HOME
The Info List - Holy Alliance


--- Advertisement ---



The Holy Alliance
Holy Alliance
(German: Heilige Allianz; Russian: Священный союз, Svyashchennyy soyuz; also called the Grand Alliance) was a coalition created by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria
Austria
and Prussia. It was created after the ultimate defeat of Napoleon
Napoleon
at the behest of Tsar Alexander I of Russia
Alexander I of Russia
and signed in Paris
Paris
on 26 September 1815.[1] The intention of the alliance was to restrain liberalism and secularism in Europe in the wake of the devastating French Revolutionary Wars, and the alliance nominally succeeded in this until the Crimean War
Crimean War
(1853–1856). Otto von Bismarck managed to reunite the Holy Alliance
Holy Alliance
after the unification of Germany but the alliance again faltered by the 1880s over Austrian and Russian conflicts of interest with regard to the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire.

Contents

1 Establishment 2 Organization 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading

Establishment[edit] Ostensibly, the alliance was formed to instill the divine right of kings and Christian values in European political life, as pursued by the tsar under the influence of his adviser Baroness Barbara von Krüdener. About three months after the Final Act of the Vienna Congress, the monarchs of Orthodox (Russia), Catholic (Austria) and Protestant (Prussia) confession promised to act on the basis of "justice, love and peace", both in internal and foreign affairs, for "consolidating human institutions and remedying their imperfections." Despite this noble wording, the Alliance was not only rejected as non-effective by the United Kingdom (though George IV declared consent in his capacity as King of Hanover), but also by the Papal States
Papal States
and the Islamic Ottoman Empire. Organization[edit] In practice, the Austrian state chancellor Prince Klemens von Metternich made a bastion against democracy, revolution, and secularism. The monarchs of the three countries involved used this to band together in order to prevent revolutionary influence (especially from the French Revolution) and Enlightenment from entering these nations.

Contemporary caricature of the Veronese congress, 1822

The Alliance is usually associated with the later Quadruple and Quintuple Alliances, which included the United Kingdom and (from 1818) France with the aim of upholding the European peace settlement and balance of power in the Concert of Europe
Concert of Europe
concluded at the Congress of Vienna. On 29 September 1818, the Tsar, Emperor Francis I of Austria and King Frederick William III of Prussia
Frederick William III of Prussia
met with the Duke of Wellington, Viscount Castlereagh and the Duc de Richelieu at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle to demand stern measures against university "demagogues", which would realize in the Carlsbad Decrees in the following year. At the 1820 Congress of Troppau and the succeeding Congress of Laibach, Metternich tried to align his allies in the suppression of the Carbonari
Carbonari
revolt against King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. The Quintuple Alliance met for the last time at the 1822 Congress of Verona
Congress of Verona
to strive against the Greek Revolution
Revolution
and to resolve upon the French Invasion into Spain. The last meetings had revealed the rising antagonism with Britain and France, especially on Italian unification, the right to self-determination and the Eastern Question. The Alliance was conventionally taken to have become defunct with Alexander's death in 1825. France ultimately went separate ways after the July Revolution of 1830, leaving the core of Russia, Austria
Austria
and Prussia as Central-Eastern European block which once again congregated to suppress the Revolutions of 1848. The Austro-Russian alliance finally broke up in the Crimean War: though Russia had helped to completely destroy the Hungarian Revolution
Revolution
of 1848, Austria
Austria
did not take any action to support her ally, declared herself neutral and even occupied the Wallachian and Moldavian lands on the Danube
Danube
upon the Russian retreat in 1854. Thereafter, Austria
Austria
remained isolated, which added to the loss of her leading role in the German lands, culminating in the defeat of the Austro-Prussian War
Austro-Prussian War
in 1866. See also[edit]

Vormärz Biedermeier League of Armed Neutrality Unholy alliance

References[edit]

^ Holy Alliance, Catholic Encyclopedia

Further reading[edit]

Ghervas, Stella (2008). Réinventer la tradition. Alexandre Stourdza et l'Europe de la Sainte-Alliance. Paris: Honoré Champion. ISBN 978-2-7453-1669-1.  Jarrett, Mark (2013). The Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
and its Legacy: War and Great Power Diplomacy after Napoleon. London: I. B. Tauris & Company, Ltd. ISBN 978-1780761169.  The Holy Alliance
Holy Alliance
Treaty text

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 305069

.