Home inspection



A home inspection is a limited, non-invasive examination of the condition of a home, often in connection with the sale of that home. Home inspections are usually conducted by a home inspector who has the training and certifications to perform such inspections. The inspector prepares and delivers to the client a written report of findings. The client then uses the knowledge gained to make informed decisions about their pending real estate purchase. The home inspector describes the condition of the home at the time of inspection but does not guarantee future condition, efficiency, or life expectancy of systems or components. Sometimes confused with a real estate
appraiser An appraiser (from Latin ''appretiare'', "to value"), is a person that develops an opinion of the market value or other value of a product, most notably real estate. The current definition of "appraiser" according to the Uniform Standards of Pro ...
, a home inspector determines the condition of a structure, whereas an appraiser determines the value of a property. In the United States, although not all states or municipalities regulate home inspectors, there are various professional associations for home inspectors that provide education, training, and networking opportunities. A professional home inspection is an examination of the current condition of a house. It is not an inspection to verify compliance with appropriate codes;
building inspection A building inspection is an inspection performed by a building inspector, a person who is employed by either a city, township or county and is usually certified in one or more disciplines qualifying them to make professional judgment about whether ...
is a term often used for building code compliance inspections in the United States. A similar but more complicated inspection of commercial buildings is a property condition assessment. Home inspections identify problems but building diagnostics identifies solutions to the found problems and their predicted outcomes. A property inspection is a detailed visual documentation of a property's structures, design, and fixtures. Property Inspection provides a buyer, renter, or other information consumer with valuable insight into the property's conditions prior to purchase. House-hunting can be a difficult task especially when you can't seem to find one that you like. The best way to get things done is to ensure that there is a property inspection before buying a property.

North America

Canada Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over , making it the world's second-largest country by tot ...
and the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territori ...
, a contract to purchase a house may include a contingency that the contract is not valid until the buyer, through a home inspector or other agents, has had an opportunity to verify the condition of the property. In many states and provinces, home inspectors are required to be licensed, but in some states, the profession is not regulated. Typical requirements for obtaining a license are the completion of an approved training course and/or a successful examination by the state's licensing board. Several states and provinces also require inspectors to periodically obtain continuing education credits in order to renew their licenses. In May 2001, Massachusetts became the first state to recognize the potential conflict of interest when real estate agents selling a home also refer or recommend the home inspector to the potential buyer. As a result, the real estate licensing law in Massachusetts was amended to prohibit listing real estate agents from directly referring home inspectors. The law also prohibits listing agents from giving out a "short" name list of inspectors. The only list that can be given out is the complete list of all licensed home inspectors in the state. Ancillary services such as inspections for wood destroying insects,
radon Radon is a chemical element with the symbol Rn and atomic number 86. It is a radioactive, colourless, odourless, tasteless noble gas. It occurs naturally in minute quantities as an intermediate step in the normal radioactive decay chains through ...
septic tank A septic tank is an underground chamber made of concrete, fiberglass, or plastic through which domestic wastewater ( sewage) flows for basic sewage treatment. Settling and anaerobic digestion processes reduce solids and organics, but the treatm ...
inspections, water quality, mold, (or excessive moisture which may lead to mold), and private well inspections are sometimes part of home inspector's services if duly qualified. In many provinces and states, home inspection standards are developed and enforced by professional associations, such as, worldwide, the
International Association of Certified Home Inspectors International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * ''International'' (New Order album), 2002 * ''International'' (The T ...
(InterNACHI); in the United States, the American Society of Home Inspectors (ASHI), and the National Association of Home Inspectors (NAHI)(No Longer active 10/2017); and, in Canada, the Canadian Association of Home and Property Inspectors (CAHPI), the Professional Home & Property Inspectors of Canada (PHPIC) and the National Home Inspector Certification Council (NHICC). Currently, more than thirty U.S. states regulate the home inspection industry in some form. Canada saw a deviation from this model when in 2016 an association-independent home inspection standard was completed. This was developed in partnership with industry professionals, consumer advocates, and technical experts, by the Canadian Standards Association. The CAN/CSA A770-16 Home Inspection Standard was funded by three provincial governments with the intent to be the unifying standard for home inspections carried out within Canada. It is the only home inspection standard that has been endorsed by the Standards Council of Canada. In Canada, there are provincial associations which focus on provincial differences that affect their members and consumers. Ontario has the largest population of home inspectors which was estimated in 2013 as part of a government survey at being around 1500. To date, Ontario Association of Certified Home Inspectors is the only association which has mandated that its members migrate to the CAN/CSA A770-16 Home Inspection Standard, with a date of migration set as February 28, 2020. Other national and provincial associations have set it as an option to be added to other supported standards. In Canada, only Alberta and British Columbia have implemented government regulation for the home inspection profession. The province of Ontario has proceeded through the process, with the passage of regulatory procedure culminating in the Home Inspection Act, 2017 to license Home Inspectors in that province. It has received royal assent but is still awaiting the development of regulations and proclamation to become law. In Ontario, there are two provincial Associations, OAHI (the Ontario Association of Home Inspectors) and OntarioACHI (the Ontario Association of Certified Home Inspectors). Both claim to be the largest association in the province. OAHI, formed by a private member's Bill in the Provincial Assembly, has the right in law to award the R.H.I. (Registered Home Inspector) designation to anyone on its membership register. The R.H.I. designation, however, is a reserved designation, overseen by OAHI under the Ontario Association of Home Inspectors Act, 1994. This Act allows OAHI to award members who have passed and maintained strict criteria set out in their membership bylaws and who operate within Ontario. Similarly, OntarioACHI requires equally high standards for the award of their certification, the Canadian-Certified Home Inspector (CCHI) designation. To confuse things, Canadian Association of Home and Property Inspectors (CAHPI) own the copyright to the terms Registered Home Inspector and RHI. Outside of Ontario, OAHI Members cannot use the terms without being qualified by CAHPI. The proclamation of the Home Inspection Act, 2017, requires the dissolution of the Ontario Association of Home Inspectors Act, 1994, which will remove the right to title in Ontario of the RHI at the same time removing consumer confusion about the criteria for its award across Canada.

United Kingdom

A home inspector in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the European mainland, continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotlan ...
(or more precisely in
England England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe b ...
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Celtic Sea to the south west and the Bristol Channel to the south. It had a population in ...
), was an inspector certified to carry out the Home Condition Reports that it was originally anticipated would be included in the
Home Information Pack Under Part 5 of the Housing Act 2004 a Home Information Pack (HIP, on lowercase letters: hip), sometimes called a Seller's Pack, was to be provided before a property in England and Wales could be put on the open market for sale with vacant possess ...
. Home inspectors were required to complete the ABBE Diploma in Home Inspection to show they met the standards set out for NVQ/VRQ competency-based assessment (Level 4). The government had suggested that between 7,500 and 8,000 qualified and licensed home inspectors would be needed to meet the annual demand of nearly 2,000,000 Home Information Packs. In the event, many more than this entered training, resulting in a massive oversupply of potential inspectors. With the cancellation of Home Information Packs by the coalition Government in 2010, the role of the home inspector in the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a country in Europe, off the north-western coast of the European mainland, continental mainland. It comprises England, Scotlan ...
became permanently redundant. Inspections of the home, as part of a real estate transaction, are still generally carried out in the UK in the same manner as they had been for years before the Home Condition Report process. Home Inspections are more detailed than those currently offered in North America. They are generally performed by a chartered member of the
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors The Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors (RICS) is a global professional body for surveyors, founded in London in 1868. It works at a cross-governmental level, and aims to promote and enforce the highest international standards in the va ...


The concept of home inspection in
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the so ...
is in its infancy. There has been a proliferation of companies that have started offering the service, predominantly in Tier-1 cities such as
Bangalore Bangalore (), List of renamed places in India, officially Bengaluru (), is the Capital city, capital and largest city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of more than and a metropolitan area, metropolitan population of a ...
Chennai Chennai (, ), formerly known as Madras ( the official name until 1996), is the capital city of Tamil Nadu, the southernmost Indian state. The largest city of the state in area and population, Chennai is located on the Coromandel Coast of th ...
Kolkata Kolkata (, or , ; also known as Calcutta , the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal, on the eastern bank of the Hooghly River west of the border with Bangladesh. It is the primary business, comme ...
Pune Pune (; ; also known as Poona, ( the official name from 1818 until 1978) is one of the most important industrial and educational hubs of India, with an estimated population of 7.4 million As of 2021, Pune Metropolitan Region is the largest i ...
Mumbai Mumbai (, ; also known as Bombay — List of renamed Indian cities and states#Maharashtra, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian States and union territories of India, state of Maharashtra and the ''de facto'' fin ...
, etc. To help bring about a broader understanding among the general public and market the concept, a few home inspection companies have come together and formed th
Home Inspection Association of India
After RERA came into effect, the efficacy and potency of home inspection companies has increased tremendously. The majority of homeowners and potential home buyers do not know what home inspection is or that such a service exists. The way tha
home inspection is different in India
than in North America or United Kingdom is the lack of a government authorised licensing authority. Apart from the fact that houses in India are predominantly built with kiln baked bricks, concrete blocks or even just concrete walls (predominantly in high rise apartments) this means the tests conducted are vastly different. Most home inspection companies conduct
non-destructive testing Nondestructive testing (NDT) is any of a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage. The terms nondestructive examination (NDE), n ...
of the property, in some cases based on customer requirement, tests that require core-cutting are also performed. The majority of homeowners are not aware of the concept of home inspection in India. The other issue is that the balance of power is highly tilted toward the builder; this means the home buyers are stepping on their proverbial toes, because in most cases, the home is the single most expensive purchase in their lifetime, and the homeowners do not want to come across as antagonising the builders.

Home inspection standards and exclusions

Some home inspectors and home inspection regulatory bodies maintain various standards related to the trade. Some inspection companies offer 90-day limited warranties to protect clients from unexpected mechanical and structural failures; otherwise, inspectors are not responsible for future failures. A general inspection standard for buildings other than residential homes can be found at the National Academy of Building Inspection Engineers. Many inspectors may also offer ancillary services such as inspecting pools, sprinkler systems, checking radon levels, and inspecting for wood-destroying organisms. The CAN/CSA-A770-16 standard allows this (in-fact it demands swimming pool safety inspections as a requirement) and also mandates that the inspector be properly qualified to offer these. Other standards are silent on this.

Types of inspections

Home buyers and home sellers inspections

Home inspections are often used by prospective purchasers of the house in question, in order to evaluate the condition of the house prior to the purchase. Similarly, a home seller can elect to have an inspection on their property and report the results of that inspection to the prospective buyer.

Foreclosure inspection

Recently foreclosed properties may require home inspections.

Four point inspection

An inspection of the house's roof, HVAC, and electrical and plumbing systems is often known as a "four-point inspection", which insurance companies may require as a condition for homeowner's insurance.

Disaster inspection

Home inspections may occur after a disaster has struck the house. A disaster examination, unlike a standard house inspection, concentrates on damage rather than the quality of everything visible and accessible from the roof to the basement. Inspectors go to people's homes or work places who have asked for FEMA disaster aid.

Section 8 inspection

In the United States, the federal and state governments provide housing subsidies to low-income people through the Section 8 program. The government expects that the housing will be "fit for habitation" so a Section 8 inspection identifies compliance with HUD's Housing Quality Standards (HQS).

Pre-delivery inspection

An inspection may occur in a purchased house prior to the deal's closure, in what is known as a "pre-delivery" inspection.

Structural inspection

The house's structure may also be inspected. When performing a structural inspection, the inspector will look for a variety of distress indications that may result in repair or further evaluation recommendations. In the state of New York, only a
licensed professional engineer Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage life, public welfare, safety, well-being, then environment and other interests of the general public and to define the licensure process thro ...
or a
registered architect Professional requirements for architects vary from place to place, but usually consist of three elements: a university degree or advanced education, a period of internship or training in an office, and examination for registration with a jurisdict ...
can render professional opinions as to the sufficiency structural elements of a home or building. Municipal building officials can also make this determination, but they are not performing home inspections at the time they are rendering this opinion. Municipal officials are also not required to look out for the best interest of the buyer. Some other states may have similar provisions in their licensing laws. Someone who is not a licensed professional engineer or a registered architect can describe the condition of structural elements (cracked framing, sagged beams/roof, severe rot or insect damage, etc.), but are not permitted to render a professional opinion as to how the condition has affected the structural soundness of the building. Various systems of the house, including plumbing and HVAC, may also be inspected.

Thermal imaging Inspection

A thermal imaging inspection using an infrared camera can provide inspectors with information on home energy loss, heat gain/loss through the exterior walls and roof, moisture leaks, and improper electrical system conditions that are typically not visible to the naked eye. Thermal imaging is not considered part of a General Home Inspection because it exceeds the scope of inspection Standards of Practice.

Pool and spa inspection

Inspection of swimming pools and
spa A spa is a location where mineral-rich spring water (and sometimes seawater) is used to give medicinal baths. Spa towns or spa resorts (including hot springs resorts) typically offer various health treatments, which are also known as balneoth ...
s is not considered part of a General Home Inspection because their inspection exceeds the scope of inspection Standards of Practice. However, some home inspectors are also certified to inspect pools and spas and offer this as an ancillary service.

Tree health inspection

Inspection of trees on the property is not considered part of a General Home Inspection because their inspection exceeds the scope of inspection Standards of Practice. This type of inspection is typically performed by a Certified Arborist and assesses the safety and condition of the trees on a property before the sales agreement is executed. https://www.visa-property-inspection.com/

Property inspection report for immigration

The UKVI (United Kingdom Visa and Immigration) issued guidance on the necessity of ensuring that properties must meet guidelines so that visa applicants can be housed in properties which meet environmental and health standards. Part X of the Housing Act 1985 provides the legislative grounding for the reports - primarily to ensure that a property is not currently overcrowded, that the inclusion of further individuals as a result of successful visa applications - whether spouse visa, dependent visa, indefinite leave to remain or visitor visa, can house the applicants without the property becoming overcrowded. Reports are typically prepared by environmental assessors or qualified solicitors in accordance with HHSRS (Housing Health and Safety Rating Scheme). Property inspection reports are typically standard and breakdown the legal requirements.

Pre-Listing Home Inspection

A pre-listing inspection focuses on all major systems and components of the house including HVAC, electrical, plumbing, siding, doors, windows, roof and structure. It's a full home inspection for the seller to better understand the condition of their home prior to the buyer's own inspection.

See also

List of real estate topics This aims to be a complete list of the articles on real estate. __NOTOC__ # * 72-hour clause A * Abandonment * Abstract of title * Acceleration clause * Accession * Acknowledgment * Acre – a measure of land area * Action to quiet tit ...
Real estate appraisal Real estate appraisal, property valuation or land valuation is the process of developing an opinion of value for real property (usually market value). Real estate transactions often require appraisals because they occur infrequently and every pr ...



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