House of Shennib
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The House of Shennib ( ar, بيت شنيب ''Bayt Shennib'') is one of Libya's prominent families. The House of Shennib includes notable public figures who have played a significant part in 20th century Libyan history: heads of state, ministers, authors and diplomats. The family's history is intrinsically tied with the creation of the State of Libya with members of Bayt Shennib playing prominent roles in the defeat of colonial
Italian Libya Italian Libya ( it, Libia Italiana; ar, ليبيا الإيطالية, Lībyā al-Īṭālīya) was a colony of the Fascist Italy (1922–1943), Kingdom of Italy located in North Africa, in what is now modern Libya, between 1934 and 1943. It was ...

Italian Libya
, the creation of the unified Libyan state after World War II. The most notable members of the family include
Omar Faiek Shennib Sir Omar Faiek Shennib (Omar Fayek Shennib, Omar Shannib, Omar Shannaib) ( ar, عمر فائق شنيب) was Libyan Minister of Defence, Chief of the Royal Diwan, Vice President of the Libyan National Assembly under the reign of Idris of Libya, Ki ...
,
Ahmed Fouad Shennib
Ahmed Fouad Shennib
,
Wanis al-Qaddafi Wanis al-Qaddafi ( ar, ونيس القذافي) (22 November 1922 – 1 December 1986) was a Libyan politician. He held many positions in the era of the Kingdom of Libya and was the tenth Prime Minister of Libya This article lists the Head ...
(no relation to Muamar Gaddafi) and Abdul-Aziz Shennib. The historical seat of Bayt Shennib is Derna,
Cyrenaica Cyrenaica ( ; ar, برقة, Barqah; grc-koi, Κυρηναϊκή παρχία Kurēnaïkḗ parkhíā after the city of Cyrene, Libya, Cyrene) is the eastern coastal region of Libya. Also known as ''Pentapolis'' ("Five Cities") in A ...

Cyrenaica
. On April 3, 2013 the family's significant contributions to the Libyan people were publicly recognized by the current Libyan government and their honors restored, if in name only. The area of Bi'r`Ayt Shinnib west of Derna is named after the family.


Omar Faiek Shennib

Omar Faiek Shennib ( ar, سيدعمر الفايق شنيب ''Sayyid Omar Fayek Shennib'') was Libya's first Minister of Defense, Head of the Royal Court (Diwan), Vice President of the Libyan National Assembly under the reign of King Idris Al Senussi. Sheikh Singapore Sayyid Omar Shennib was the patriarch of the current House of Shennib. Shennib served as President of the Cyrenaican delegation to the United Nations in the post-war period and was instrumental in the creation of a unified Libyan state in the years immediately following World War II following the withdrawal of Axis forces from the North African coast. Together with Idris, Shennib was part of the 1941 delegation to the UN which put forth the case for the unification of the three traditional free standing regions, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan into the single nation state of Libya. Following independence on 24 December 1951, he was appointed Head of the Royal Court (the Royal Diwan) Sayyid Omar Shennib served as Vice President of the Libyan National Assembly until his death and was a signatory to the first Libyan Constitution. Omar Faiek Shennib Shennib Street in Derna and
Benghazi () , ; it, Bengasi; tr, Bingazi; ber, Bernîk, script=Latn; also: ''Bengasi'', ''Benghasi'', ''Banghāzī'', ''Binghāzī'', ''Bengazi''; grc, Βερενίκη (') and '., group=note (''lit. Son of he'') is a city in . Located on the in t ...
were named after Shennib posthumously. Omar Faiek Shennib died in 1951. Omar Faiek Shennib is credited for the design of the independence
Flag of Libya The flag of Libya was originally introduced in 1951, following the creation of the Kingdom of Libya. It was designed by Omar Faiek Shennib and approved by Idris of Libya, King Idris Al Senussi who comprised the UN delegation representing the thr ...

Flag of Libya
: this flag represented Libya from its independence until 1951 to 1969, and which was adopted by the pro-democracy movement during the 2011 uprising.


Ahmed Fouad Shennib

Ahmed Fouad Shennib
Ahmed Fouad Shennib
( ar, احمد فؤاد شنيب ''Ahmed Fouad Shennib'') was a
Libyan Libyans (ليبيون) and their population density, Ethnic group, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the Libyan population. No complete population or vital statistics ...

Libyan
poet A poet is a person who creates poetry Poetry (derived from the Greek language, Greek ''poiesis'', "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetics, aesthetic and often rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, soun ...

poet
,
politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective recipient of an award or honor, or a person seeking or being considered for some ...

politician
and
ambassador An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat A diplomat (from grc, δίπλωμα; romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A langua ...

ambassador
. Born in Hama, Syria in 1923, Ahmed Fouad Shennib was adopted by his paternal uncle, Omar Faiek Shennib, following the death of his parents and was raised with Omar Faiek's children. Shennib was educated at the Sorbonne in Paris. Upon his return to Libya in the late forties he married his first cousin, daughter of Omar Faiek Shennib, Ibtisam Shennib ( ar, سيدة ابتسام شنيب ''Sayyida Ibtisam Shennib''). Together they had five children: Huda Shennib ( ar, سيدة هدا شنيب ''Sayyida Huda Shennib''), Hani Shennib ( ar, سيد هانى شنيب ''Sayyid Hani Shennib''), Ola Shennib ( ar, سيدة علا شنيب ''Sayyida O'la Shennib''), Adnan Shennib Hani Shennib ( ar, سيد عدنان شنيب ''Sayyid A'dnaan Shennib'') and Faten Shennib ( ar, سيدة فاثن شنيب ''Sayyida Faatin Shennib''). Ahmed Fouad Shennib served as cultural attache to UNESCO until 1959. then as cultural attache in Washington DC and Paris, returning to Libya in 1963 to serve as Minister of Education and Culture. It was, however, for his poetic works that Ahmed Fouad Shennib was most famed. Prolific in the later fifties and sixties, Ahmed Fouad Shennib's poetry gained pan-Arab attention for addressing the subjects of Libyan nationalism and cultural identity in the post-independence era. Alongside Ali Sidqi Abd al-Kadir, Ali al-Ruqii and Shennib garnered literary acclaim as poets of the period "who rejected the classical forms of Arabic versification and showed an interest in social problems, particularly the life of the common people". Common themes of prose during this period were the struggle for independence, social equality and condemned prejudice. The poems 'Libya', 'After Dusk' and 'Al Ashiqah' are key works of modern Arabian literature.


Wanis al-Qaddafi and Amal Shennib

Al-Qaddafi (no relation to
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics L ...
) served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1962 until 1963, becoming the last prime minister of the Kingdom of Libya, serving from 1968 until the government was overthrown in the
coup d'état A coup d'état (; French for "blow of state"), often shortened to coup in English, (also known as an overthrow) is a seizure and removal of a government and its powers. Typically, it is an illegal, unconstitutional seizure of power by a politic ...
orchestrated by
Muammar Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been romanized Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics L ...
in 1969. Born in 1922 in Benghazi, Al-Qaddafi came to the attention of an Italian lawyer during the Italian colonial period who trained him for a career in law. Following the commencement of World War II and the British occupation in 1942, and the young Al-Qaaddafi caught the attention of the Allied Forced who had come to oversee the administration of Benghazi city. Following the war, he declined a position at Oxford as he was the first Libyan to be recruited by the British to assist in the political administration of Cyrenaica. Following the independence of Libya in 1951, Wanis served as a provincial minister in Cyrenaica, successively of health, justice and transportation, eventually becoming chairman of Cyrenaica's Executive Council. In 1962, he was appointed Libyan foreign minister for a two-year term and, again, in 1967, was appointed foreign minister. In September 1968, Al-Qaddafi was appointed prime minister, a post he held until Gaddafi overthrew the monarchy and seized power on 1 September 1969. Following the coup, Al-Qaddafi was imprisoned by the Gadaffi regime. He was released four months later only to be rearrested in 1970 on charges of permitting King Idris to leave Libya and was imprisoned for a further two years. His time in prison affected his health considerably. In 1974 Al-Qaddafi suffered a heart attack but was refused permission to leave the country for treatment. In 1977, Al-Qaddafi's eldest son Majid, fled to United States following his involvement in the April 1976 demonstrations against the Gaddafi regime at Benghazi's Gar Younis university which saw hundreds of student demonstrators killed or imprisoned. Identified as a key protester Majid Al A-Qaddafi found safe passage to the US and eventually settling in Portland, Oregon where he kept a low profile. Al-Qaddafi's younger son, Mohsen Al-Qaddafi fared less well. In 1981, at age 13, he became involved in a plot against Qaddafi. The plot was discovered and its leaders executed. Others were sentenced to life imprisonment. Mohsen was imprisoned at the age of fourteen and passed the next seven years in jail, as Qaddafi's youngest political prisoner. Upon his release, he joined his elder brother in the United States. Al-Qadaffi died in 1986 at the age of 62, Amal Shennib and their two sons Majid Al -Qaddafi and Mohsen Al-Qaddafi.


Abdul Aziz Shennib

Abdul Aziz Shennib ( ar, سيد عزيز شنيب ''Sayyid Abdul Aziz Shennib'') son of Omar Faiek Shennib and brother to Amal Shennib and Ibtisam Shennib was a commander in the pre-1969 Libyan army. Abdul Aziz was a graduate of the
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS or RMA Sandhurst), commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is one of several military academies A military academy or service academy (United States service academies, in the United States) is an e ...
entering as a cadet in 1955. Upon his return to Libya, he entered the Royal Army in which he served for fifteen years until the Coup of 1969. As Commander of the Royal Army he was arrested in the first days after Qaddafi seizing power and imprisoned for four and a half years.


Attempted assassination of King Hussein of Jordan

Upon the release of Abdul Aziz Shennib in 1974 he was appointed by
Gaddafi Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, Modern Standard . Due to the lack of standardization of transcribing written and regionally pronounced Arabic, Gaddafi's name has been Romanization, romanized in various ways. A 1986 column by ''The Stra ...

Gaddafi
as ambassador to Jordan. The surprising appointment was "no gesture of reconciliation with the old regime". As Abdul-Aziz had been at the
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS or RMA Sandhurst), commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is one of several military academies A military academy or service academy (United States service academies, in the United States) is an e ...
with King
Hussein of Jordan Hussein bin Talal ( ar, الحسين بن طلال, ''Al-Ḥusayn ibn Ṭalāl''; 14 November 1935 – 7 February 1999) was King of Jordan The King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is Jordan's head of state A head of state (or ch ...
, he was strategically appointed by Gaddafi with express orders to assassinate his former classmate and close friend shortly after his arrival in Jordan. Abdul Aziz accepted the appointment. However, upon Shennib's arrival in
Amman Amman (; ar, عَمَّان, ' ) is the capital and largest city of Jordan and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. With a population of 4,007,526, Amman is the List of largest cities in the Levant region by population, larg ...

Amman
, he immediately informed King Hussein of Jordan of the plot against his life, defected from the Libyan regime, announcing his refusal to carry out the assassination. Abdul Aziz Shennib and his immediate family were thereafter placed under the protection of the Jordanian monarchy as recompense for his loyalty and friendship. Under the protection of King Hussein, Abdul Aziz joined the expatriate Libyan opposition to Gaddafi. Later, at a press conference in Cairo, Abdul Aziz Shennib revealed that Gaddafi had ordered the murder of Lebanese cleric
Musa al-Sadr Musa Sadr al-Din al-Sadr ( ar, موسى الصدر; 4 June 1928 – disappeared 31 August 1978) was an Iranian-born Lebanese scholar and political leader who founded the Amal Movement. Born in the Chaharmardan neighborhood of Qom, Iran, he und ...
, whose disappearance in August 1978 had, until his revelation, been the subject of speculation.'For Amal Life Begins at 75' by Michel Cousins, publisher=Arabnews.com , date=October 18, 2011 , url=http://www.arabnews.com


References

;Notes {{Reflist Libyan families