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The Holy
Holy
Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקּוֹדֶשׁ Eretz HaKodesh, Latin: Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River
Jordan River
and the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
that also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan
Jordan
River. Traditionally, it is synonymous with both the biblical Land of Israel
Land of Israel
and historical Palestine. The term usually refers to a territory roughly corresponding to the modern State of Israel, the Palestinian territories, western Jordan, and parts of southern Lebanon and southwestern Syria. It is considered holy by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Part of the significance of the land stems from the religious significance of Jerusalem, the holiest city to Judaism, the historical region of Jesus' ministry, and the site of the Isra and Mi'raj
Isra and Mi'raj
event in Islam. The holiness of the land to Christianity was part of the motivation for the Crusades, as European Christians sought to win back the Holy Land from the Muslims, who had conquered it from the Christian Byzantine Empire. Many sites in the Holy
Holy
Land have long been pilgrimage destinations for adherents of the Abrahamic religions, including Jews, Christians, Muslims, and Bahá'ís. Pilgrims visit the Holy
Holy
Land to touch and see physical manifestations of their faith, confirm their beliefs in the holy context with collective excitation, and connect personally to the Holy
Holy
Land.[2]

Contents

1 Judaism 2 Christianity 3 Islam 4 Bahá'í faith 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Judaism[edit]

Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem. The holiness of Israel
Israel
attracted Jews
Jews
to be buried in its holy soil. The sage Rabbi Anan said "To be buried in Israel
Israel
is like being buried under the altar."[3][4]

Olives trees, like this one in Qefin, have intrinsic holiness in Judaism, especially during the Sabbatical Year. This "seventh year holiness" carries with it many religious laws.[5]

Jews
Jews
do not commonly refer to the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
as " Holy
Holy
Land" (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקוֹדֵשׁ Eretz HaKodesh). The Tanakh explicitly refers to it as "holy land" in only one passage.[6] The term "holy land" is further used twice in the deuterocanonical books.[7][8] The holiness of the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
is generally implied in the Tanakh
Tanakh
by the Land being given to the Israelites
Israelites
by God, that is, it is the "promised land", an integral part of God's covenant. In the Torah
Torah
many mitzvot commanded to the Israelites
Israelites
can only be performed in the Land of Israel,[9] which serves to differentiate it from other lands. For example, in the Land of Israel, "no land shall be sold permanently" (Lev. 25:23). Shmita
Shmita
is only observed with respect to the land of Israel, and the observance of many holy days is different, as an extra day is observed in the Jewish diaspora. According to Eliezer Schweid:

The uniqueness of the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
is...'geo-theological' and not merely climatic. This is the land which faces the entrance of the spiritual world, that sphere of existence that lies beyond the physical world known to us through our senses. This is the key to the land's unique status with regard to prophecy and prayer, and also with regard to the commandments[10]

From the perspective of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia, the holiness of Israel
Israel
had been concentrated since the sixteenth century, especially for burial, in the "Four Holy
Holy
Cities": Jerusalem, Hebron, Safed
Safed
and Tiberias
Tiberias
- as Judaism's holiest cities. Jerusalem, as the site of the Temple, is considered especially significant.[11] Sacred burials are still undertaken for diaspora Jews
Jews
who wish to lie buried in the holy soil of Israel.[12] According to Jewish tradition, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is Mount Moriah, the location of the binding of Isaac. The Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
mentions the name "Jerusalem" 669 times, often because many mitzvot can only be performed within its environs. The name "Zion", which usually refers to Jerusalem, but sometimes the Land of Israel, appears in the Hebrew Bible 154 times. The Talmud
Talmud
mentions the religious duty of colonising Israel.[13] So significant in Judaism
Judaism
is the act of purchasing land in Israel, the Talmud
Talmud
allows for the lifting of certain religious restrictions of Sabbath
Sabbath
observance to further its acquisition and settlement.[14] Rabbi
Rabbi
Johanan said that "one who walks a distance of 4 cubits in Israel
Israel
may be confident of a share in the future world". A story says that when R. Eleazar b. Shammua' and R. Johanan HaSandlar
Johanan HaSandlar
left Israel to study from R. Judah ben Bathyra, they only managed to reach Sidon when "the thought of the sanctity of Israel
Israel
overcame their resolution, and they shed tears, rent their garments, and turned back". Due to the Jewish population being concentrated in Israel, emigration was generally prevented, which resulted in a limiting of the amount of space available for Jewish learning. However, after suffering persecutions in Israel
Israel
for centuries after the destruction of the Temple, Rabbis who had found it very difficult to retain their position moved to Babylon, which offered them better protection. Many Jews
Jews
wanted Israel
Israel
to be the place where they died. R. Anan said, "To be buried in Israel
Israel
is like being buried under the altar". The saying "His land will absolve His people" implies that burial in Israel
Israel
will cause one to be absolved of all one's sins. Christianity[edit] See also: Christian
Christian
pilgrimage, Travelogues of Palestine, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Christianity, and List of Christian
Christian
holy sites in the Holy
Holy
Land

The Church of the Holy
Holy
Sepulchre is one of the most important pilgrimage sites in Christianity, as it is the purported site of Christ's resurrection.

Crusader castle of Toron
Toron
in the village of Tibnin, Lebanon

For Christians, the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
is considered holy because of its association with the birth, ministry, crucifixion and resurrection of Jesus, whom Christians regard as the Savior or Messiah, and because it is the land of his people, the Jews
Jews
(according to the Bible). Christian
Christian
books, including editions of the Bible, often had maps of the Holy
Holy
Land (considered to be Galilee, Samaria, Judea). For instance, the Itinerarium Sacrae Scripturae (Travel book through Holy Scripture) of Heinrich Bünting (1545-1606), a German Protestant pastor, featured such a map.[15] His book was very popular, and it provided "the most complete available summary of biblical geography and described the geography of the Holy
Holy
Land by tracing the travels of major figures from the Old and New testaments."[15] As a geographic term, the description " Holy
Holy
Land" loosely encompasses modern-day Israel, the Palestinian territories, Lebanon, western Jordan
Jordan
and south-western Syria. Islam[edit]

Al-Aqsa Mosque
Mosque
in the Old City of Jerusalem

See also: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Islam
Islam
and Syria
Syria
(region) In the Qur'an, the term Arabic: الأرض المقدسة‎ (Al-Ard Al-Muqaddasah, English: " Holy
Holy
Land") is used in a passage about Musa (Moses) proclaiming to the Children of Israel: "O my people! Enter the holy land which Allah
Allah
hath assigned unto you, and turn not back ignominiously, for then will ye be overthrown, to your own ruin." (Surah 5:21) The Quran
Quran
also refers to the land as being 'Blessed'.[16][17][18] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(referred to as Al-Quds (Arabic: الـقُـدس‎, "The Holy")) has particular significance in Islam. The Quran
Quran
refers to Muhammad's experiencing the Isra and Mi'raj
Isra and Mi'raj
as "a Journey by night from Al-Masjidil-Haram to Al-Masjidil-Aqsa, whose precincts We did bless ..." (17:1).[16] Ahadith
Ahadith
infer that the "Farthest Masjid" is in Al-Quds; for example, as narrated by Abu Hurairah: "On the night journey of the Apostle of Allah, two cups, one containing wine and the other containing milk, were presented to him at Al-Quds (Jerusalem). He looked at them and took the cup of milk. Angel Gabriel said, "Praise be to Allah, who guided you to Al-Fitrah (the right path); if you had taken (the cup of) wine, your Ummah
Ummah
would have gone astray". However, some modern scholars argue that the 'Farthest Mosque' was a building or prayer-site just outside Medina.[19][20] The present building of Al- Masjid Al-Aqsa
Masjid Al-Aqsa
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
had not been built in Muhammad's day, and the Quran
Quran
does not contain any other reference to Jerusalem, apart from the reference to the change of the Qiblah from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Mecca. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was Islam's first Qiblah (direction of prayer) in Muhammad's lifetime, however, this was later changed to the Kaaba
Kaaba
in the Hijazi city of Mecca, following a revelation to Muhammad by the Archangel Jibril,[21] by which it is understood by scholars[who?] that it was in answer to the rejection by the Jews
Jews
of Muhammed's Prophetship. The exact region referred to as being 'blessed' in the Qur'an, in verses like [17:1], [21:71] and [34:18],[16][17][18] has been interpreted differently by various scholars. Abdullah Yusuf Ali
Abdullah Yusuf Ali
likens it to a wide land-range including Syria
Syria
and Lebanon, especially the cities of Tyre and Sidon; Az-Zujaj describes it as, "Damascus, Palestine, and a bit of Jordan"; Muadh ibn Jabal
Muadh ibn Jabal
as, "the area between al-Arish and the Euphrates"; and Ibn Abbas
Ibn Abbas
as, "the land of Jericho".[22] This overall region is referred to as "Ash-Shām" (Arabic: الـشَّـام‎).[23][24] Bahá'í faith[edit] Bahá'ís
Bahá'ís
consider Acre and Haifa
Haifa
sacred as Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, was exiled to the prison of Acre from 1868 and spent his life in its surroundings until his death in 1892. In his writings he set the slope of Mount Carmel
Mount Carmel
to host the Shrine of the Báb which his appointed successor `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
erected in 1909 as a beginning of the terraced gardens there. The Head of the religion after him, Shoghi Effendi, began building other structures and the Universal House of Justice
Universal House of Justice
continued the work until the Bahá'í World Centre was brought to its current state as the spiritual and administrative centre of the religion.[25][26] Its gardens are highly popular places to visit[27] and Mohsen Makhmalbaf's 2012 film The Gardener featured them.[28] The holiest places currently for Bahá'í pilgrimage are the Shrine of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
in Acre and the Shrine of the Báb in Haifa
Haifa
which are UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites.[29] See also[edit]

Archaeological sites in Israel Crusader states History of the Jews
Jews
in the Land of Israel Holiest sites in Islam Holy
Holy
places List of significant religious sites Laws and customs of the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
in Judaism

References[edit]

^ Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld
Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld
(1889). Facsimile-atlas to the Early History of Cartography: With Reproductions of the Most Important Maps Printed in the XV and XVI Centuries. Kraus. pp. 51, 64.  ^ Metti, Michael Sebastian (2011-06-01). " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
- the most powerful brand in history" (PDF). Stockholm University School of Business. Retrieved 1 July 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ Michael L. Rodkinson (Translator) (2010). The Babylonian Talmud: all 20 volumes (Mobi Classics). MobileReference. p. 2234. ISBN 978-1-60778-618-4. Retrieved 7 December 2011.  ^ Moshe Gil (1997). A history of Palestine, 634-1099. Cambridge University Press. p. 632. ISBN 978-0-521-59984-9. Retrieved 7 December 2011.  ^ Seasons in Halacha, Pinchos Yehoshua Ellis, pg. 74. ^ Zechariah 2:16 ^ Wisdom 12:3 ^ 2 Maccabees 1:7 ^ Aharon Ziegler, Halakhic positions of Rabbi
Rabbi
Joseph
Joseph
B. Soloveitchik: Volume 4, KTAV Publishing House, 2007, p.173 ^ The Land of Israel: National Home Or Land of Destiny, By Eliezer Schweid, Translated by Deborah Greniman, Published 1985 Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, ISBN 0-8386-3234-3, p.56. ^ Since the 10th century BCE. "For Jews
Jews
the city has been the pre-eminent focus of their spiritual, cultural, and national life throughout three millennia." Yossi Feintuch, U.S. Policy on Jerusalem, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1987, p. 1. ISBN 0-313-25700-0 ^ Joseph
Joseph
Jacobs, Judah David
David
Eisenstein. "PALESTINE, HOLINESS OF". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved December 7, 2011.  ^ Isaac
Isaac
Herzog (1967). The Main Institutions of Jewish Law: The law of obligations. Soncino Press. p. 51. Retrieved 27 June 2011.  ^ Yosef Zahavi (1962). Eretz Israel
Israel
in rabbinic lore (Midreshei Eretz Israel): an anthology. Tehilla Institute. p. 28. Retrieved 19 June 2011. If one buys a house from a non-Jew in Israel, the title deed may be written for him even on the Sabbath. On the Sabbath!? Is that possible? But as Rava explained, he may order a non-Jew to write it, even though instructing a non-Jew to do a work prohibited to Jews on the Sabbath
Sabbath
is forbidden by rabbinic ordination, the rabbis waived their decree on account of the settlement of Palestine.  ^ a b Bünting, Heinrich (1585). "Description of the Holy
Holy
Land". World Digital Library (in German).  ^ a b c Quran 17:1–16 ^ a b Quran 21:51–82 ^ a b Quran 34:10–18 ^ Mordechai Kedar
Mordechai Kedar
(15 Sep 2008). "The myth of al-Aqsa:Holiness of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Islam
Islam
has always been politically motivated". Ynetnews.  ^ Martin Kramer. "The Jewish Temples: The Temples of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Islam". Jewish Virtual Library.  ^ Quran 2:142–177 ^ Ali (1991), p. 934 ^ Article "AL-SHĀM" by C.E. Bosworth, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume 9 (1997), page 261. ^ Kamal S. Salibi (2003). A House of Many Mansions: The History of Lebanon
Lebanon
Reconsidered. I.B.Tauris. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-1-86064-912-7. To the Arabs, this same territory, which the Romans
Romans
considered Arabian, formed part of what they called Bilad al-Sham, which was their own name for Syria. From the classical perspective however Syria, including Palestine, formed no more than the western fringes of what was reckoned to be Arabia between the first line of cities and the coast. Since there is no clear dividing line between what are called today the Syrian and Arabian deserts, which actually form one stretch of arid tableland, the classical concept of what actually constituted Syria
Syria
had more to its credit geographically than the vaguer Arab
Arab
concept of Syria
Syria
as Bilad al-Sham. Under the Romans, there was actually a province of Syria. with its capital at Antioch, which carried the name of the territory. Otherwise. down the centuries, Syria
Syria
like Arabia and Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was no more than a geographic expression. In Islamic times, the Arab geographers used the name arabicized as Suriyah, to denote one special region of Bilad al-Sham, which was the middle section of the valley of the Orontes river, in the vicinity of the towns of Homs and Hama. They also noted that it was an old name for the whole of Bilad al-Sham which had gone out of use. As a geographic expression, however, the name Syria
Syria
survived in its original classical sense in Byzantine and Western European usage, and also in the Syriac literature of some of the Eastern Christian
Christian
churches, from which it occasionally found its way into Christian
Christian
Arabic usage. It was only in the nineteenth century that the use of the name was revived in its modern Arabic form, frequently as Suriyya rather than the older Suriyah, to denote the whole of Bilad al-Sham: first of all in the Christian
Christian
Arabic literature of the period, and under the influence of Western Europe. By the end of that century it had already replaced the name of Bilad al-Sham even in Muslim
Muslim
Arabic usage.  ^ Jay D. Gatrella; Noga Collins-Kreinerb (September 2006). "Negotiated space: Tourists, pilgrims, and the Bahá'í terraced gardens in Haifa". Geoforum. 37 (5): 765–778. doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2006.01.002. ISSN 0016-7185. Retrieved 30 March 2014.  ^ Smith, Peter (2000). "Arc-buildings of; Bahá'í World Centre". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 45–46;71–72. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.  ^ Leichman, Abigail Klein (7 September 2011). "Israel's top 10 public gardens". Israel21c.org. Retrieved 30 March 2014.  ^ Dargis, Mahohla (8 August 2013). "The Cultivation of Belief - 'The Gardener,' Mohsen Makhmalbaf's Inquiry Into Religion". New York Times. Retrieved 30 March 2014.  ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre (2008-07-08). "Three new sites inscribed on UNESCO's World Heritage List". Retrieved 2008-07-08. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Holy
Holy
Land.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Holy
Holy
Land.

Manuscripts from the Holy
Holy
Land Shapell Manuscript Foundation "Description of the Holy
Holy
Land", 1585 map depicting the Holy
Holy
Land at the time of Jesus, World Digital Library "The Holy
Holy
Land An Armchair Pilgrimage" by Father Mitch Pacwa, SJ About Holy
Holy
land, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Sinai on serbian

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Singer, Isidore; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Palestine, Holiness of". Jewish Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. 

v t e

Holy
Holy
sites in Judaism

Temple in Jerusalem

Foundation Stone Holy
Holy
of Holies Temple Mount Western Wall

Tombs of biblical figures

Israel

Benjamin David Matriarchs

Judea and Samaria
Judea and Samaria
(West Bank)

Joseph Patriarchs Rachel Samuel

Other countries

Esther and Mordechai

Holy
Holy
Land

Land of Israel

Application of religious law

Four Holy
Holy
Cities

Jerusalem

Holiness

Hebron Safed Tiberias

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah
Ummah
of Islam
Islam
( Ummah
Ummah
of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy
Holy
Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan
Jordan
River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat (Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

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Islam
portal Israel
Israel
portal Jerusalem
Jerusalem
portal Judaism
Judaism
portal Palestine portal

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