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A household consists of one or more people who live in the same dwelling and also share meals or living accommodation, and may consist of a single family or some other grouping of people.[1] A single dwelling will be considered to contain multiple households if either meals or living space are not shared. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many social, microeconomic and government models, and is important to the fields of economics and inheritance.[2] Household models include the family, varieties of blended families, share housing, group homes, boarding houses, houses in multiple occupation (UK), and a single room occupancy (US). In feudal societies, the royal household and medieval households of the wealthy would also have included servants and other retainers.

Contents

1 Government definitions 2 Economic theories 3 Social 4 Household models 5 History 6 Historical statistics on housing

6.1 Historical housing conditions in Belgium 6.2 Postwar housing conditions in France 6.3 Postwar housing conditions in the United Kingdom 6.4 Housing
Housing
conditions in Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
of America

7 See also 8 Other sources 9 References 10 External links

Government definitions[edit] For statistical purposes in the United Kingdom, a household is defined as "one person or a group of people who have the accommodation as their only or main residence and for a group, either share at least one meal a day or share the living accommodation, that is, a living room or sitting room".[3] The United States Census
United States Census
definition similarly turns on "separate living quarters", i.e. "those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building"[4] A householder in the U.S. census is the "person (or one of the people) in whose name the housing unit is owned or rented (maintained);" if no person qualifies, any adult resident of a housing unit is a householder. The U.S. government formerly used the terms "head of the household" and "head of the family" to describe householders; beginning in 1980, these terms were officially dropped from the census and replaced with "householder".[5] A household is officially defined as follows:[6]

A household includes all the persons who occupy a housing unit. A housing unit is a house, an apartment, a mobile home, a group of rooms, or a single room that is occupied (or if vacant, is intended for occupancy) as separate living quarters. Separate living quarters are those in which the occupants live and eat separately from any other persons in the building and which have direct access from the outside of the building or through a common hall. The occupants may be a single family, one person living alone, two or more families living together, or any other group of related or unrelated persons who share living arrangements. (People not living in households are classified as living in group quarters.)

According to Statistics Canada, since July 15, 1998, "a household is generally defined as being composed of a person or group of persons who co-reside in, or occupy, a dwelling."[7] Economic theories[edit] Most economic theories assume there is only one income stream to a household[citation needed]; this a useful simplification for modeling, but does not necessarily reflect reality. Many households now include multiple income-earning members. Most economic models do not address whether the members of a household are a family in the traditional sense. Government and policy discussions often treat the terms household and family as synonymous,[citation needed] especially in western societies where the nuclear family has become the most common family structure.[dubious – discuss] In reality, there is not always a one-to-one relationship between households and families. Social[edit] In social work the household is a residential grouping defined similarly to the above in which housework is divided and performed by householders. Care may be delivered by one householder to another, depending upon their respective needs, abilities, and perhaps disabilities. Different household compositions may lead to differential life and health expectations and outcomes for household members.[8][9] Eligibility for certain community services and welfare benefits may depend upon household composition.[10] In sociology 'household work strategy', a term coined by Ray Pahl,[11][12] is the division of labour between members of a household, whether implicit or the result of explicit decision–making, with the alternatives weighed up in a simplified type of cost-benefit analysis. It is a plan for the relative deployment of household members' time between the three domains of employment: i) in the market economy, including home-based self-employment second jobs, in order to obtain money to buy goods and services in the market; ii) domestic production work, such as cultivating a vegetable patch or raising chickens, purely to supply food to the household; and iii) domestic consumption work to provide goods and services directly within the household, such as cooking meals, child–care, household repairs, or the manufacture of clothes and gifts. Household work strategies may vary over the life-cycle, as household members age, or with the economic environment; they may be imposed by one person or be decided collectively.[13] Feminism
Feminism
examines the ways that gender roles affect the division of labour within households. Sociologist Arlie Russell Hochschild
Arlie Russell Hochschild
in The Second Shift and The Time Bind presents evidence that in two-career couples, men and women, on average, spend about equal amounts of time working, but women still spend more time on housework.[14][15] Cathy Young, another feminist writer, responds to Hochschild's assertions by arguing that in some cases, women may prevent the equal participation of men in housework and parenting.[16] Household models[edit] Household models in anglophone culture include the family and varieties of blended families, share housing, and group homes for people with support needs. Other models of living situations which may meet definitions of a household include boarding houses, a house in multiple occupation (UK), and a single room occupancy (US). History[edit]

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In feudal or aristocratic societies, a household may include servants or retainers, whether or not they are explicitly so named. Their roles may blur the line between a family member and an employee. In such cases, they ultimately derive their income from the household's principal income. Historical statistics on housing[edit]

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Percentage of dwellings with a bathroom in various European countries[17]

Country 1960 1970 1980

 Belgium 23.6% 49.1% 73.9%

 Denmark 39.4% 73.1% 85.4%

 France 28.0% 48.9% 85.2%

 Germany 51.9% 71.5% 92.3%

 Greece 10.4% - 69.3%

 Ireland 33.0% 55.3% 82.0%

 Italy 10.7% 64.5% 86.4%

 Luxembourg 45.7% 69.4% 86.2%

 Netherlands 30.3% 75.5% 95.9%

 Portugal 18.6% - 58%

 Spain 24.0% 77.8% 85.3%

 United Kingdom 78.3% 90.9% 98.0%

According to statistics from Eurostat, the percentage of households in various European countries with access to an indoor WC, bath/ shower, and hot running water on the premises in 1988 were as follows:[18]

Country Indoor WC Bath/shower Hot running water

 Belgium 94% 92% 87%

 Denmark 97% 94% N/A

 France 94% 93% 95%

 Germany 99% 97% 98%

 Greece 85% 85% 84%

 Ireland 94% 92% 91%

 Italy 99% 95% 93%

 Luxembourg 99% 97% 97%

 Netherlands N/A 99% 100%

 Portugal 80% N/A N/A

 Spain 97% 96% N/A

 UK 99% 100% N/A

Percentage of dwellings in various European countries with certain amenities, according to 1981–82 censuses[17] Bathroom or shower on the premises: Belgium: 73.9% Denmark: 85.1% Germany: 92.3% Greece: 69.3% Spain: 85.3% France: 85.2% Ireland: 82.0% Italy: 86.4% Luxembourg: 86.2% Netherlands: 95.9% Portugal: 58.0% United Kingdom: 98.0% Internal WC: Belgium: 79.0% Denmark: 95.8% Germany: 96.0% Greece: 70.9% France: 85.4% Ireland: 84.5% Italy: 87.7% Luxembourg: 97.3% Portugal: 58.7% United Kingdom: 97.3% Central heating on the premises: Denmark: 54.6% Germany: 70.0% Spain: 22.5% France: 67.6% Ireland: 39.2% Italy: 56.5% Luxembourg: 73.9% Netherlands: 66.1% According to statistics from the World Bank
World Bank
and the Economic Commission for Europe (UN), the average usable floorspace of dwellings in existence in 1976 in various countries were as follows:[19]

Country m2

 Austria 86

 Belgium 97

 Bulgaria 63

 Canada 89

 Czechoslovakia 69

 Denmark 122

 Finland 71

 France 82

 East Germany 60

 West Germany 95

 Greece 80

 Hungary 65

 Ireland 88

 Luxembourg 107

 Netherlands 71

 Norway 89

 Poland 58

 Portugal 104

 Romania 54

 Soviet Union 49

 Spain 82

 Sweden 109

  Switzerland 98

 United Kingdom 70

 United States 120

 Yugoslavia 65

Average useful floor space (m2) per dwelling in selected European countries (Source: European Commission, 1994):[20]

Country m2

 Austria 85.3

 Belgium 86.3

 Denmark 107.0

 Finland 74.8

 France 85.4

 East Germany 64.4

 West Germany 86.7

 Greece 79.6

 Ireland 88.0

 Italy 92.3

 Luxembourg 107.0

 Netherlands 98.6

 Spain 86.6

 Sweden 92.0

 United Kingdom 79.7

Percentage of households without modern amenities (Source: Living Conditions in OECD Countries, 1986)[21] Note: The Japanese and European data is from a 1980 census. Percentage of households lacking an indoor flush toilet:

Country No indoor flush toilet

 Belgium 19%

 France 17%

 West Germany 7%

 Greece 29%

 Ireland 22%

 Italy 11%

 Japan 54%

 Norway 17%

 Portugal 43%

 Spain 12%

 United Kingdom 6%

Percentage of households lacking a fixed shower or bath:

Country No fixed shower or bath

 Belgium 24%

 France 17%

 West Germany 11%

 Italy 11%

 Japan 17%

 Norway 18%

 Spain 39%

 United Kingdom 4%

Floor space in selected countries (1992–1993)[22]

Country Year m2

 Australia 1993 191.0

 United States 1992 153.2

 South Korea 1993 119.3

 United Kingdom 1992 95.0

 Germany 1993 90.8

 Japan 1993 88.6

Basic amenities in British and German housing:[23] Households with an exclusive use of an inside WC: Britain: (1961) 87% (1971) 88% (1979) 95% Germany: (1960) 64% (1970) 85% (1978) 92.5% Households with a bath or shower: Britain: (1961) 72% (1971) 91% (1979) 94.3% Germany: (1960) 51% (1970) 82% (1978) 89.1% Percentage of principle residences in France
France
lacking certain amenities:[19] 1962: No running water in dwelling: 21.6% No W.C. in dwelling: 59.5% No bath or shower in dwelling: 71.1% No central heating: 80.7% 1968: No running water in dwelling: 9.2% No W.C. in dwelling: 45.2% No bath or shower in dwelling: 52.5% No central heating: 65.1% 1975: No running water in dwelling: 2.8% No W.C. in dwelling: 26.2% No bath or shower in dwelling: 29.8% No central heating: 46.9% 1978: No running water in dwelling: 1.3% No W.C. in dwelling: 20.9% No bath or shower in dwelling: 22.9% No central heating: 39.7% Percentage of households with central heating:

Country 1970 1978

 Great Britain 34% 53%

 Germany 44% 64%

Percentage of dwellings in the United States
United States
with selected amenities (1970):[24]

Household Percentage

Bath or shower 95%

Flush toilet 96%

Basic amenities in the housing stock of East Germany:[19] 1961 Running water: 66.0% Interior WC: 33.0% Bath or shower: 22.4% Central heating: 2.5% 1971: Running water: 82.2% Interior WC: 41.8% Bath or shower: 38.7% Central heating: 10.6% 1979: Running water: 89.0% Interior WC: 50.0% Bath or shower: 50.0% Central heating: 22.0% Percentage of dwellings in various European countries equipped with basic facilities (1970–71):[25] Austria: Piped water: 84.2% Lavatory: 69.8% Fixed bath or shower: 52.9% Belgium: Piped water: 88.0% Lavatory: 50.4% Fixed bath or shower: 47.8% Czechoslovakia: Piped water: 75.3% Lavatory: 49.0% Fixed bath or shower: 58.6% Denmark: Piped water: 98.7% Lavatory: 90.3% Fixed bath or shower: 76.5% Finland: Piped water: 72.0% Lavatory: 61.4% Greece: Piped water: 64.9% Lavatory: 41.2% Fixed bath or shower: 35.6% Hungary: Piped water: 36.1% Lavatory: 27.2% Fixed bath or shower: 31.7% Ireland: Piped water: 78.2% Lavatory: 69.2% Fixed bath or shower: 55.4% Italy: Piped water: 86.1% Lavatory: 79.0% Fixed bath or shower: 64.5% Netherlands: Lavatory: 80.8% Fixed bath or shower: 81.4% Norway: Piped water: 97.5% Lavatory: 69.0% Fixed bath or shower: 66.1% Portugal: Piped water: 47.8% Lavatory: 33.7% Fixed bath or shower: 32.6% Spain: Piped water: 70.9% Lavatory: 70.9% Fixed bath or shower: 46.4% Sweden: Piped water: 97.4% Lavatory: 90.1% Fixed bath or shower: 78.3% Switzerland: Lavatory: 93.3% Fixed bath or shower: 80.9% United Kingdom: Lavatory: 86.3% Fixed bath or shower: 90.7% Yugoslavia: Piped water: 33.6% Lavatory: 26.2% Fixed bath or shower: 24.6% Housing
Housing
Conditions in Great Britain: percentage of all households possessing and lacking certain amenities:[26] Percentage of all households entirely without certain amenities: 1951: Fixed bath: 37.6% Internal or external WC: 7.7% 1961: Fixed bath: 22.4% Internal or external WC: 6.5% Hot water tap: 21.8% 1966: Fixed bath: 15.4% Internal or external WC: 1.7% Internal WC: 18.3% Hot water tap: 12.5% 1971: Fixed bath: 9.1% Internal or external WC: 1.1% Internal WC: 11.5% Hot water tap: 6.5% Percentage of all households sharing certain amenities: 1951: Fixed bath: 7.5% Internal or external WC: 14.9% 1961: Fixed bath: 4.4% Internal or external WC: 6.7% Hot water tap: 1.8% 1966: Fixed bath: 4.1% Internal or external WC: 6.4% Internal WC: 4.4% Hot water tap: 2.0% 1971: Fixed bath: 3.2% Internal or external WC: 4.1% Internal WC: 3.1% Hot water tap: 1.9% Proportion of households in the United States
United States
of America possessing certain durable goods:[27] Washing
Washing
machine (1965): 87.4% Washing
Washing
machine (1970): 92.1% Refrigerator (1965): 99.5% Refrigerator (1970): 99.8% Television (1965): 97.1% Television (1970): 98.7% Telephone (1965): 85.0% Telephone (1970): 92.0% Proportion of households in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
possessing certain durable goods:[27] Washing
Washing
machine (1964): 53.0% Washing
Washing
machine (1971): 64.3% Refrigerator (1964): 34.0% Refrigerator (1971): 68.8% Television (1964): 80.0% Television (1971): 91.4% Telephone (1964): 2.20% Telephone (1971): 37.8% Proportion of households in Scotland possessing certain durable goods:[28] Washing
Washing
machine (1971): 65.0% Refrigerator (1971): 53.2% Television (1971): 92.1% Telephone (1971): 36.1% Proportion of households in Northern Ireland possessing certain durable goods:[29] Washing
Washing
machine (1971): 45.4% Refrigerator (1971): 40.1% Television (1971): 87.5% Telephone (1971): 27.0% Proportion of households in the EEC possessing certain durable goods (1963–1964):[27] Manual workers (1963–64) West Germany Washing
Washing
machine: 66.2% Refrigerator: 62.1% Television: 51.3% Telephone: 1.8% France Washing
Washing
machine: 39.6% Refrigerator: 47.0% Television: 34.4% Telephone: 1.4% Italy Washing
Washing
machine: 13.6% Refrigerator: 50.2% Television: 47.9% Telephone: 20.0% Netherlands Washing
Washing
machine: 80.4% Refrigerator: 25.5% Television: 58.0% Telephone: 9.4% Belgium Washing
Washing
machine: 74.7% Refrigerator: 24.9% Television: 47.6% Telephone: 8.2% Luxembourg Washing
Washing
machine: 82.3% Refrigerator: 64.7% Television: 27.9% Telephone: 23.0% White collar workers (1963–64) West Germany Washing
Washing
machine: 62.2% Refrigerator: 79.1% Television: 51.8% Telephone: 19.6% France Washing
Washing
machine: 48.2% Refrigerator: 71.3% Television: 43.3% Telephone: 15.2% Italy Washing
Washing
machine: 38.3% Refrigerator: 81.9% Television: 79.3% Telephone: 57.9% Netherlands Washing
Washing
machine: 73.9% Refrigerator: 51.6% Television: 56.2% Telephone: 57.4% Belgium Washing
Washing
machine: 68.5% Refrigerator: 57.3% Television: 48.3% Telephone: 40.0% Luxembourg Washing
Washing
machine: 82.3% Refrigerator: 79.2% Television: 25.2% Telephone: 67.3% Proportion of dwellings in selected countries with certain amenities (1960–71):[27] West Germany Inside piped water supply: 98.2% (1965) Flush toilet: 83.3% (1965) Fixed bath or shower: 64.3% (1965) Inside or outside piped water supply: 99.0% (1968) Flush toilet: 86.5% (1968) Fixed bath or shower: 66.8% (1968) France Inside piped water supply: 77.5% (1962) Toilet of any type: 43.1% (1962) Flush toilet: 39.3% (1962) Fixed bath or shower: 28.0% (1962) Inside or outside piped water supply: 92.8% (1968) Inside piped water supply: 91.5% (1968) Toilet of any type: 56.2% (1968) Flush toilet: 53.2% (1968) Fixed bath or shower: 48.9% (1968) Italy Inside or outside piped water supply: 71.6% (1961) Inside piped water supply: 62.3% (1961) Toilet of any type: 89.5% (1961) Fixed bath or shower: 28.9% (1961) Netherlands Inside or outside piped water supply: 89.6% (1956) Toilet of any type: 99.9% (1956) Flush toilet: 67.5% (1956) Fixed bath or shower: 26.8% (1956) Belgium Inside or outside piped water supply: 76.9% (1961) Toilet of any type: 99.9% (1961) Flush toilet: 47.6% (1961) Fixed bath or shower: 24.3% (1961) Luxembourg Inside or outside piped water supply: 98.8% (1960) Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1960) Flush toilet: 81.6% (1960) Fixed bath or shower: 45.7% (1960) Denmark Inside piped water supply: 92.9% (1960) Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1960) Flush toilet: 83.6% (1960) Fixed bath or shower: 48.3% (1960) Inside or outside piped water supply: 96.7% (1965) Inside piped water supply: 96.7% (1965) Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1965) Flush toilet: 90.9% (1965) Fixed bath or shower: 63.4% (1965) Sweden Inside piped water supply: 90.0% (1960) Flush toilet: 76.2% (1960) Fixed bath or shower: 61.0% (1960) Inside or outside piped water supply: 95.2% (1965) Inside piped water supply: 94.3% (1965) Toilet of any type: 99.7% (1965) Flush toilet: 85.3% (1965) Fixed bath or shower: 72.9% (1965) Norway Inside or outside piped water supply: 94.0% (1960) Inside piped water supply: 92.8% (1960) Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1960) Flush toilet: 57.9% (1960) Fixed bath or shower: 45.2% (1960) Finland Inside or outside piped water supply: 47.1% (1960) Inside piped water supply: 47.1% (1960) Flush toilet: 35.4% (1960) Fixed bath or shower: 14.6% (1960) Poland Inside or outside piped water supply: 39.1% (1960) Inside piped water supply: 29.9%% (1960) Toilet of any type: 26.9% (1960) Flush toilet: 18.9% (1960) Fixed bath or shower: 13.9% (1960) Inside piped water supply: 46.8% (1966) Flush toilet: 33.3% (1966) Bulgaria Inside or outside piped water supply: 28.5% (1965) Inside piped water supply: 28.2% (1965) Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1965) Flush toilet: 11.8% (1965) Fixed bath or shower: 8.7% (1965) Yugoslavia (urban) Inside piped water supply: 42.4% (1961) Toilet of any type: 34.5% (1961) Fixed bath or shower: 22.5% (1961) Czechoslovakia Inside or outside piped water supply: 60.5% (1961) Inside water supply: 49.1% (1961) Flush toilet: 39.5% (1961) Fixed bath or shower: 33.3% (1961) East Germany Inside piped water supply: 65.7% (1961) Toilet of any type: 33.7% (1961) Fixed bath or shower: 22.1% (1961) Hungary Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1960) Flush toilet: 22.5% (1960) Inside or outside piped water supply: 32.5% (1963) Inside piped water supply: 25.9% (1963) Fixed bath or shower: 18.5% (1963) Inside or outside piped water supply: 58.6% (1970) Inside piped water supply: 36.4% (1970) Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1970) Flush toilet: 32.7% (1970) Fixed bath or shower: 32.2% (1970) Romania Inside or outside piped water supply: 48.4% (1966) Inside piped water supply: 12.3% (1966) Toilet of any type: 100.0% (1966) Flush toilet: 12.2% (1966) Fixed bath or shower: 9.6% (1966) Switzerland Inside piped water supply: 96.1% (1960) Toilet of any type: 99.7% (1960) Fixed bath or shower: 68.8% (1960) Austria Inside or outside piped water supply: 100.0% (1961) Inside piped water supply: 63.6% (1961) Fixed bath or shower: 29.6% (1961) Inside piped water supply: 85.3% (1970) Toilet of any type: 69.7% (1970) Fixed bath or shower: 54.5% (1970) England and Wales Inside piped water supply: 98.7% (1961) Flush toilet: 93.4% (1961) Fixed bath or shower: 78.7% (1961) Flush toilet: 98.2% (1966) Fixed bath or shower: 85.1% (1966) Scotland Inside or outside piped water supply: 94.0% (1961) Flush toilet: 92.8% (1961) Fixed bath or shower: 69.9% (1961) Flush toilet: 95.7% (1966) Fixed bath or shower: 77.4% (1966) Ireland Inside or outside piped water supply: 57.2% (1961) Inside piped water supply: 51.0% (1961) Toilet of any type: 64.9% (1961) Flush toilet: 53.5% (1961) Fixed bath or shower: 33.2% (1961) Canada Inside or outside piped water supply: 89.1% (1961) Flush toilet: 85.2% (1961) Fixed bath or shower: 80.3% (1961) Inside piped water supply: 95.2% (1967) Toilet of any type: 93.5% (1967) Flush toilet: 92.5% (1967) Fixed bath or shower: 89.8% (1967) Flush toilet: 95.4% (1971) Fixed bath or shower: 93.4% (1971) United States
United States
of America Inside or outside piped water supply: 94.0% (1960) Inside piped water supply: 92.9% (1960) Flush toilet: 89.7% (1960) Fixed bath or shower: 88.1% (1960) New Zealand Inside piped water supply: 90.0% (1960) Inside or outside piped water supply: 99.6% (1961) Inside piped water supply: 87.8% (1961) Flush toilet: 88.5% (1961) Inside or outside piped water supply: 99.7% (1966) Inside piped water supply: 90.3% (1966) Flush toilet: 94.0% (1966) Fixed bath or shower: 98.1% (1966) Percentage of households in selected European countries owning at least one car (1978):[30] Belgium: 69.9% Denmark: 57.0% France: 66.9% Ireland: 65.1% Italy: 69.1% Netherlands: 67.2% United Kingdom: 54.4% West Germany: 62.6% Distributions of the three main kinds of housing tenure in various societies:[31] Social rented: Australia
Australia
(1988): 5% Denmark
Denmark
(1990): 21% France
France
(1990): 17% Germany (1990): 25% Ireland (1990): 14% United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1990): 27% Belgium (1986): 6% Italy
Italy
(1990): 5% Netherlands
Netherlands
(1988): 43% Spain
Spain
(1989): 1% United States
United States
(1980): 2% Private rented: Australia
Australia
(1988): 25% Denmark
Denmark
(1990): 21% France
France
(1990): 30% Germany (1990): 38% Ireland (1990): 9% United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1990): 7% Belgium (1986): 30% Italy
Italy
(1990): 24% Netherlands
Netherlands
(1988): 13% Spain
Spain
(1989): 11% United States
United States
(1980): 32% Owner-occupied: Australia
Australia
(1988): 70% Denmark
Denmark
(1990): 58% France
France
(1990): 53% Germany (1990): 37% Ireland (1990): 78% United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1990): 66% Belgium (1986): 62% Italy
Italy
(1990): 64% Netherlands
Netherlands
(1988): 44% Spain
Spain
(1989): 88% United States
United States
(1980): 66% Percentage of wage-earners’ households in various European Common Market countries owning a garden (1963–64):[32] France: 47% Netherlands: 21% Belgium: 58% Italy: 17% Luxembourg: 81% Germany: 45% Percentage of households owning certain durable goods in 1962:[33] France Television: 25% Vacuum cleaner: 32% Washing
Washing
machine: 31% Refrigerator: 37% Car: 33% Great Britain Television: 78% Vacuum cleaner: 71% Washing
Washing
machine: 43% Refrigerator: 22% Car: 30% United States Television: 87% Vacuum cleaner: 75% Washing
Washing
machine: 95% Refrigerator: 98% Car: 75% Historical housing conditions in Belgium[edit] A survey carried out by the National Housing
Housing
Institute in 1961/62 estimated that out of all the dwellings in Belgium
Belgium
13.8% were unfit and incapable of improvement, 19.5%, although unfit, showed potential for improvement, and 54% were considered to be suitable (without alteration or improvement) for modern living standards. 74% lacked a shower or bath, 19% had inadequate arrangements for sewage disposal, 3.6% lacked a proper supply of drinking water, and only 36.8% had an internal W.C.[34] According to an earlier study from 1964, 13% of total housing in Belgium
Belgium
was considered to be made up of slums.[35] Postwar housing conditions in France[edit] Between 1954 and 1973, the proportion of homes with shower or bath increased from 10% to 65, % while during that same period the percentage of homes without flushing lavatories fell from 73% to 30% and those without running water from 42% to 3.4%. A 1948 law permitted gradual long-term rent rises for existing flats, on condition that part of the money was spent on repairs. According to John Ardagh, the law, “vigorously applied, was partly successful in its twofold aim: to encourage both repairs and new building.”[36] Postwar housing conditions in the United Kingdom[edit] During the postwar period, a very high proportion of British housing came in the form of single-family housing. In 1961, 78% of all British housing consisted of single-family homes, compared with 56% in the Netherlands, 49% in West Germany, and 32% in France.[37] In terms of housing conditions, in 1964 in England and Wales 6.6% of accommodation units consisted of 2 rooms or less, 5.8% had 7 rooms or more, 15.2% had 6 rooms, 35.1% had 5 rooms, 26.3% had 4 rooms, and 11.1% had 3 rooms. These figures included kitchens only where they were used for eating meals. In terms of the number of bedrooms available in accommodation units in 1964 some 50% had 3 bedrooms, 1.9% had 5 or more bedrooms, 6.2% had 4 bedrooms, 10.5% had 1 or no bedrooms, and 31.3% had 2 bedrooms. A 1960 Social Survey estimated that 0.6% of households in England and Wales fell below the statutory overcrowding standard, and 0.5% in 1964. In 1964 the number of persons per room where households contained at least one person per room stood at 6.9% of all households, while in 1960 some 11% of all households fell below the bedroom standard, with 1.75% having 2 or more bedrooms less than the standard and 9.25% having one bedroom less than the standard. By 1964, however, this had declined slightly to 9.4% of households falling below this standard, with 8.1% having one bedroom less than the standard and 1.3% having 2 bedrooms or more less than the standard. According to local authority returns in 1965, 5% of the total housing stock in England and Wales was unfit.[38] Housing
Housing
conditions in Canada
Canada
and the United States
United States
of America[edit] Various improvements took place in housing condition in both Canada and the USA in the years following the end of the Second World War. In the USA, 35.4% of all dwellings in 1950 did not have complete plumbing facilities, a proportion that fell to 16.8% in 1960 and to 8.4% in 1968. In Canada, from 1951 to 1971, the proportion of dwellings with a bath or shower went up from 60.8% to 93.4% and those with piped hot and cold water from 56.9% to 93.5%.[27] In the United States, from 1950 to 1974, the percentage of housing without full plumbing fell from 34% to 3%, while during that same period the percentage of the total housing stock estimated to be dilapidated fell from 9% to less than 4%.[39] See also[edit]

Dwelling Oikos List of countries by number of households Household economics Household final consumption expenditure Household income in the United States Household production Family Intra-household bargaining Roommate Group home Hoju - South Korea Home Homemaker Medieval household Royal Household

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Home
portal Sociology
Sociology
portal

Other sources[edit]

The Economist
Economist
Book Of Vital World Statistics: A Complete Guide To The World In Figures, Introduction by Sir Claus Moser KCB CBE, The Economist
Economist
Books Ltd., Fourth reprint, paperback edition, October 1992 (contains a section entitled “ Consumer
Consumer
Durables,” with estimates of household ownership of a wide range of consumer durables in OECD countries and various Eastern European countries)

References[edit]

^ Haviland, W. A. (2003). Anthropology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. ^ O'Sullivan, Arthur; Steven M. Sheffrin (2003). Economics: Principles in action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Pearson Prentice-Hall. p. 29. ISBN 0-13-063085-3.  ^ "National Statistics" (PDF). Statistics.gov.ukaccessdate=2015-05-17. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-06-26.  ^ "Households". Quickfacts.census.gov. 2015-03-24. Archived from the original on 2015-04-27. Retrieved 2015-05-17.  ^ "U.S. Census: Current Population Survey - Definitions and Explanations". Census.gov. Retrieved 2012-03-24.  ^ [1] Archived May 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Statistical unit - Household". Statcan.gc.ca. 2012-02-23. Retrieved 2012-03-24.  ^ Muriuki, Andrew Mburu (2007). "The role of household environment on health outcomes for female adolescents in Kenya". University of Missouri-Columbia. OCLC 183405613. Retrieved 2015-10-13.  Pdf. ^ Dhungel, Basundhara (14 May 2001). "A study of Nepalese families' paid and unpaid work after migration to Australia". University of Sydney. OCLC 271516251. Retrieved 2014-09-25.  Pdf. ^ Pierson, John; Thomas, Martin (2002). Collins dictionary of social work. Glasgow, UK: HarperCollins. ISBN 9780007143962.  ^ "Tributes paid to Professor Ray Pahl". University of Essex. 8 June 2011.  ^ Pahl, Ray (1984). Divisions of labour. Oxford New York: Blackwell. ISBN 9780631132745.  ^ "household work strategy – Dictionary definition of household work strategy Encyclopedia.com: FREE online dictionary". encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2012-03-24.  ^ Russell Hochschild, Arlie; Machung, Anne (2003). The second shift: working families and the revolution at home. New York: Penguin Books.  ISBN 9780142002926 ^ Russell Hochschild, Arlie (2001). The time bind: when work becomes home and home becomes work. New York: Henry Holt & Co.  ISBN 9780805066432 ^ Young, Cathy (12 June 2000). "The Mama Lion at the Gate". Salon.com. Salon. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  ^ a b "A social portrait of Europe - Population and social conditions - EU Bookshop". bookshop.europa.eu. Retrieved 2014-09-25.  ^ "Report on Housing". Coe.int. Archived from the original on 2012-05-08. Retrieved 2012-03-24.  ^ a b c Housing
Housing
in Europe edited by Martin Wynn ^ Housing
Housing
policy and rented housing in Europe - Michael Oxley, Jacqueline Smith - Google Books. Books.google.co.nz. 1996. ISBN 9780419207207. Retrieved 2012-03-24.  ^ The State of Humanity - Julian Lincoln Simon - Google Books. Books.google.co.nz. 1996-01-09. ISBN 9781557865854. Retrieved 2012-03-24.  ^ The End of the Nation State: The Rise of Regional Economies by Kenichi Ohmae ^ Housing
Housing
conditions in Britain and Germany
Germany
by Chris Crouch ^ Lansley, Stewart (1979). Housing
Housing
and Public Policy. London: Crook Helm.  ^ Howenstine, E.J. (1985). Housing
Housing
Vouchers: A Comparative International Analysis. Office of Policy Development and Research, U.S. Department of Housing
Housing
and Urban Development. p. 46. ISBN 9781412850490.  ^ The Economics
Economics
of Housing
Housing
Policy; by D. C. Stafford ^ a b c d e Housing
Housing
Standards and Costs: A Comparison of British Standards and Costs with Those in the U.S.A., Canada, and Europe; by Valerie A. Karn ^ Housing
Housing
Standards and Costs: A Comparison of British Standards and Costs with Those in the U.S.A., Canada, and Europe; by Valerie A. Karn ^ Housing
Housing
Standards and Costs: A Comparison of British Standards and Costs with Those in the U.S.A., Canada, and Europe by Valerie A. Karn ^ Dawson, J. (2014). Commercial Distribution in Europe (Routledge Revivals). Taylor & Francis. p. 62. ISBN 9781317598862. Retrieved 2017-01-08.  ^ Social Policy: A comparative analysis by Michael Hill ^ The New Europeans: A guide to the workings, institutions and character of contemporary Western Europe by Anthony Sampson ^ Logemann, J. (2012). The Development of Consumer
Consumer
Credit in Global Perspective: Business, Regulation, and Culture. Palgrave Macmillan US. p. 194. ISBN 9781137062079. Retrieved 2017-01-08.  ^ Social Housing
Housing
Policy in Belgium; by C. J. Watson ^ http://aei.pitt.edu/43714/1/A7457.pdf ^ The New France: A Society
Society
in Transition 1945–1977 (Third Edition) by John Ardagh ^ Kertzer, D.I.; Barbagli, M. (2003). Family
Family
Life
Life
in the Twentieth Century. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300094947. Retrieved 2017-01-08.  ^ Socially Deprived Families in Britain edited by Robert Holman, reprinted edition 1971, first published in 1970 ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=ExTFM-jr0NEC&pg=PA298&dq=American+Standards+of+Living:+1918-1988+housing+quality&hl=en&sa=X&ei=p_FqVa2CMsatsgHV44PoCQ&ved=0CCEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=American%20Standards%20of%20Living%3A%201918-1988%20housing%20quality&f=false Archived 2016-04-17 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Look up household in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Contains statistics on housing conditions and housing policies in various countries Contains historical statistics on housing conditions in the United Kingdom Contains historical statistics on housing conditions in Australia Contains historical statistics on housing in the United Kingdom Contains historical statistics on housing in Italy Contains historical statistics on housing in Europe Contains statistics on housing in various developing and developed countries Contains information on housing conditions in Europe from 1980 onwards Contains information on European housing from 2010 Contains historical statistics on housing in Ireland Contains historical statistics on housing in Europe Contains statistics on housing and material conditions in Europe Contains information on housing conditions in various countries Contains information on European housing from 2010 Contains information on housing standards in various European countries from 1950 to 1990 Contains information on the percentage of nonfarming households in Japan
Japan
earning certain consumer durable goods from 1957 to 1975 Contains information on the percentage of homes in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Holland, Italy, Switzerland, and Sweden
Sweden
owning certain household appliances from 1970 to 1975 Contains information on the percentage of households in Great Britain and the EEC owning certain durable goods in 1963 Contains information on housing standards in various European countries from 1950 to 1990 Contains information on housing standards in various countries from 1960 to 1970

v t e

Family

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