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Homo
Homo
erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
geological epoch. Its earliest fossil evidence dates to 1.9 million years ago. It likely originated in East Africa
East Africa
and spread from there, beginning 1.8 million years ago, migrating throughout Eurasia.[2][3] There is an ongoing debate regarding the classification, ancestry, and progeny of Homo
Homo
erectus, especially in relation to Homo
Homo
ergaster, with two major positions: 1) H. erectus is the same species as H. ergaster, and thereby H. erectus is a direct ancestor of the later hominins including Homo
Homo
heidelbergensis, Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis, and Homo sapiens; or, 2) it is in fact an Asian species distinct from African H. ergaster.[2][4][5] There is also another view—an alternative to 1): some paleoanthropologists consider H. ergaster
H. ergaster
to be a variety, that is, the "African" variety, of H. erectus; the labels "Homo erectus sensu stricto" (strict sense) for the Asian species and "Homo erectus sensu lato" (broad sense) have been offered for the greater species comprising both Asian and African populations.[6][7] H. erectus in the narrow sense (the Asian species) was extinct by 140,000 years ago.[1] A new debate appeared in 2013, with the documentation of the Dmanisi skulls.[8] Considering the large morphological variation among all Dmanisi
Dmanisi
skulls, researchers now suggest that several early human ancestors variously classified, for example, as Homo
Homo
ergaster, or Homo rudolfensis, and perhaps even Homo
Homo
habilis, should instead be designated as Homo
Homo
erectus.[9][10]

Contents

1 Origin 2 Discovery and representative fossils

2.1 African genesis 2.2 Homo
Homo
erectus georgicus

3 Classification and distinctions

3.1 Interpreting evolution: H. erectus / H. ergaster
H. ergaster
/ H. sapiens

4 Use of tools and fire

4.1 Use of fire 4.2 Cooking

5 Sociality 6 Descendants and subspecies

6.1 Homo
Homo
erectus 6.2 Related species 6.3 Previously referred taxa

7 Individual fossils 8 Development relative to other Hominins 9 Gallery 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Origin[edit]

Human
Human
timeline

view • discuss • edit

-10 — – -9 — – -8 — – -7 — – -6 — – -5 — – -4 — – -3 — – -2 — – -1 — – 0 —

Human-like apes

Nakalipithecus

Ouranopithecus

Sahelanthropus

Orrorin

Ardipithecus

Australopithecus

Homo
Homo
habilis

Homo
Homo
erectus

Neanderthal

Homo
Homo
sapiens

Earlier apes

LCA-Gorilla separation

Possibly bipedal

LCA-Chimpanzee separation

Earliest bipedal

Earliest stone tools

Earliest exit from Africa

Earliest fire use

Earliest in Europe

Earliest cooking

Earliest clothes

Modern speech

Modern humans

P l e i s t o c e n e

P l i o c e n e

M i o c e n e

H

o

m

i

n

i

d

s

Axis scale: million years Also see: Life timeline and Nature timeline

The first hypothesis of origin is that Homo
Homo
erectus rose from the Australopithecina
Australopithecina
in East Africa
East Africa
sometime during—or perhaps even before—the Early Pleistocene geological epoch, which itself dates to 2.58 million years ago (see below, at African genesis, re earlier date at Ledi-Geraru
Ledi-Geraru
Research Area). From there it migrated, in part, by 2.0 M.Y.A., probably as a result of broad desertifying conditions developing then in eastern and northern Africa; it joined the migrations through the "Saharan pump" and dispersed around much of the Old World. The fossil record shows that its development from about 1.8 M.Y.A. to one M.Y.A. was widely distributed: in Africa (Lake Turkana [11] and Olduvai Gorge), the Transcaucasus ( Dmanisi
Dmanisi
in Georgia), Indonesia
Indonesia
(Sangiran, Central Java
Central Java
and Trinil, East Java), and in Vietnam, China
China
( Zhoukoudian
Zhoukoudian
and Shaanxi), and India.[12] The second hypothesis is that H. erectus evolved in Eurasia
Eurasia
and then migrated to Africa. They occupied the Dmanisi
Dmanisi
site from 1.85 million to 1.77 million years ago, which was about the same time or slightly before their earliest evidence in Africa.[13][14] There are several proposed explanations of the dispersal of H. erectus georgicus—including whether or not Africa is the source.[15] Discovery and representative fossils[edit] The Dutch anatomist Eugène Dubois
Eugène Dubois
was fascinated by Darwin's theory of evolution especially as it applied to humanity. In 1886, he set out for Asia—which then was the region accepted as the cradle of human evolution despite Darwin's theory of African origin; see Haeckel § Research—to find a human ancestor. In 1891, his team discovered a human fossil on the island of Java, Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia). Excavated from the bank of the Solo River
Solo River
at Trinil, in East Java, he named the species Pithecanthropus erectus—from the Greek πίθηκος,[16] "ape", and ἄνθρωπος,[17] "man"—based on a skullcap (calotte) and a femur like that of Homo sapiens. Dubois' 1891 find was the first fossil of a Homo-species (or any hominin species) found as result of a directed expedition and search—and which was inspired by Darwin's radical theory that humans, like all other species, evolved from ancestral species, see human evolution. (The first found and recognized human fossil was the accidental discovery of Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis in 1856, see List of human evolution fossils.) The Java
Java
fossil from Indonesia
Indonesia
aroused much public interest. It was dubbed by the popular press as Java
Java
Man; but few scientists accepted Dubois' argument that his fossil was the transitional form—the so-called "missing link"—between humans and the other apes.[18] Java Man
Java Man
is now classified as Homo
Homo
erectus. Most of the spectacular discoveries of H. erectus next took place at the Zhoukoudian
Zhoukoudian
Project, now known as the Peking Man
Peking Man
Site, in Zhoukoudian, China. This site was first discovered by Johan Gunnar Andersson in 1921[19] and was first excavated in 1921, and produced two human teeth.[20] Canadian anatomist Davidson Black's initial description (1921) of a lower molar as belonging to a previously unknown species (which he named Sinanthropus pekinensis)[21] prompted widely publicized interest. Extensive excavations followed, which altogether uncovered 200 human fossils from more than 40 individuals including five nearly complete skullcaps.[22] German anatomist Franz Weidenreich provided much of the detailed description of this material in several monographs published in the journal Palaeontologica Sinica (Series D). Nearly all of the original specimens were lost during World War II; however, authentic casts were made by Weidenreich which exist at the American Museum of Natural History
American Museum of Natural History
in New York City
New York City
and at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology in Beijing, and are considered to be reliable evidence. Throughout much of the 20th century, anthropologists debated the role of H. erectus in human evolution. Early in the century, due in part to the discoveries at Java
Java
and Zhoukoudian, it was widely accepted that modern humans first evolved in Asia. A few naturalists—Charles Darwin most prominent among them—theorized that humans' earliest ancestors were African: Darwin pointed out that chimpanzees and gorillas, humans' closest relatives, evolved and exist only in Africa.[23] African genesis[edit] From the 1950s forward, numerous finds in East Africa
East Africa
confirmed the hypothesis of an African genesis, providing fossil evidence that the earliest hominins originated there. It is now generally accepted that H. erectus descended from either: 1) the earliest hominin genera (such as Australopithecus, and possibly Ardipithecus—of which is still debated whether it is hominin or hominid); or 2) the earliest Homo-species (such as Homo
Homo
habilis or Homo
Homo
ergaster). East Africa provided sympatric coexistence for H. erectus and H. habilis
H. habilis
for several hundred-thousand years, which tends to confirm the hypothesis that they represent separate lineages from a common ancestor; that is, the ancestral relationship between them was not anagenetic, but was cladogenetic, which here suggests that a subgroup population of habilis—or of a common ancestor of habilis and erectus—became reproductively isolated from the main-group population, eventually evolving into the new species Homo
Homo
erectus.[24]

Skull of Homo
Homo
erectus, Indian Museum

In the 1950s, archaeologists John T. Robinson
John T. Robinson
and Robert Broom
Robert Broom
named Telanthropus capensis;[25] Robinson had discovered a jaw fragment in 1949 in Swartkrans, South Africa. Later, Simonetta proposed to re-designate it to Homo
Homo
erectus, and Robinson agreed.[26] In 1961, Yves Coppens
Yves Coppens
discovered a skull of Tchadanthropus uxoris, then the earliest fossil human discovered in north Africa.[27] It was reported that the fossil "had been so eroded by wind-blown sand that it mimicked the appearance of an australopith, a primitive type of hominid".[28] Although at first considered to be a specimen of H. habilis,[29] T. uxoris is no longer considered a valid taxon, and has been subsumed into H. erectus.[27][30] In 2013, a fragment of fossilized jawbone, dated to around 2.8 million years ago, was discovered in the Ledi-Geraru
Ledi-Geraru
Research Area in the Afar depression, Ethiopia.[31] The fossil is considered the earliest evidence of the Homo
Homo
genus known to date, and seems to be intermediate between Australopithecus
Australopithecus
and H. habilis. The individual lived just after a major climate shift in the region, when forests and waterways were rapidly replaced by arid savannah, which was a domain favored by the early hominins.[32] Homo
Homo
erectus georgicus[edit]

Dmanisi
Dmanisi
skull 3, Fossils skull D2700
D2700
and D2735 jaw, two of several found in Dmanisi
Dmanisi
in the Georgian Caucasus.

Homo
Homo
erectus georgicus is the subspecies name assigned to fossil skulls and jaws found in Dmanisi, Georgia. First proposed as a separate species, it is now classified within H. erectus.[33][34][35] The site was discovered in 1991 by Georgian scientist David Lordkipanidze. Five skulls were excavated from 1991 forward, including a "very complete" skull in 2005. Excavations at Dmanisi
Dmanisi
have yielded 73 stone tools for cutting and chopping and 34 bone fragments from unidentified fauna.[13] The fossils are about 1.8 million years old. After their initial assessment, some scientists were persuaded to name the Dmanisi
Dmanisi
find as a new species, Homo
Homo
georgicus, which they posited as a descendant of African Homo
Homo
habilis and an ancestor to Asian Homo erectus. This classification, however, was not supported, and the fossil was instead designated a divergent subgroup of Homo erectus.[36][37][38][39] The fossil skeletons present a species primitive in its skull and upper body but with relatively advanced spine and lower limbs, implying greater mobility than the previous morphology.[40] It is now thought not to be a separate species, but to represent a stage soon after the transition between H. habilis
H. habilis
to H. erectus; it has been dated at 1.8 M.Y.A.[34][41] The assemblage includes one of the largest Pleistocene
Pleistocene
Homo
Homo
mandibles (D2600), one of the smallest Lower Pleistocene
Pleistocene
mandibles (D211), a nearly complete sub-adult (D2735), and a toothless specimen D3444/D3900.[42] Two of the skulls—D2700, with a brain volume of 600 cubic centimetres (37 cu in), and D4500 or Dmanisi
Dmanisi
Skull 5, with a brain volume of about 546 centimetres—present the two smallest and most primitive Hominina
Hominina
skulls from the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
period.[9] The variation in these skulls were compared to variations in modern humans and within a sample group of chimpanzees. The researchers found that, despite appearances, the variations in the Dmanisi
Dmanisi
skulls were no greater than those seen among modern people and among chimpanzees. These findings suggest that previous fossil finds that were classified as different species on the basis of the large morphological variation among them—including Homo
Homo
rudolfensis, Homo
Homo
gautengensis, H. ergaster, and potentially even H. habilis—should perhaps be re-classified to the same lineage as Homo
Homo
erectus.[43] Classification and distinctions[edit]

Location of Dmanisi
Dmanisi
discovery, Georgia

Paleoanthropologists continue to debate the classification of Homo erectus and Homo
Homo
ergaster as separate species. One school of thought suggests dropping the taxon Homo
Homo
erectus and equating H. erectus with the archaic H. sapiens.[44][45][46][47] Another calls H. ergaster
H. ergaster
the direct African ancestor of H. erectus, proposing that erectus emigrated out of Africa to Asia
Asia
while branching into a distinct species.[48] Some scholars dispense with the species name ergaster, making no distinction between such fossils as the Turkana Boy
Turkana Boy
and Peking Man.[citation needed] Still, " Homo
Homo
ergaster" has gained some acceptance as a valid taxon, and the two species are still usually defined as distinct African and Asian populations of the greater species H. erectus, that is, " Homo
Homo
erectus sensu lato". Some have insisted that Ernst Mayr's biological species definition cannot be used to test the above hypotheses—that is, that the two species might be considered the same. Alternatively, the amount of variation of cranial morphology between known specimens of H. erectus and H. ergaster
H. ergaster
can be compared to the same variation within an appropriate population of living primates (that is, one of similar geographical distribution or close evolutionary relationship), such that: if the amount of variation between H. erectus and H. ergaster
H. ergaster
is greater than that within an appropriately selected population, for example, say, macaques, then H. erectus and H. ergaster
H. ergaster
may be considered as two different species. Finding an extant (i.e., living) model suitable for field study, analysis, and comparison is very important; and selecting a living sample population of an appropriate species can be difficult. (For example, the morphological variation among the global population of H. sapiens is small,[49] so our own species diversity may not be a trustworthy comparison. Fossils found in Dmanisi, Georgia were originally designated as a separate (but closely related) species; but subsequent specimens showed their variation to be within the range of Homo
Homo
erectus. and they are now classified as Homo
Homo
erectus georgicus.) New foot tracks found in 2009 in Kenya
Kenya
and reported in Science by Matthew Bennett of Bournemouth University
Bournemouth University
in Britain and his colleagues, confirmed that the gait of Homo
Homo
erectus was heel-to-toe, walking as a modern human does, rather than with the australopithecine-like method of its own ancestors.[50] H. erectus fossils show a cranial capacity greater than that of Homo habilis (although the Dmanisi
Dmanisi
specimens have distinctively small crania): the earliest fossils show a cranial capacity of 850 cm³, while later Javan specimens measure up to 1100 cm³,[49] overlapping that of H. sapiens.; the frontal bone is less sloped and the dental arcade smaller than that of the australopithecines; the face is more orthognatic (less protrusive) than either the australopithecines or H. habilis, with large brow-ridges and less prominent zygomata (cheekbones). The early hominins stood about 1.79 m (5 ft 10 in)[51]—only 17 percent of modern male humans are taller[52]—and were extraordinarily slender, with long arms and legs.[53] Sexual dimorphism
Sexual dimorphism
in H. erectus—males are about 25% larger than females—is slightly greater than seen in the later H. sapiens, but less than that of the earlier genus Australopithecus. Regarding evolution of human physiology, the discovery of the skeleton of "Turkana boy" ( Homo
Homo
ergaster) near Lake Turkana, Kenya, by Richard Leakey and Kamoya Kimeu in 1984—one of the most complete hominin skeletons ever discovered—has contributed greatly to the interpretation. Interpreting evolution: H. erectus / H. ergaster
H. ergaster
/ H. sapiens[edit]

Model of the evolution of several species of genus Homo
Homo
over the last 2 million years (vertical axis) based on Stringer (2012).[54]

Stringer (2003, 2012) and Reed, et al. (2004) and others have produced schematic graph-models for interpreting the evolution of Homo
Homo
sapiens from earlier species of Homo, including Homo
Homo
erectus and/or Homo ergaster, see graphs at right. Blue areas denote the existence of one or more hominin species at a given time and place (that is, region). These and other interpretations differ mainly in the taxonomy and geographical distribution of species.[54][55] Stringer (see upper graph-model) depicts the presence of H. erectus as dominating the temporal and geographic development of human evolution; and as persisting broadly throughout Africa and Eurasia
Eurasia
for nearly 2 million years, eventually evolving into H. heidelbergensis
H. heidelbergensis
/ H. rhodesiensis, which in turn evolved into H. sapiens. Reed, et al. shows Homo
Homo
ergaster as the ancestor of Homo
Homo
erectus; then it is ergaster, or a variety of ergaster, or perhaps a hybrid of ergaster and erectus, which develops into species that evolve into archaic and then modern humans and then out of Africa. Both models show the Asian variety of Homo
Homo
erectus going extinct recently. And both models indicate species admixture: early modern humans spread from Africa across different regions of the globe and interbred with earlier descendants of H. heidelbergensis
H. heidelbergensis
/ H. rhodesiensis, namely the Neanderthals, Denisovans, as well as unknown archaic African hominins. See admixture; and see Neanderthal
Neanderthal
admixture theory.[56] Use of tools and fire[edit]

An alternate graph-model of the temporal and geographical distribution of several Homo
Homo
species, evolving over the last two million years ; proposed by Reed, et al., redrawn from Stringer.[55] Note the depiction of Homo
Homo
ergaster as an ancestor of Homo
Homo
erectus.

The Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Age (Old Stone Age) of prehistoric human history and industry is dated from 2.6 million years ago to about 10,000 years ago;[57] thus it closely coincides with the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
epoch of geologic time, which is 2.58 million to 11,700 years ago.[58] The beginning of early human evolution reaches back to the earliest innovations of primitive technology and tool culture. H. erectus were the first to use fire to cook and made hand axes out of stone.[citation needed] Homo
Homo
ergaster used more diverse and sophisticated stone tools than its predecessors, where early Homo
Homo
erectus used comparatively primitive tools. This is probably because H. ergaster
H. ergaster
inherited, used, and created tools first of Oldowan
Oldowan
technology and later advanced the technology to the Acheulean.[59] Because the use of Acheulean
Acheulean
tools began ca. 1.8 million years ago,[60] and the line of H. erectus diverged some 200,000 years before the general innovation of Acheulean industry in Africa, then it is plausible that the Asian migratory descendants of H. erectus made no use of Acheulean
Acheulean
technology. It has been suggested that the Asian H. erectus may have been the first humans to use rafts to travel over bodies of water, including oceans.[61] And the oldest stone tool found in Turkey
Turkey
reveals that hominins passed through the Anatolian gateway from western Asia
Asia
to Europe approximately 1.2 million years ago—much earlier than previously thought.[62] Use of fire[edit] East African sites, such as Chesowanja near Lake Baringo, Koobi Fora, and Olorgesailie
Olorgesailie
in Kenya, show potential evidence that fire was utilized by early humans. At Chesowanja, archaeologists found fire-hardened clay fragments, dated to 1.42 M.Y.A..[63] Analysis showed that, in order to harden it, the clay must have been heated to about 400 °C (752 °F). At Koobi Fora, two sites show evidence of control of fire by Homo
Homo
erectus at about 1.5 M.Y.A., with reddening of sediment associated with heating the material to 200–400 degrees Celsius (392–752 degrees Fahrenheit).[63] At a "hearth-like depression" at a site in Olorgesailie, Kenya, some microscopic charcoal was found—but that could have resulted from natural brush fires.[63] In Gadeb, Ethiopia, fragments of welded tuff that appeared to have been burned, or scorched, were found alongside H. erectus–created Acheulean
Acheulean
artifacts; but such re-firing of the rocks may have been caused by local volcanic activity.[63] In the Middle Awash River Valley, cone-shaped depressions of reddish clay were found that could have been created only by temperatures of 200 °C (392 °F) or greater. These features are thought to be burnt tree stumps such that the fire was likely away from a habitation site.[63] Burnt stones are found in the Awash Valley, but naturally burnt (volcanic) welded tuff is also found in the area. A site at Bnot Ya'akov Bridge, Israel
Israel
is reported to show evidence that H. erectus or H. ergaster
H. ergaster
controlled fire there between 790,000 and 690,000 B.P.;[64] to date this claim has been widely accepted. Some evidence is found that H. erectus was controlling fire less than 250,000 years ago. Evidence also exists that H. erectus were cooking their food as early as 500,000 years ago.[65] Re-analysis of burnt bone fragments and plant ashes from the Wonderwerk Cave, South Africa, has been dubbed evidence supporting human control of fire there by 1 M.Y.A.[66] Cooking[edit] Main article: Cooking
Cooking
§ History There is archaeological evidence that Homo
Homo
erectus cooked their food.[65] Sociality[edit] Homo
Homo
erectus was probably the first hominin to live in a hunter-gatherer society, and anthropologists such as Richard Leakey believe that erectus was socially more like modern humans than the more Australopithecus-like species before it. Likewise, increased cranial capacity generally coincides with the more sophisticated tools occasionally found with fossils. The discovery of Turkana boy
Turkana boy
(H. ergaster) in 1984 evidenced that, despite its Homo
Homo
sapiens-like anatomy, ergaster may not have been capable of producing sounds comparable to modern human speech. It likely communicated in a proto-language lacking the fully developed structure of modern human language but more developed than the non-verbal communication used by chimpanzees.[67] This inference is challenged by the find in Dmanisi, Georgia, of an H. ergaster
H. ergaster
/ erectus vertebrae (at least 150,000 years earlier than the Turkana Boy) that reflects vocal capabilities within the range of H. sapiens.[40] Both brain size and the presence of the Broca's area
Broca's area
also support the use of articulate language.[68] H. erectus was probably the first hominin to live in small, familiar band-societies similar to modern hunter-gatherer band-societies,[69] and is thought to be the first hominin species to hunt in coordinated groups, to use complex tools, and to care for infirm or weak companions. Linguist Daniel Everett
Daniel Everett
has argued that H. erectus may have been the first hominin to evolve the capability of language. He argues that their level of social organization and technical sophistication must have required a complex communication system. [70] Descendants and subspecies[edit] Homo
Homo
erectus is the most, or one of the most, long-lived species of Homo, having existed well over one million years and perhaps over two million years; Homo
Homo
sapiens have existed for about 200,000 years. If considering Homo
Homo
erectus in its strict sense (that is, as referring to only the Asian variety) no consensus has been reached as to whether it is ancestral to H. sapiens or any later hominins (see above, "Interpreting evolution: ...").

A model of the face of an adult male Homo
Homo
erectus.

A model of the face of an adult female Homo
Homo
erectus.

Homo
Homo
erectus[edit]

Homo
Homo
erectus erectus ( Java
Java
Man) Homo
Homo
erectus yuanmouensis (Yuanmou Man) Homo
Homo
erectus lantianensis (Lantian Man) Homo
Homo
erectus nankinensis (Nanjing Man) Homo
Homo
erectus pekinensis (Peking Man) Homo
Homo
erectus palaeojavanicus (Meganthropus) Homo
Homo
erectus soloensis (Solo Man) Homo
Homo
erectus tautavelensis ( Tautavel
Tautavel
Man) Homo
Homo
erectus georgicus Homo
Homo
erectus bilzingslebenensis

Related species[edit] Further information: Human
Human
taxonomy § Species On many archaic humans there is no definite consensus as to whether they should be classified as subspecies of either H. erectus or H. sapiens, or as separate species

African H. erectus candidates

Homo
Homo
ergaster ("African H. erectus) Homo
Homo
naledi (or H. e. naledi)

Eurasian H. erectus candidates:

Homo
Homo
antecessor (or H. e. antecessor) Homo
Homo
heidelbergensis (or H. e. heidelbergensis) Homo
Homo
cepranensis (or H. e. cepranensis) Homo
Homo
floresiensis (or H. e. florsiensis)

Homo
Homo
sapiens candidates

Homo
Homo
neanderthalensis (or H. s. neanderthalensis) Homo
Homo
rhodesiensis (or H. s. rhodensis) Homo
Homo
heidelbergensis (or H. s. heidelbergensis) Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu anatomically modern humans ( Homo
Homo
sapiens or H. s. sapiens)

Previously referred taxa[edit]

Homo
Homo
erectus wushanensis (actually a stem-orangutan)

Homo
Homo
erectus soloensis, who was long assumed to have lived on Java
Java
at least as late as about 50,000 years ago but was re-dated in 2011 to a much older age,.[71] New 2017 research suggests that H. floresiensis was descended from the same (presumably Australopithecine) ancestor as Homo
Homo
habilis, making it a "sister species" to either H. habilis
H. habilis
or to a minimally habilis-erectus-ergaster-sapiens clade, and its line much more ancient than Homo
Homo
erectus itself.[72][73] Individual fossils[edit] Some of the major Homo
Homo
erectus fossils:

Indonesia
Indonesia
(island of Java): Trinil
Trinil
2 (holotype), Sangiran
Sangiran
collection, Sambungmachan collection,[74] Ngandong collection China
China
("Peking Man"): Lantian (Gongwangling and Chenjiawo), Yunxian, Zhoukoudian, Nanjing, Hexian Kenya: KNM ER 3883, KNM ER 3733 Vértesszőlős, Hungary "Samu" Vietnam: Northern, Tham Khuyen,[75] Hoa Binh[citation needed] Republic of Georgia: Dmanisi
Dmanisi
collection (" Homo
Homo
erectus georgicus") Ethiopia: Daka calvaria Eritrea: Buia cranium (possibly H. ergaster)[76] Denizli Province, Turkey: Kocabas fossil[77]

Development relative to other Hominins[edit]

Hominin
Hominin
species during Pleistocene

Gallery[edit]

Homo
Homo
erectus tautavelensis skull.

Replica of lower jaws of Homo
Homo
erectus from Tautavel, France.

Calvaria " Sangiran
Sangiran
II" original, collection Koenigswald, Senckenberg Museum.

A reconstruction based on evidence from the Daka Member, Ethiopia

Original fossils of Pithecanthropus erectus (now Homo
Homo
erectus) found in Java
Java
in 1891.

See also[edit]

A Different Flesh, alternate history novel by Harry Turtledove
Harry Turtledove
where erectus survived to modern times Homo
Homo
ergaster Java
Java
Man Kozarnika

General:

Dawn of Humanity (2015 PBS documentary) List of fossil sites
List of fossil sites
(with link directory) List of human evolution fossils
List of human evolution fossils
(with images) Origins of Us (2011 BBC documentary) Prehistoric Autopsy
Prehistoric Autopsy
(2012 BBC documentary)

References[edit]

^ a b Homo
Homo
erectus soloensis, found in Java, is considered the latest known survival of H. erectus. Formerly dated to as late as 50,000 to 40,000 years ago, a 2011 study pushed back the date of its extinction of H. e. soloensis to 143,000 years ago at the latest, more likely before 550,000 years ago. Indriati E, Swisher CC III, Lepre C, Quinn RL, Suriyanto RA, et al. 2011 The Age of the 20 Meter Solo River Terrace, Java, Indonesia
Indonesia
and the Survival of Homo
Homo
erectus in Asia. PLoS ONE 6(6): e21562. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021562. ^ a b Hazarika, Manji (16–30 June 2007). " Homo
Homo
erectus/ergaster and Out of Africa: Recent Developments in Paleoanthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology" (PDF).  ^ Chauhan, Parth R. (2003) "Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region" Archived 4 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. in An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian – A Theoretical Perspective. assemblage.group.shef.ac.uk ^ See overview of theories on human evolution. ^ Klein, R. (1999). The Human
Human
Career: Human
Human
Biological and Cultural Origins. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226439631. ^ Antón, S. C. (2003). "Natural history of Homo
Homo
erectus". Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 122: 126–170. doi:10.1002/ajpa.10399. By the 1980s, the growing numbers of H. erectus specimens, particularly in Africa, led to the realization that Asian H. erectus (H. erectus sensu stricto), once thought so primitive, was in fact more derived than its African counterparts. These morphological differences were interpreted by some as evidence that more than one species might be included in H. erectus sensu lato (e.g., Stringer, 1984; Andrews, 1984; Tattersall, 1986; Wood, 1984, 1991a, b; Schwartz and Tattersall, 2000) ... Unlike the European lineage, in my opinion, the taxonomic issues surrounding Asian vs. African H. erectus are more intractable. The issue was most pointedly addressed with the naming of H. ergaster
H. ergaster
on the basis of the type mandible KNM-ER 992, but also including the partial skeleton and isolated teeth of KNM-ER 803 among other Koobi Fora
Koobi Fora
remains (Groves and Mazak, 1975). Recently, this specific name was applied to most early African and Georgian H. erectus in recognition of the less-derived nature of these remains vis à vis conditions in Asian H. erectus (see Wood, 1991a, p. 268; Gabunia et al., 2000a). At least portions of the paratype of H. ergaster
H. ergaster
(e.g., KNM-ER 1805) are not included in most current conceptions of that taxon. The H. ergaster question remains famously unresolved (e.g., Stringer, 1984; Tattersall, 1986; Wood, 1991a, 1994; Rightmire, 1998b; Gabunia et al., 2000a; Schwartz and Tattersall, 2000), in no small part because the original diagnosis provided no comparison with the Asian fossil record  ^ Suwa G, Asfaw B, Haile-Selassie Y, White T, Katoh S, WoldeGabriel G, Hart W, Nakaya H, Beyene Y (2007). " Early Pleistocene Homo
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erectus fossils from Konso, southern Ethiopia". Anthropological Science. 115 (2): 133–151. doi:10.1537/ase.061203.  ^ Skull suggests three early human species were one : Nature News & Comment ^ a b David Lordkipanidze, Marcia S. Ponce de Leòn, Ann Margvelashvili, Yoel Rak, G. Philip Rightmire, Abesalom Vekua, Christoph P. E. Zollikofer (18 October 2013). "A Complete Skull from Dmanisi, Georgia, and the Evolutionary Biology of Early Homo". Science. 342 (6156): 326–331. doi:10.1126/science.1238484. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Switek, Brian (17 October 2013). "Beautiful Skull Spurs Debate on Human
Human
History". National Geographic. Retrieved 22 September 2014.  ^ Frazier, Kendrick (Nov–Dec 2006). "Leakey Fights Church Campaign to Downgrade Kenya
Kenya
Museum's Human
Human
Fossils". Skeptical Inquirer. 30 (6). Archived from the original on 2009-01-10.  ^ Prins, Harald E. L.; Walrath, Dana; McBride, Bunny (2007). Evolution and prehistory: the human challenge. Wadsworth Publishing. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-495-38190-7.  ^ a b Ferring, R.; Oms, O.; Agusti, J.; Berna, F.; Nioradze, M.; Shelia, T.; Tappen, M.; Vekua, A.; Zhvania, D.; Lordkipanidze, D. (2011). "Earliest human occupations at Dmanisi
Dmanisi
(Georgian Caucasus) dated to 1.85-1.78 Ma". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (26): 10432–10436. doi:10.1073/pnas.1106638108. PMC 3127884 . PMID 21646521.  ^ New discovery suggests Homo
Homo
erectus originated from Asia. Dnaindia.com. 8 June 2011. ^ Augusti, Jordi; Lordkipanidze, David (June 2011). "How "African" was the early human dispersal out of Africa?". Quaternary Science Reviews. 30 (11–12): 1338–1342. doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2010.04.012.  ^ píthēcos ^ ánthrōpos ^ Swisher, Curtis & Lewin 2000, p. 70. ^ "The First Knock at the Door". Peking Man
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Site Museum. In the summer of 1921, Dr. J.G. Andersson and his companions discovered this richly fossiliferous deposit through the local quarry men's guide. During examination he was surprised to notice some fragments of white quartz in tabus, a mineral normally foreign in that locality. The significance of this occurrence immediately suggested itself to him and turning to his companions, he exclaimed dramatically "Here is primitive man, now all we have to do is find him!"  ^ "The First Knock at the Door". Peking Man
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Site Museum. For some weeks in this summer and a longer period in 1923 Dr. Otto Zdansky carried on excavations of this cave site. He accumulated an extensive collection of fossil material, including two Homo
Homo
erectus teeth that were recognized in 1926. So, the cave home of Peking Man
Peking Man
was opened to the world.  ^ from sino-, a combining form of the Greek Σίνα, "China", and the Latinate pekinensis, "of Peking" ^ "Review of the History". Peking Man
Peking Man
Site Museum. During 1927-1937, abundant human and animal fossils as well as artefact were found at Peking Man
Peking Man
Site, it made the site to be the most productive one of the Homo
Homo
erectus sites of the same age all over the world. Other localities in the vicinity were also excavated almost at the same time.  ^ Darwin, Charles R. (1871). The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. John Murray. ISBN 0-8014-2085-7.  ^ F. Spoor; M. G. Leakey; P. N. Gathogo; F. H. Brown; S. C. Antón; I. McDougall; C. Kiarie; F. K. Manthi; L. N. Leakey (2007-08-09). "Implications of new early Homo
Homo
fossils from Ileret, east of Lake Turkana, Kenya". Nature. 448 (7154): 688–691. doi:10.1038/nature05986. PMID 17687323.  "A partial maxilla assigned to H. habilis
H. habilis
reliably demonstrates that this species survived until later than previously recognized, making an anagenetic relationship with H. erectus unlikely" (Emphasis added). ^ ROBINSON JT (January 1953). "The nature of Telanthropus capensis". Nature. 171 (4340): 33. doi:10.1038/171033a0. PMID 13025468.  ^ Frederick E. Grine; John G. Fleagle; Richard E. Leakey (1 Jun 2009). "Chapter 2: Homo
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habilis—A Premature Discovery: Remember by One of Its Founding Fathers, 42 Years Later". The First Humans: Origin and Early Evolution of the Genus Homo. Springer. p. 7.  ^ a b Kalb, Jon E (2001). Adventures in the Bone Trade: The Race to Discover Human
Human
Ancestors in Ethiopia's Afar Depression. Springer. p. 76. ISBN 0-387-98742-8. Retrieved 2010-12-02.  ^ Wood, Bernard (11 July 2002). "Palaeoanthropology: Hominid revelations from Chad" (PDF). Nature. 418 (6894): 133–135. doi:10.1038/418133a. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2010.  ^ Cornevin, Robert (1967). Histoire de l'Afrique. Payotte. p. 440. ISBN 2-228-11470-7.  ^ "Mikko's Phylogeny Archive". Finnish Museum of Natural History, University of Helsinki. Archived from the original on 2007-01-06.  ^ "Oldest known member of human family found in Ethiopia". New Scientist. 4 March 2015. Retrieved 2015-03-07.  Ghosh, Pallab (4 March 2015). "'First human' discovered in Ethiopia". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 7 March 2015.  ^ "Vertebrate fossils record a faunal turnover indicative of more open and probable arid habitats than those reconstructed earlier in this region, in broad agreement with hypotheses addressing the role of environmental forcing in hominin evolution at this time." Erin N. DiMaggio EN; Campisano CJ; Rowan J; Dupont-Nivet G; Deino AL; et al. (2015). "Late Pliocene
Pliocene
fossiliferous sedimentary record and the environmental context of early Homo
Homo
from Afar, Ethiopia". Science. 347 (6228): 1355–9. doi:10.1126/science.aaa1415. PMID 25739409.  ^ Vekua A, Lordkipanidze D, Rightmire GP, Agusti J, Ferring R, Maisuradze G, Mouskhelishvili A, Nioradze M, De Leon MP, Tappen M, Tvalchrelidze M, Zollikofer C (2002). "A new skull of early Homo
Homo
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Homo
from Dmanisi, Georgia" (PDF). Nature. 449 (7160): 305–310. doi:10.1038/nature06134. PMID 17882214.  ^ Lordkipanidze, D.; Vekua, A.; Ferring, R.; Rightmire, G. P.; Agusti, J.; Kiladze, G.; Mouskhelishvili, A.; Nioradze, M.; Ponce De León, M. S. P.; Tappen, M.; Zollikofer, C. P. E. (2005). "Anthropology: The earliest toothless hominin skull". Nature. 434 (7034): 717–718. doi:10.1038/434717b. PMID 15815618.  ^ Gibbons, A. (2003). "A Shrunken Head for African Homo
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erectus" (PDF). Science. 300 (5621): 893a. doi:10.1126/science.300.5621.893a. PMID 12738831.  ^ Tattersall, I.; Schwartz, J. H. (2009). "Evolution of the GenusHomo". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 37: 67–92. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.031208.100202.  ^ Rightmire, G. P.; Lordkipanidze, D.; Vekua, A. (2006). "Anatomical descriptions, comparative studies and evolutionary significance of the hominin skulls from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia". Journal of Human Evolution. 50 (2): 115–141. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2005.07.009. PMID 16271745.  ^ Gabunia, L.; Vekua, A.; Lordkipanidze, D.; Swisher Cc, 3.; Ferring, R.; Justus, A.; Nioradze, M.; Tvalchrelidze, M.; Antón, S. C.; Bosinski, G.; Jöris, O.; Lumley, M. A.; Majsuradze, G.; Mouskhelishvili, A. (2000). "Earliest Pleistocene
Pleistocene
hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: Taxonomy, geological setting, and age". Science. 288 (5468): 1019–1025. doi:10.1126/science.288.5468.1019. PMID 10807567.  ^ a b Bower, Bruce (3 May 2006). "Evolutionary back story: Thoroughly modern spine supported human ancestor". Science News. 169 (18): 275–276. doi:10.2307/4019325. JSTOR 4019325.  ^ Wilford, John Noble (19 September 2007). "New Fossils Offer Glimpse of Human
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Evolution. 54 (6): 904–8. doi:10.1016/j.jhevol.2008.02.003. PMID 18394678.  ^ Ian Sample (17 October 2013). "Skull of Homo
Homo
erectus throws story of human evolution into disarray". The Guardian.  ^ Weidenreich, F. (1943). "The " Neanderthal
Neanderthal
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Evolution. Discovery Publishing House. p. 195. ISBN 978-8171417759. Retrieved 30 March 2013. African H. erectus, with a mean stature of 170 cm, would be in the tallest 17 percent of modern populations, even if we make comparisons only with males  ^ Roylance, Frank D. Roylance (6 February 1994). "A Kid Tall For His Age". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 30 March 2013. Clearly this population of early people were tall, and fit. Their long bones were very strong. We believe their activity level was much higher than we can imagine today. We can hardly find Olympic athletes with the stature of these people  ^ a b Stringer, C. (2012). "What makes a modern human". Nature. 485 (7396): 33–35. doi:10.1038/485033a. PMID 22552077.  ^ a b "Figure 5. Temporal and Geographical Distribution of Hominid Populations
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Further reading[edit]

Leakey, Richard; Walker, Alan (November 1985). " Homo
Homo
Erectus Unearthed". National Geographic. Vol. 168 no. 5. pp. 624–629. ISSN 0027-9358. OCLC 643483454. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Homo
Homo
erectus.

Homo
Homo
erectus Origins - Exploring the Fossil Record - Bradshaw Foundation Archaeology Info Homo
Homo
erectus – The Smithsonian Institution's Human
Human
Origins Program Possible co-existence with Homo
Homo
Habilis – BBC News John Hawks's discussion of the Kocabas fossil Peter Brown's Australian and Asian Palaeoanthropology The Age of Homo
Homo
erectus – Interactive Map of the Journey of Homo erectus out of Africa Human
Human
Timeline (Interactive) – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History (August 2016).

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