpa
escaped from his imprisonment with the help of his wife and began securing support from Huayna Capac's best generals Chalkuchimac
Chalkuchimac
and Quizquiz, who happened to be near Quito, the nearest major city. Atahualpa
Atahualpa
rebelled against his brother and won the ensuing civil war, imprisoning Huáscar
Huáscar
at the end of the war.[16]:89–94 Pizarro
Pizarro
and his men had the fortune of ascending into the Andes
Andes
just as Atahualpa
Atahualpa
was returning to Cuzco
Cuzco
after successful conclusion of his northern campaigns. After launching a surprise attack in Cajamarca
Cajamarca
and massacring upward of 6,000 Incan soldiers, Pizarro
Pizarro
took Atahualpa prisoner. To secure his release, Atahualpa
Atahualpa
pledged to fill a room of approximately 88 cubic meters with precious golden objects, the famous Atahualpa's Ransom Room. Over the next months, trains of porters carted precious objects from across the empire, including jars, pots, vessels, and huge golden plates pried off the walls of the Sun Temple of Qurikancha
Qurikancha
in Cuzco. On May 3, 1533, Pizarro
Pizarro
ordered the vast accumulation of golden objects melted down, a process that took many weeks. Finally, on July 16, the melted loot was distributed among his men, and 10 days later, Pizarro
Pizarro
had Atahualpa
Atahualpa
executed. Lost mummy[edit] All the Inca emperors had their bodies mummified after death. Huanya Capac's mummy was on display in his palace in Cuzco
Cuzco
and was viewed by the Spanish conquistadors of the Inca Empire. Later, it was taken from Cuzco
Cuzco
to his royal estate of Quispiguanca
Quispiguanca
where it was hidden from the Spanish by Huanya Capac's relatives and servants. At some point it was taken back to Cuzco, where it was discovered in 1559 by the Spanish. Along with mummies of 10 other Inca emperors and their wives, the mummy was taken to Lima where it was displayed in the San Andres Hospital. The mummies deteriorated in the damp climate of Lima and eventually they were either buried or destroyed by the Spanish.[17] An attempt to find the mummies of the Inca emperors beneath the San Andres hospital in 2001 was unsuccessful. The archaeologists found a crypt, but it was empty. Possibly the mummies had been removed when the building had been repaired after an earthquake.[18] References[edit]

^ Teofilo Laime Ajacopa, Diccionario Bilingüe Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha, La Paz, 2007 (Quechua-Spanish dictionary): wayna. - adj. s. m. Joven. Hombre que está en la juventud. qhapaq. - adj. Principal. Primero en importancia. Noble, ilustre. Qhapaq. / Rico, -ca. Noble, adinerado. / adj. y s. Poderoso, -sa. Acaudalado, adinerado. El que tiene extensas tierras. ^ Diccionario Quechua - Español - Quechua, Academía Mayor de la Lengua Quechua, Gobierno Regional Cusco, Cusco 2005: qhapaq - s. Hist. Término utilizado en el inkanato para denominar al poderosos, ilustre, eminente, regio, próspero, glorioso, de sangre real, etc. ... ^ https://thebiography.us/en/huayna-capac ^ http://mayaincaaztec.com/huaynacapac.html ^ Sarmiento de Gamboa 173 ^ a b c d e de Gamboa, P.S., 2015, History of the Incas, Lexington, ISBN 9781463688653 ^ Niles, Susan A. (1999), The Shape of Inca History, Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, p. 253; Sarmiento de Gamboa p. 171 ^ Niles, Susan (May 1, 1999). The Shape of Inca History: Narrative and Architecture in an Andean Empire. University Of Iowa Press. p. 109. ISBN 0877456739.  ^ http://www.antonioante.gob.ec/web/?page_id=7[permanent dead link] ^ http://www.voltairenet.org/article120410.html ^ Ernesto Salazar (1977). An Indian federation in lowland Ecuador (PDF). International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. p. 13. Retrieved 16 February 2013.  ^ "Maya, Aztecs, Inca, Inuit: before Columbus." Archived 2011-03-20 at the Wayback Machine. Worldwide Story for Civilization. (retrieved 3 July 2011) ^ a b Prescott, W.H., 2011, The History of the Conquest of Peru, Digireads.com Publishing, ISBN 9781420941142 ^ Leon, P., 1998, The Discovery and Conquest of Peru, Chronicles of the New World Encounter, edited and translated by Cook and Cook, Durham: Duke University Press, ISBN 9780822321460 ^ McCaa; et al. "Why Blame Smallpox? The Death of the Inca Huayna Capac and the Demographic Destruction of Tawantinsuyu (Ancient Peru)". Retrieved 7 Jan 2012.  ^ a b c de la Vega, G., "El Inca", 2006, Royal Commentaries of the Incas and General History of Peru, Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., Inc., ISBN 9780872208438 ^ McCaa, Robert, Nimlos, Aleta, and Hampe Martinez, Teodoro (nd) "Why Blame Smallpox"; http://users.pop.umn.edu/~rmccaa/aha2004/why_blame_smallpox.pdf, accessed 27 Jan 2017; Pringle, Harriet (2011), "Inca Empire", National Geographic, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2011/04/inca-empire/pringle-text/2, accessed 27 Jan 2017 ^ Pringle

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Huayna Capac.

Library resources about Huayna Capac

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Sarmiento de Gamboa, Pedro. The History of the Incas. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-292-71485-4.

Preceded by Topa Inca
Topa Inca
Yupanqui Sapa Inca As ruler of the Inca Empire 1493–1527 Succeeded by Huáscar (see also Ninan Cuyochi)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 7623326

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