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The Howard family
Howard family
is an English aristocratic family founded by John Howard who was created Duke of Norfolk
Duke of Norfolk
(3rd creation) by King Richard III of England
England
in 1483. However, John was also the eldest grandson (although maternal) of the 1st Duke of 1st creation. The Howards have been part of the peerage since the 15th century and remain the Premier Dukes of the Realm in the Peerage of England, acting as Earl Marshal of England. After the English Reformation
English Reformation
many Howards remained steadfast in their Catholic
Catholic
faith as the most high-profile recusant family; two members, Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel, and William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford, are regarded as martyrs: a saint and a blessed respectively. The senior line of the house, as well as holding the Duke of Norfolk, are also Earl of Arundel, Earl of Surrey
Earl of Surrey
and Earl of Norfolk, as well as holding six baronies. The Arundel
Arundel
title was inherited in 1580, when the Howards became the genealogical successors to the paternally extinct FitzAlans, ancient kin to the House of Stuart, dating back to when the family first arrived in Great Britain from Brittany
Brittany
(see Alan fitz Flaad). Thomas Howard, the 4th Duke of Norfolk, married as his first wife Mary FitzAlan; who, after the death of her brother Henry in 1556, became heiress to the Arundel
Arundel
estates of her father Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel. Her son was the above-mentioned Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel. It is from this marriage that the present Duke of Norfolk
Duke of Norfolk
takes his name of FitzAlan-Howard and why his seat is in Arundel
Arundel
Castle. There have also been several notable cadet branches; those existing to this day include the Howards of Effingham, Howards of Carlisle, Howards of Suffolk
Suffolk
and Howards of Penrith. The former three are earldoms, and the latter a barony. Throughout much of English, and later British history, the Howards have played an important role. Claiming descent from folklore figure Hereward the Wake
Hereward the Wake
who resisted the Norman conquest, John Howard fought to the death at the Battle of Bosworth Field
Battle of Bosworth Field
in defence of the cause for the House of York. They regained favour with the new Tudor dynasty after leading a defence of England
England
from Scottish invasion at the Battle of Flodden, and Catherine Howard
Catherine Howard
subsequently became the fifth wife and Queen consort
Queen consort
to King Henry VIII. Her uncle, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, played a significant role in Henrician politics. Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, served as Lord Admiral
Lord Admiral
of the English fleet which defeated the invading Spanish Armada. Arundel
Arundel
Castle has been in the family of the Duke of Norfolk
Duke of Norfolk
for over 400 years, and is still the principal seat of the Norfolk
Norfolk
family. As cultural heritage, it is a Grade I listed building.[1]

Contents

1 Origins

1.1 Background

2 History 3 Howard Family
Family
Tree 4 Arms of the Howard Family 5 See also 6 Bibliography 7 References 8 External links

Origins[edit] Background[edit]

Arundel
Arundel
Castle, home of the Fitzalans and later the Howards

The Howards claim as their ancestor Hereward the Wake
Hereward the Wake
who was of local Mercian background and resisted the Norman conquest
Norman conquest
of England
England
from his base at the Isle of Ely; he has since become a mainstay of English folklore. It is claimed that he was the son of Leofric, Earl of Mercia and Lady Godiva. Ultimately this ancestry traces back to a point of origin in Leicester. A pedigree compiled and signed by Sir William Dugdale
William Dugdale
The Norroy King of Arms at the College of Arms
College of Arms
dated 8 April 1665 however states that the Howard family
Howard family
are descended from the Howarth
Howarth
[sic Howard] family of Great Howarth
Howarth
Hall, Rochdale. And that “it is clear from above seventy deeds, without date, that the Howards, Dukes of Norfolk, do derive from the Howards Howarth
Howarth
of Great Howarth
Howarth
and that William Howard of Wigenhall… was a direct decedent of Osbert Howard de Howarth” given lands in Rochdale on behalf of his service as Master of King Henry I’s Buckhounds. Dugdale's account however has been disputed.[2] Indisputable descent begins with Sir William Howard (died 1308), a judge who was in the House of Commons in the Model Parliament of 1295. Sir William's son, Sir John Howard, became Sheriff of Norfolk
Norfolk
and Suffolk. Sir John was married to Joan de Cornwall, granddaughter of Richard of England, 1st Earl of Cornwall and King of the Romans by his illegitimate child, Sir Richard de Cornwall.[3] History[edit]

Anne Boleyn, second wife of Henry VIII

Sir William's great-great-great-grandson, Sir Robert Howard, married Lady Margaret Mowbray, elder daughter of Thomas Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk
Norfolk
(1366–1399). The line of Dukes died out in 1476 and the heiress of the last Duke, Anne Mowbray, died at the age of nine in 1481; after declaring her widower King Edward IV's son Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, illegitimate, Richard III of England created the son of Sir Robert and Lady Margaret, John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk, of a new creation on 28 June 1483, the 200th anniversary of the Barony of Mowbray to which he was also senior co-heir. John had previously been summoned to Parliament as Lord Howard by Edward IV. He was also created hereditary Earl Marshal. John's son and heir, Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk, was the grandfather of two English queens, Anne Boleyn
Anne Boleyn
and Catherine Howard, both wives of Henry VIII. The Howard family
Howard family
became one of the foremost recusant families due to their continued adherence to Roman Catholicism throughout the English Reformation and its aftermath. This meant that they often could not take their seats in the House of Lords. They are still known as the most prominent English Catholic
Catholic
family.

Catherine Howard, fifth wife of Henry VIII

Both the Dukedom and Earl Marshalship have been the subject of repeated attainders and restorations in the 15th to 17th centuries. Before Charles II restored the titles for good, the Howards had inherited the ancient title of Earl of Arundel
Earl of Arundel
through an heiress, and formed additional branches that have continued to this day. A branch of the Howard family
Howard family
has been seated at Castle Howard, one of England's most magnificent country homes, for over 300 years. In order of genealogical seniority:

the Barons Howard of Penrith descend from a younger brother of the 12th Duke; the Earls of Suffolk
Suffolk
and Berkshire descend from the 2nd son of the 4th Duke; the Earls of Carlisle descend from the third son of the 4th Duke; the Earls of Effingham descend from the fourth son of the 2nd Duke, who was Lord High Admiral and whose son was commander in chief against the Spanish Armada. (Curiously, this line was excluded from eligibility to inherit on the restoration of the Dukedom).

Queen Elizabeth I was the first English monarch to descend from John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk
Duke of Norfolk
who was her great-great grandfather. Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
is the first British monarch to descend from John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk. Through her mother, Elizabeth Bowes Lyon, she descends twice from the 4th Duke and four times from the 2nd Duke. Her grandchildren descend a total of 34 times from John Howard, 1st Duke, including from the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th Dukes, as well as from the Earls of Suffolk
Suffolk
and Berkshire and the Earls of Effingham, and also from Mary Boleyn
Mary Boleyn
11 times.[4] Titled families descending through females are too numerous to mention. Howard Family
Family
Tree[edit] Part of this section is transcluded from Dukes of Norfolk
Norfolk
family tree. (edit history) Part of this section is transcluded from Duke of Norfolk. (edit history)

The following chart is a family tree of the Dukes of Norfolk, who were members of the Plantagenet, Mowbray and Howard families. Errors :

Edward II was the issue of Edward I's first marriage to Eleanor of Castile, (1241-1290), not of his second marriage to Marguerite of France. Frances de Vere, Countess of Surrey, wife of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was daughter of the 15th Earl of Oxford and Elizabeth Trussell, not the 14th Earl of Oxford and Anne Howard.

Below is a clickable family tree of the Howard family: Main article: Dukes of Norfolk
Norfolk
family tree

Mowbray & Howard Family
Family
Tree: Dukes of Norfolk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King Edward I (1239–r.1272–1327)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EARL OF NORFOLK, 1312

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1300–1338)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk
Norfolk
(for life), 2nd Countess of Norfolk (1320–1399)

 

John Segrave, 4th Baron Segrave (1315–1353)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elizabeth de Segrave, 5th Baroness Segrave (1338–1368)

 

John de Mowbray, 4th Baron Mowbray (1340–1368)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earl of Nottingham

 

DUKE OF NORFOLK, 1397

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John de Mowbray, 1st Earl of Nottingham (1365–1383)

 

Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (c.1368–1399) Banished, Dukedom forfeit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF NORFOLK, 1397 (RESTORED 1425)

 

 

Sir Richard Howard (1385–1436)

 

Lady Margaret de Mowbray (c.1388–1459)

 

Thomas de Mowbray, 4th Earl of Norfolk (1385–1405)

 

John de Mowbray, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1392–1432)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF NORFOLK, 1483

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk (1425–1485) Killed at Bosworth, titles forfeit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1415–1461)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF NORFOLK, 1483 (RESTORED 1514)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk (1443–1524) Lord High Treasurer

 

 

King Edward IV (1442–1483, r.1461–70, 1471–83)

 

 

John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1444–1476)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

m.(1) Anne of York

 

 

DUKE OF NORFOLK, 1477

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk (1473–1554) Lord High Treasurer Attainted 1547, restored 1553

 

 

 

 

Richard of Shrewsbury, Duke of York, Duke of Norfolk (1473–1483)

 

Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk (1472–1481)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baron Howard of Effingham

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Effingham (c.1510–1573)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earl of Nottingham

 

Viscount Howard of Bindon

 

 

 

 

Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey (1517–1547) Executed for treason

 

Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham (1536–1624) Lord High Admiral

 

Thomas Howard, 1st Viscount Howard of Bindon (c.1520–1582)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earl of Effingham

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earl of Northampton

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (1536–1572) Executed for treason, titles forfeit

 

 

 

Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton (1540–1614) First Lord of the Treasury

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earl of Suffolk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

St. Philip Howard, 20th Earl of Arundel (1557–1595) Attainted 1589

 

Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk (1561–1626) Admiral, Lord High Treasurer

 

Lord William Howard (1563–1640)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baron Howard of Escrick

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EARL OF NORFOLK, 1644 Earl of Berkshire

 

 

Earl of Carlisle

 

 

 

 

Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1585–1646)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viscount Stafford

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Frederick Howard, 22nd Earl of Arundel, 2nd Earl of Norfolk (1608–1652)

 

Bl. William Howard, 1st Viscount Stafford (1614–1680) Executed for treason

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Earl of Stafford

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DUKE OF NORFOLK, 1483 (RESTORED 1660)

 

EARL OF NORWICH, 1672

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Howard, 5th Duke of Norfolk (1627–1677)

 

Henry Howard, 6th Duke of Norfolk (1628–1684)

 

Cardinal Philip Howard (1629–1694)

 

Hon. Charles Howard (1630–1713)

 

Col. Bernard Howard (1641–1717)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk (1655–1701)

 

Lord Thomas Howard (1662–1689)

 

 

 

Henry Charles Howard (d. 1720)

 

Bernard Howard (1674–1735)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thomas Howard, 8th Duke of Norfolk (1683–1732)

 

Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk (1685–1777)

 

 

 

Charles Howard, 10th Duke of Norfolk (1720–1786)

 

Henry Howard (1713–1787)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk (1746–1815)

 

Bernard Howard, 12th Duke of Norfolk (1765–1842)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk (1791–1856)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Baron Howard of Glossop

 

Baron Howard of Penrith

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk (1815–1860)

 

 

 

Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Glossop (1818–1883)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Viscount FitzAlan of Derwent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 15th Duke of Norfolk (1847–1917)

 

 

 

Francis Fitzalan-Howard, 2nd Baron Howard of Glossop (1859–1924)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk (1908–1975)

 

 

 

Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 3rd Baron Howard of Glossop (1885–1972)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miles Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk (1915–2002)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk (b. 1956)

Arms of the Howard Family[edit] See: Gallery of Howard Arms

The Howard family's original arms were the white bend on red with the crosslets. On marrying the heiress of the dukes of Norfolk, the first Howard duke of Norfolk
Norfolk
quartered his arms with those of Thomas of Brotherton 1st Earl of Norfolk, son of King Edward I
Edward I
Longshanks. Starting with the 2nd Duke of Norfolk, the Howards added in the 2nd and 4th quarter the gold lion on red of the Fitzalan
Fitzalan
Earls of Arundel and the checkered blue and gold of the Warren Earls of Surrey, whom they became heirs of.

Original Howard Arms

Arms of Thomas of Brotherton
Thomas of Brotherton
(1300 † 1338), Earl of Norfolk, son of Edward I
Edward I
Longshanks, from whom all the Dukes of Norfolk
Norfolk
are descended.

Arms of John Howard, 1st Howard Duke of Norfolk, showing the original Howard Arms (I & III), quartered with the arms of Thomas of Brotherton (II) and the arms of Mowbray (IV).

The coat of arms used by the Howard Family. The Scots shield is an augmentation, see below.[5]

Augmentation to the arms of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk
for his services at the Battle of Flodden

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of the Howard Dukes of Norfolk, starting with Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk.

Arms of the arms of Henry Howard, Earle of Surrey, for which he was attainted. The main offense was bearing the undifferenced arms of England
England
(2nd quarter), which only the monarch was allowed. Surrey was beheaded on 19 January 1547 on a charge of treasonably quartering the royal arms.

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Howard Earls of Suffolk.

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Howard Earl of Carlisle

Earl Marshal
Earl Marshal
is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
used in England
England
(then, following the Act of Union 1800, in the United Kingdom). It is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral. The Earl Marshal
Earl Marshal
has responsibility for the organisation of State funerals and the monarch's coronation in Westminster Abbey.[6] He is also a leading officer of arms. The office is hereditary in the Howard Family in their position as Dukes of Norfolk, the senior dukedom in the United Kingdom.

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of the Duke of Norfolk

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Adopted 1660 (by the 5th Duke of Norfolk) Coronet A Coronet
Coronet
of a Duke Crest 1st: Issuant from a Ducal Coronet
Coronet
Or a pair of Wings Gules each charged with a Bend between six Cross-crosslets fitchy Argent (Howard); 2nd: On a Chapeau Gules turned up Ermine a Lion statant gardant with tail extended Or gorged with a Ducal Coronet
Coronet
Argent (Thomas of Brotherton); 3rd: On a Mount Vert a Horse passant Argent holding in the mouth a Slip of Oak Vert fructed proper (Fitzalan). Escutcheon Quarterly, 1st: Gules on a Bend between six Cross-crosslets fitchy Argent an Escutcheon Or charged with a Demi-lion rampant pierced through the mouth by an arrow within a Double Tressure flory counterflory of the first (Howard); 2nd: Gules three Lions passant gardant in pale Or, Armed and Langued Azure, in chief a Label of three points Argent ( Plantagenet
Plantagenet
of Norfolk); 3rd: Checky Or and Azure (Warenne); 4th: Gules a Lion rampant Or, Armed and Langued Azure (Fitzalan). Supporters Dexter a Lion, sinister a Horse both Argent the latter holding in the mouth a Slip of Oak Vert fructed proper. Motto Sola Virtus Invicta ( Latin
Latin
for "Virtue alone is unconquered"). Orders Often, the coat of arms of the Duke of Norfolk
Duke of Norfolk
appears with the Garter circlet of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
surrounding the shield, as seen in the arms of the 17th Duke of Norfolk. However, this is not hereditary; the 17th Duke did not become a Knight of the Garter until 22 April 1983. The 18th Duke of Norfolk, as of 2017, had not been appointed to the Order of the Garter. Other elements Placed behind the shield are two gold batons in saltire enamelled at the ends in black, which represent the Duke of Norfolk's office as Earl Marshal
Earl Marshal
and Hereditary
Hereditary
Marshal of England. Symbolism The shield on the bend in the first quarter of the arms was granted as an augmentation of honour by Henry VIII
Henry VIII
to the 2nd Duke of Norfolk, to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Flodden. It is a modification of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland. Instead of its normal rampant position, the lion is shown cut in half with an arrow through its mouth, commemorating the death of King James IV at the battle.[7].

See also[edit]

Duke of Norfolk Baron Howard de Walden Baron Howard of Escrick Baron Howard of Penrith Earl of Suffolk
Earl of Suffolk
(1603 creation) Earl of Berkshire
Earl of Berkshire
(1626 creation) Earl of Carlisle Earl of Effingham Earl of Norfolk Viscount FitzAlan of Derwent Baron Lanerton Baron Stafford
Baron Stafford
(1640 creation) Baron Stafford
Baron Stafford
(1640 creation)

Bibliography[edit]

William Dugdale, Baronage of England
England
(London, 1675–76); Collins, Peerage of England
England
(fifth edition, London, 1779); Henry Howard, Memorials of the Howard Family
Family
(privately printed, 1834); Edmund Lodge, Portraits of Illustrious Personages (London, 1835); The Howard Papers, with a Biographical Pedigree and Criticism by Canston (London, 1862); Yeatman, The Early Genealogical History of the House of Arundel (London, 1882); Doyle, Official Baronage of England
England
(London, 1886); Brenan and Statham, The House of Howard (London, 1907).

References[edit]

^ "Images of England: Arundel
Arundel
Castle". English Heritage. Retrieved 2 December 2007.  ^ "Dugdale's 1665 Pedigree of the Howarths of Great Howarth".  ^ Douglas Richardson, Plantagenet
Plantagenet
Ancestry, pg 232-33. ^ Vyhmeister (2011) p.131 "The Howard Dukes of Norfolk
Norfolk
– Genealogical Connection Tree to Princes William and Harry Windsor" ^ Rietstap, Johannes Baptist (2003). Armorial general. vol.2. Genealogical Publishing Co. ISBN 0806348119.  ^ "The history of the Royal heralds and the College of Arms". The College of Arms
College of Arms
website. Retrieved 16 April 2009.  ^ Brooke-Little, J.P., FSA (1978) [1950]. Boutell's Heraldry (Revised ed.). London: Frederick Warne LTD. p. 125. ISBN 0-7232-2096-4. 

External links[edit]

European Heraldry page http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/HOWARD1.htm[u

.