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Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомо́р);[a] derived from
морити голодом, "to kill by starvation"), also
known as the Terror-
Famine and Famine-
Genocide in Ukraine,
and—before the widespread use of the term "Holodomor", and sometimes
currently—also referred to as the Great Famine, and The Ukrainian
Genocide of 1932–33—was a man-made famine in Soviet
1932 and 1933 that killed an officially estimated 7 million to 10
million people. It was part of the wider Soviet famine of
1932–33, which affected the major grain-producing areas of the
Holodomor millions of inhabitants of Ukraine, the majority
of whom were ethnic Ukrainians, died of starvation in a peacetime
catastrophe unprecedented in the history of Ukraine. Since 2006,
Holodomor has been recognized by Ukraine and 15 other
countries as a genocide of the Ukrainian people carried out by the
Early estimates of the death toll by scholars and government officials
varied greatly;[clarification needed] anywhere from 1.8 to 12
Ukrainians were said to have perished as a result
of the famine. Recent research has since narrowed the estimates to
between 2.4 and 7.5 million. The exact number of deaths is
hard to determine, due to a lack of records, but the number
increases significantly when the deaths in heavily Ukrainian-populated
Kuban are included. Older estimates are still often cited in
political commentary. According to the findings of the Court of
Kiev in 2010, the demographic losses due to the famine
amounted to 10 million, with 3.9 million direct famine deaths, and a
further 6.1 million birth deficit.
Some scholars believe that the famine was planned by
Joseph Stalin to
eliminate a Ukrainian independence movement. Using
Holodomor in reference to the famine emphasises its man-made aspects,
arguing that actions such as rejection of outside aid, confiscation of
all household foodstuffs, and restriction of population movement
confer intent, defining the famine as genocide; the loss of life has
been compared to that of the Holocaust. The causes are
still a subject of academic debate, and some historians dispute its
characterization as a genocide.
2.1 Scope and duration
2.3 Death toll
4 Soviet and Western denial
5 In modern politics
5.1 Statements by governments and intergovernmental organizations
5.1.1 European Union
6.3 United States
9 See also
13 Further reading
13.1 Declarations and legal acts
13.2 Books and articles
14 External links
Holodomor literally translated from Ukrainian means "death by
hunger", or "to kill by hunger, to starve to death". Sometimes the
expression is translated into English as "murder by hunger or
Holodomor is a compound of the Ukrainian words holod
meaning "hunger" and mor meaning "plague". The expression moryty
holodom means "to inflict death by hunger". The Ukrainian verb moryty
(морити) means "to poison somebody, drive to exhaustion or to
torment somebody". The perfective form of the verb moryty is zamoryty
– "kill or drive to death by hunger, exhausting work". The word was
used in print as early as 1978 by Ukrainian immigrant organisations in
the United States and Canada. However, in the Soviet Union
– of which
Ukraine was a constituent republic – references to the
famine were controlled, even after de-Stalinization in 1956.
Historians could speak only of 'food difficulties', and the use of the
very word golod/holod (hunger, famine) was forbidden.
Discussion of the
Holodomor became more open as part of
the late 1980s. In Ukraine, the first official use of the word was a
December 1987 speech by Volodymyr Shcherbytskyi, First Secretary of
the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Ukraine, on the
occasion of the republic's seventieth anniversary. An early public
usage in the
Soviet Union was in February 1988, in a speech by Oleksiy
Musiyenko, Deputy Secretary for ideological matters of the party
organisation of the
Kiev branch of the Union of Soviet Writers in
Ukraine. The term may have first appeared in print in the
Soviet Union on 18 July 1988, in his article on the topic.
"Holodomor" is now an entry in the modern, two-volume dictionary of
the Ukrainian language, published in 2004. The term is described as
"artificial hunger, organised on a vast scale by a criminal regime
against a country's population."
Passers-by and the corpse of a starved man on a street in Kharkiv,
Scope and duration
A "Red Train" of carts from the "Wave of Proletarian Revolution"
collective farm in the village of Oleksiyivka,
Kharkiv oblast in 1932.
"Red Trains" took the first harvest of the season's crop to the
government depots. During the Holodomor, these brigades were part of
the Soviet Government's policy of deliberately taking away food from
Soviet famine of 1932–33. Areas of most disastrous famine marked
The famine had been predicted as far back as 1930 by academics and
advisers to the
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic government, but
little to no preventive action was taken. The famine affected the
Ukrainian SSR as well as the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist
Republic (a part of the Ukrainian SSR at the time) in the spring of
1932 and from February to July 1933, with the greatest number
of victims recorded in the spring of 1933. Between 1926 and 1939, the
Ukrainian population increased by 6.6%, whereas Russia and Belarus
grew by 16.9% and 11.7%, respectively.
From the 1932 harvest, Soviet authorities were able to procure only
4.3 million tons as compared with 7.2 million tons obtained from the
1931 harvest. Rations in town were drastically cut back, and in
the winter of 1932–33 and spring of 1933 people in many urban areas
were starved. The urban workers were supplied by a rationing
system (and therefore could occasionally assist their starving
relatives of the countryside), but rations were gradually cut; and by
the spring of 1933, the urban residents also faced starvation. At the
same time, workers were shown agitprop movies, where all peasants were
portrayed as counterrevolutionaries hiding grain and potatoes at a
time when workers, who were constructing the "bright future" of
socialism, were starving.
The first reports of mass malnutrition and deaths from starvation
emerged from two urban areas of the city of Uman, reported in January
1933 by Vinnytsia and
Kiev oblasts. By mid-January 1933, there were
reports about mass "difficulties" with food in urban areas, which had
been undersupplied through the rationing system, and deaths from
starvation among people who were withdrawn from the rationing supply.
The withdrawal was to comply with the Central Committee of the
Communist Party of
Ukraine Decree of December 1932. By the beginning
of February 1933, according to reports from local authorities and
Ukrainian GPU, the most affected area was Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, which
also suffered from epidemics of typhus and malaria. Odessa and Kiev
oblasts were second and third, respectively. By mid-March, most of the
reports of starvation originated from
By mid-April 1933,
Oblast reached the top of the most affected
list, while Kiev, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, Vinnytsia, and Donetsk
oblasts, and Moldavian SSR were next on the list. Reports about mass
deaths from starvation, dated mid-May through the beginning of June
1933, originated from raions in
Kharkiv oblasts. The "less
affected" list noted Chernihiv
Oblast and northern parts of
Vinnytsia oblasts. The Central Committee of the CP(b) of Ukraine
Decree of 8 February 1933 said no hunger cases should have remained
untreated. Local authorities had to submit reports about the numbers
suffering from hunger, the reasons for hunger, number of deaths from
hunger, food aid provided from local sources, and centrally provided
food aid required. The GPU managed parallel reporting and food
assistance in the Ukrainian SSR. (Many regional reports and most of
the central summary reports are available from present-day central and
regional Ukrainian archives.) The Ukrainian Weekly, which was
tracking the situation in 1933, reported the difficulties in
communications and the appalling situation in Ukraine.
Evidence of widespread cannibalism was documented during the
Survival was a moral as well as a physical struggle. A woman doctor
wrote to a friend in June 1933 that she had not yet become a cannibal,
but was "not sure that I shall not be one by the time my letter
reaches you." The good people died first. Those who refused to steal
or to prostitute themselves died. Those who gave food to others died.
Those who refused to eat corpses died. Those who refused to kill their
fellow man died. Parents who resisted cannibalism died before their
The Soviet regime printed posters declaring: "To eat your own children
is a barbarian act.":225 More than 2,500 people were convicted of
cannibalism during the Holodomor.
Causes of the Holodomor
Causes of the Holodomor and Soviet famine of 1932–33
The reasons for the famine are a subject of scholarly and political
debate. Some scholars suggest that the man-made famine was a
consequence of the economic problems associated with changes
implemented during the period of Soviet industrialisation.
Collectivisation contributed to the famine. In 1929–1930, peasants
were induced to transfer land and livestock to state-owned farms, in
which they would work as day-labourers for payment in kind.
Collectivization in the Soviet Union, including the Ukrainian SSR, was
not popular among the peasantry and forced collectivisation led to
numerous peasant revolts. The first five-year plan changed the output
expected from Ukrainian farms, from the familiar crop of grain to
unfamiliar crops like sugar beets and cotton. In addition, the
situation was exacerbated by poor administration of the plan and the
lack of relevant general management. Significant amounts of grain
remained unharvested, and – even when harvested – a significant
percentage was lost during processing, transportation, or
In the summer of 1930, the government instituted a program of food
requisitioning, ostensibly to increase grain exports. Subsequently, in
1932, food theft was made punishable by death or 10 years
It has been proposed that the Soviet leadership used the man-made
famine to attack Ukrainian nationalism, and thus the man-made famine
may fall under the legal definition of
genocide. For example, special and
particularly lethal policies were adopted in and largely limited to
Ukraine at the end of 1932 and 1933. According to Snyder:
"[E]ach of them may seem like an anodyne administrative measure, and
each of them was certainly presented as such at the time, and yet each
had to kill."
Soviet famine of 1932–33
Soviet famine of 1932–33 and Soviet Census (1937)
Map of depopulation of
Ukraine and southern Russia, 1929–33.
Territories in white were not part of the USSR during the famine.
Photograph by Alexander Wienerberger, 1933
By the end of 1933, millions of people had starved to death or had
otherwise died unnaturally in
Ukraine and the other Soviet republics.
The total number of population losses (famine death and birth deficit)
across the entire
Soviet Union is estimated as 6–7 million. The
Soviet Union long denied that the famine had taken place. The NKVD
(and later KGB) archives on the
Holodomor period made records
available very slowly. The exact number of the victims remains unknown
and is probably impossible to estimate, even within a margin of error
of a hundred thousand. The media have reported estimates by
historians of fatalities as high as seven to ten
million. Former Ukrainian president Yushchenko stated
in a speech to the United States Congress that the
away 20 million lives of Ukrainians", while former Canadian Prime
Stephen Harper issued a public statement giving the death
toll at about 10 million. The use of this figure has been
criticised by historians
Timothy D. Snyder
Timothy D. Snyder and Stephen G. Wheatcroft.
Snyder wrote: "President
Viktor Yushchenko does his country a grave
disservice by claiming ten million deaths, thus exaggerating the
Ukrainians killed by a factor of three; but it is true that
the famine in
Ukraine of 1932–1933 was a result of purposeful
political decisions, and killed about three million people." In an
email to Postmedia News, Wheatcroft wrote: "I find it regrettable that
Stephen Harper and other leading Western politicians are continuing to
use such exaggerated figures for Ukrainian famine mortality" and
"There is absolutely no basis for accepting a figure of 10 million
Ukrainians dying as a result of the famine of 1932–33."
Estimates vary in their coverage, with some using the 1933 Ukraine
borders, some the current borders, and some counting ethnic
Ukrainians. Some extrapolate on the basis of deaths in a given area,
while others use archival data. Some historians question the accuracy
of Soviet censuses, as they may reflect Soviet propaganda. Other
estimates come from recorded discussions between world leaders like
Churchill and Stalin. In an August 1942 conversation,
Churchill his estimates of the number of "kulaks" who were repressed
for resisting collectivisation as 10 million, in all of the Soviet
Union, rather than only in Ukraine. When using this number, Stalin
implied that it included not only those who lost their lives, but also
those who were forcibly deported. Additionally there are
variations in opinion as to whether deaths in
Gulag labour camps
should be counted, or only those who starved to death at home. The
estimate prior to the opening of the former Soviet archives varied
widely but the range was narrower: for example, 2.5 million (Volodymyr
Kubiyovych), 4.8 million (Vasyl Hryshko) and 5 million (Robert
Incidence of disease in
Russian Empire and USSR
Declassified Soviet statistics (in thousands)
One modern calculation that uses demographic data, including those
recently available from Soviet archives, narrows the losses to about
3.2 million or, allowing for the lack of precise data, 3 million to
3.5 million. Soviet archives show that excess deaths in
Ukraine in 1932–1933 numbered a minimum of 1.8 million (2.7
including birth losses). This source further states "Depending upon
the estimations made concerning unregistered mortality and natality,
these figures could be increased to a level of 2.8 million to a
maximum of 4.8 million excess deaths and to 3.7 million to a maximum
of 6.7 million population losses (including birth losses)". In
1932–1933, there were 1.2 million cases of typhus and 500,000 cases
of typhoid fever. Malnourishment increases fatality rates from many
diseases, and are not counted by some historians. From 1932 to
1934, the largest rate of increase was recorded for typhus, commonly
spread by lice. In conditions of harvest failure and increased
poverty, lice are likely to increase. Gathering numerous refugees at
railway stations, on trains and elsewhere facilitates the spread. In
1933, the number of recorded cases was 20 times the 1929 level. The
number of cases per head of population recorded in
Ukraine in 1933 was
already considerably higher than in the USSR as a whole. By June 1933,
Ukraine had increased to nearly 10 times the January
level, and it was much higher than in the rest of the USSR. The
number of recorded excess deaths extracted from the birth/death
statistics from Soviet archives is contradictory. The data fail to add
up to the differences between the results of the 1926 Census and the
Kulchytsky summarised the natural population change. The
declassified Soviet statistics show a decrease of 538,000 people in
the population of Soviet
Ukraine between 1926 census (28,925,976) and
1937 census (28,388,000). The number of births and deaths (in
thousands) according to the declassified records are given in the
According to the correction for officially non-accounted child
mortality in 1933 by 150,000 calculated by Sergei Maksudov, the
number of births for 1933 should be increased from 471,000 to 621,000
(down from 1,184,000 in 1927). Given the decreasing birth rates and
assuming the natural mortality rates in 1933 to be equal to the
average annual mortality rate in 1927–1930 (524,000 per year), a
natural population growth for 1933 would have been 97,000 (as opposed
to the recorded decrease of 1,379,000). This was five times less than
the growth in the previous three years (1927–1930). The natural
population growth from 1927 to 1936 should have been 4.043 million,
while the census data showed a decrease of 538,000. The sum of the two
numbers gives an estimated total demographic loss of 4.581 million
Estimates of the human losses due to famine must account for the
numbers involved in migration (including forced resettlement).
According to Soviet statistics, the migration balance for the
Ukraine for 1927–1936 period was a loss of 1.343
million people. Even when the data were collected, the Soviet
statistical institutions acknowledged that the precision was less than
for the data of the natural population change. The total number of
Ukraine due to unnatural causes for the given ten years was
3.238 million; accounting for the lack of precision, estimates of the
human toll range from 2.2 million to 3.5 million deaths.
A 2002 study by Vallin et al. utilising some similar
primary sources to Kulchytsky, and performing an analysis with more
sophisticated demographic tools with forward projection of expected
growth from the 1926 census and backward projection from the 1939
census estimates the amount of direct deaths for 1933 as 2.582
million. This number of deaths does not reflect the total demographic
Ukraine from these events as the fall of the birth rate
during crisis and the out-migration contribute to the latter as well.
The total population shortfall from the expected value between 1926
and 1939 estimated by Vallin amounted to 4.566 million. Of this
number, 1.057 million is attributed to birth deficit, 930,000 to
forced out-migration, and 2.582 million to the combination of excess
mortality and voluntary out-migration. With the latter assumed to be
negligible this estimate gives the number of deaths as the result of
the 1933 famine about 2.2 million. According to this study the life
expectancy for those born in 1933 sharply fell to 10.8 years for
females and to 7.3 years for males and remained abnormally low for
1934 but, as commonly expected for the post-crisis peaked in
According to historian Snyder, the recorded figure of excess deaths
was 2.4 million. However, Snyder claims that this figure is
"substantially low" due to many deaths going unrecorded. Snyder states
that demographic calculations carried out by the Ukrainian government
provide a figure of 3.89 million dead, and opined that the actual
figure is likely between these two figures, approximately 3.3 million
deaths to starvation and disease related to the starvation in Ukraine
from 1932 to 1933. Snyder also estimates that of the million people
who died in the
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from
famine at the same time, approximately 200,000 were ethnic Ukrainians
due to Ukrainian-inhabited regions being particularly hard hit in
Russia. As a child, Mikhail Gorbachev, born into a mixed
Russian-Ukrainian family, experienced the famine in Stavropol, Russia.
He recalled in a memoir that "In that terrible year [in 1933] nearly
half the population of my native village, Privolnoye, starved to
death, including two sisters and one brother of my father."
According to one estimate about 81.3% of the famine victims in the
Ukrainian SSR were ethnic Ukrainians, 4.5% Russians, 1.4%
1.1% were Poles. Many Belarusians, Hungarians,
Volga Germans and other
nationalities became victims as well. The Ukrainian rural population
was the hardest hit by the Holodomor. Since the peasantry constituted
a demographic backbone of the Ukrainian nation, the tragedy deeply
Ukrainians for many years. In an October 2013 opinion
poll (in Ukraine) 38.7% of those polled stated "my families had people
affected by the famine", 39.2% stated they did not have such
relatives, and 22.1% did not know.
In response to the demographic collapse, the Soviet authorities
ordered large-scale resettlements, with over 117,000 of peasants from
remote regions of
Soviet Union taking over the deserted farms.
During an international conference, "
Holodomor 1932-1933 loss of the
Ukrainian nation" which took place on October 4, 2016. At the National
Kiev Taras Shevchenko, it was claimed that during the
hołodmor 7 million
Ukrainians were killed, and in total, 10 million
people died of starvation in the entire USSR.
Holodomor genocide question
Countries which officially recognise the
Holodomor as an act of
Robert Conquest, the author of The Harvest of Sorrow, has stated that
the famine of 1932–33 was a deliberate act of mass murder, if not
genocide committed as part of Joseph Stalin's collectivisation program
in the Soviet Union.
R. W. Davies and Stephen G. Wheatcroft
believe that, had industrialisation been abandoned, the famine would
have been "prevented" or at least significantly alleviated:
[W]e regard the policy of rapid industrialisation as an underlying
cause of the agricultural troubles of the early 1930s, and we do not
believe that the Chinese or NEP versions of industrialisation were
viable in Soviet national and international circumstances.:626
They see the leadership under
Stalin as making significant errors in
planning for the industrialisation of agriculture. Michael Ellman
argues that, in addition to deportations, internment in the Gulag
camps and shootings (see the law of spikelets), there is evidence that
Stalin used starvation as a weapon in his war against the
peasantry. He analyses the actions of the Soviet authorities, two
of commission and one of omission: (i) exporting 1.8 million tonnes of
grain during the mass starvation (enough to feed more than five
million people for one year), (ii) preventing migration from famine
afflicted areas (which may have cost an estimated 150,000 lives) and
(iii) making no effort to secure grain assistance from abroad (which
caused an estimated 1.5 million excess deaths), as well as the
attitude of the Stalinist regime in 1932–33 that many of those
starving to death were "counter-revolutionaries", "idlers" or
"thieves" who fully deserved their fate. Based on this analysis he
concludes, however, that the actions of Stalin's authorities against
Ukrainians do not meet the standards of specific intent required to
prove genocide as defined by the UN convention (with the notable
exception of the case of
Kuban Ukrainians). Ellman further
concluded that if the relaxed definition of genocide is used, the
actions of Stalin's authorities do fit such a definition of
genocide. However, this more relaxed definition of genocide makes
the latter a common historical event,[clarification needed] according
to Ellman. Regarding the aforementioned actions taken by
the early 1930s, Ellman unambiguously states that, from the standpoint
of contemporary international criminal law,
Stalin is "clearly guilty"
of "a series of crimes against humanity" and that, from the standpoint
of national criminal law, the only way to defend
Stalin from a charge
of mass murder is "to argue he was ignorant of the consequences of his
actions". He also rebukes Davies and Wheatcroft for, among other
things, their "very narrow understanding" of intent. He states:
According to them [Davies and Wheatcroft], only taking an action whose
sole objective is to cause deaths among the peasantry counts as
intent. Taking an action with some other goal (e.g. exporting grain to
import machinery) but which the actor certainly knows will also cause
peasants to starve does not count as intentionally starving the
peasants. However, this is an interpretation of 'intent' which flies
in the face of the general legal interpretation.
Chicago American's front page
Genocide scholar Adam Jones stresses that many of the actions of the
Soviet leadership during 1931–32 should be considered genocidal. Not
only did the famine kill millions, it took place against "a backdrop
of persecution, mass execution, and incarceration clearly aimed at
Ukrainians as a national group". Norman Naimark, a
Stanford University who specialises in many fields of
modern European history, genocide and ethnic cleansing, argues
that some of the actions of Stalin's regime, not only those during the
Holodomor but also
Dekulakization and targeted campaigns (with over
110,000 shot) against particular ethnic groups,
can be looked at as genocidal. In 2006, the Security Service of
Ukraine declassified more than 5,000 pages of
These documents suggest that the Soviet regime singled out
not giving it the same humanitarian aid given to regions outside
The statistical distribution of famine's victims among the ethnicities
closely reflects the ethnic distribution of the rural population of
Ukraine Moldavian, Polish, German and Bulgarian population that
mostly resided in the rural communities of
Ukraine suffered in the
same proportion as the rural Ukrainian population.
James Mace was one of the first to show that the famine
constituted genocide, although Rapahel Lemkin, who coined the term,
also described this famine as an act of Soviet genocide directed
against the Ukrainian nation. But British economist Stephen
Wheatcroft, who studied the famine, believed that Mace's work debased
the field of Russian studies. However, Wheatcroft's
characterisation of the famine deaths as largely excusable, negligent
homicide has been challenged by economist Steven Rosefielde, who
Grain supplies were sufficient to sustain everyone if properly
distributed. People died mostly of terror-starvation (excess grain
exports, seizure of edibles from the starving, state refusal to
provide emergency relief, bans on outmigration, and forced deportation
to food-deficit locales), not poor harvests and routine administrative
Daily Express, August 6, 1934
Timothy D. Snyder, professor of history at Yale University, asserts
that in 1933 "
Joseph Stalin was deliberately starving Ukraine" through
a "heartless campaign of requisitions that began Europe's era of mass
killing". He argues the Soviets themselves "made sure that the
term genocide, contrary to Lemkin's intentions, excluded political and
economic groups". Thus the Ukrainian famine can be presented as
"somehow less genocidal because it targeted a class, kulaks, as well
as a nation, Ukraine".
In his 1953 speech the "father of the [UN]
Genocide Convention", Dr
Raphael Lemkin described "the destruction of the Ukrainian nation" as
the "classic example of genocide", for "the Ukrainian is not and never
has been a Russian. His culture, his temperament, his language, his
religion, are all different ... to eliminate (Ukrainian)
nationalism ... the Ukrainian peasantry was sacrificed ... a
famine was necessary for the Soviet and so they got one to
order ... if the Soviet program succeeds completely, if the
intelligentsia, the priest, and the peasant can be eliminated [then]
Ukraine will be as dead as if every Ukrainian were killed, for it will
have lost that part of it which has kept and developed its culture,
its beliefs, its common ideas, which have guided it and given it a
soul, which, in short, made it a nation ... This is not simply a
case of mass murder. It is a case of genocide, of the destruction, not
of individuals only, but of a culture and a nation.":555–6
[T]he evidence of a large-scale famine was so overwhelming, was so
unanimously confirmed by the peasants that the most "hard-boiled"
local officials could say nothing in denial.
– William Henry Chamberlin, Christian Science Monitor, 29 May
Chamberlin was a Moscow correspondent of the Christian Science Monitor
for 10 years. In 1934, he was reassigned to the Far East. After he
Soviet Union he wrote his account of the situation in Ukraine
North Caucasus (Poltava, Bila Tserkva, and Kropotkin). Chamberlin
later published a couple of books: Russia's Iron Age and The Ukraine:
A Submerged Nation.
Soviet and Western denial
Main article: Denial of the Holodomor
American communists attacking a demonstration of
Holodomor, Depression-era Chicago, December 1933
Holodomor denial is the assertion that the 1932–1933 genocide in
Ukraine either did not occur or did occur but was not a
premeditated act. Denying the existence of the famine was
the Soviet state's position and reflected in both Soviet propaganda
and the work of some Western journalists and intellectuals including
George Bernard Shaw,
Walter Duranty and Louis
Fischer. In the Soviet Union, authorities all
but banned discussion of the famine, and Ukrainian historian Stanislav
Kulchytsky stated the Soviet government ordered him to falsify his
findings and depict the famine as an unavoidable natural disaster, to
absolve the Communist Party and uphold the legacy of Stalin.
In modern politics
Holodomor in modern politics
One of the interpretations of The Running Man painting by Kazimir
Malevich, also known as Peasant Between a Cross and a Sword, is the
artist's indictment of the Great Famine. "Kasimir Malevich's
haunting 'The Running Man' (1933–34), showing a peasant fleeing
across a deserted landscape, is eloquent testimony to the
The famine is officially considered by the modern Ukrainian government
to be an act of genocide. United States and Europe do not recognise it
as such, but consider that the
Holodomor was an attack on the
In 2007, President
Viktor Yushchenko declared he wanted "a new law
Holodomor denial," while Communist Party head Petro
Symonenko said he "does not believe there was any deliberate
starvation at all," and accused Yushchenko of "using the famine to
stir up hatred." Few in
Ukraine share Symonenko's interpretation
of history and the number of
Ukrainians who deny the famine or view it
as caused by natural reasons is steadily falling.
On 10 November 2003 at the United Nations, 25 countries, including
Ukraine and United States signed a joint statement on the
seventieth anniversary of the
Holodomor with the following preamble:
In the former
Soviet Union millions of men, women and children fell
victims to the cruel actions and policies of the totalitarian regime.
Famine of 1932–1933 in
Ukraine (Holodomor), took from 7
million to 10 million innocent lives and became a national tragedy for
the Ukrainian people. In this regard, we note activities in observance
of the seventieth anniversary of this Famine, in particular organized
by the Government of Ukraine.
Honouring the seventieth anniversary of the Ukrainian tragedy, we also
commemorate the memory of millions of Russians, Kazakhs and
representatives of other nationalities who died of starvation in the
Volga River region, Northern Caucasus, Kazakhstan and in other parts
of the former Soviet Union, as a result of civil war and forced
collectivisation, leaving deep scars in the consciousness of future
Nationwide, the political repression of 1937 (The Great Purge), under
the guidance of Nikolai Yezhov, was known for its ferocity and
Lev Kopelev wrote, "In
Ukraine 1937 began in 1933,"
referring to the comparatively early beginning of the Soviet crackdown
While the famine was well documented at the time by journalist Gareth
Jones, its reality has been disputed for ideological reasons.
An example of a late-era
Holodomor objector is Canadian trade union
activist and journalist Douglas Tottle, author of Fraud,
Fascism: The Ukrainian
Genocide Myth from Hitler to Harvard
(published by Moscow-based Communist publisher
Progress Publishers in
1987). Tottle claims that while there were severe economic hardships
in Ukraine, the idea of the
Holodomor was fabricated as propaganda by
Nazi Germany and
William Randolph Hearst
William Randolph Hearst to justify a German invasion.
Lazar Kaganovich (left) played a role in enforcing Stalin's policies
that led to the Holodomor.
On 26 April 2010, newly elected Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe members that
Holodomor was a common tragedy that struck
Ukrainians and other Soviet
peoples, and it would be wrong to recognise the
Holodomor as an act of
genocide against one nation. He stated that "The
Holodomor was in
Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. It was the result of Stalin's
totalitarian regime. But it would be wrong and unfair to recognise the
Holodomor as an act of genocide against one nation." He has,
however, referred to it as a crime, a tragedy, and an Armageddon,
while maintaining use of the word "Holodomor" to describe the
event. In response to Yanukovych's statements, the Our Ukraine
Party alleged that Yanukovych directly violated Ukrainian law, which
Holodomor as genocide against the Ukrainian people and
makes public denial of the
Holodomor unlawful. Our
Ukraine Party also
asserted that Yanukovych "ignored a ruling of 13 January 2010 by
Kiev's Court of Appeal, which recognized the leaders of the
Bolshevik regime as those guilty of 'genocide against the
Ukrainian national group in 1932–33 through the artificial creation
of living conditions intended for its partial physical
destruction.'" In 2012, Yanukovych referred to the
Holodomor as a
crime which caused fear and obedience.
Statements by governments and intergovernmental organizations
On 23 October 2008, the
European Parliament adopted a resolution
that recognised the
Holodomor as a crime against humanity. On 27
April 2010, a draft Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe
resolution declared the famine was caused by the "cruel and deliberate
actions and policies of the Soviet regime" and was responsible for the
deaths of "millions of innocent people" in Ukraine, Belarus,
Kazakhstan, Moldova and Russia. Even though PACE found Stalin
guilty of causing the famine, it rejected several amendments to the
resolution, which proposed the
Holodomor be recognized as an act of
genocide against the Ukrainian people.
On 28 November 2006, the
Verkhovna Rada (Ukrainian Parliament) passed
a law defining the
Holodomor as a deliberate act of genocide and made
public denial illegal. Even though in April 2010 newly
elected president Yanukovych reversed Yushchenko's position on the
Holodomor famine, the law has not been repealed and remains in
force. On 12 January 2010, the court of appeals in
hearings into the "fact of genocide-famine
1932–33". In May 2009, the Security Service of
Ukraine started a
criminal case "in relation to the genocide in
1932–33". In a ruling on 13 January 2010, the court found
Joseph Stalin and other
Bolshevik leaders guilty of genocide against
the Ukrainians. The court dropped criminal proceedings against the
leaders: Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Stanislav
Kosior, Pavel Postyshev,
Vlas Chubar and others, who all had died
years before. This decision became effective on 21 January
The joint statement at the
United Nations in 2003 has defined the
famine as the result of actions and policies of the totalitarian
regime that caused the deaths of millions of Ukrainians, Russians,
Kazakhs and other nationalities in the USSR.
As of March 2008, more than 10 countries have officially
recognised the actions of the Soviet government as an act of genocide.
Candles and wheat as a symbol of remembrance during the Holodomor
Remembrance Day 2013 in Lviv
To honour those who perished in the Holodomor, monuments have been
dedicated and public events held annually in
Ukraine and worldwide.
Ukraine has officially observed a
Holodomor Memorial Day on
the fourth Saturday of November.
In 2006, the
Holodomor Remembrance Day took place on 25 November.
Viktor Yushchenko directed, in decree No. 868/2006,
that a minute of silence should be observed at 4 o'clock in the
afternoon on that Saturday. The document specified that flags in
Ukraine should fly at half-staff as a sign of mourning. In addition,
the decree directed that entertainment events are to be restricted and
television and radio programming adjusted accordingly.
In 2007, the 74th anniversary of the
Holodomor was commemorated in
Kiev for three days on the Maidan Nezalezhnosti. As part of the
three-day event, from 23 to 25 November, video testimonies of the
communist regime's crimes in Ukraine, and documentaries by famous
domestic and foreign film directors were shown. In addition, experts
and scholars gave lectures on the topic. As well, on 23 November
2007, the National Bank of
Ukraine issued a set of two commemorative
coins remembering the Holodomor.
As of 2009, Ukrainian schoolchildren take a more extensive course of
the history of the Holodomor, plus fighters in the Organization of
Ukrainian Nationalists and Ukrainian Insurgent Army.
National Museum "Memorial to Holodomor victims"
National Museum "Memorial to Holodomor victims" was erected on the
slopes of the Dnieper river in 2008, welcoming its first visitors on
22 November 2008. The ceremony of the memorial's opening was
dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the Holodomor.
In an October 2013 opinion poll, 33.7% of
Ukrainians fully agreed and
30.4% rather agreed with the statement "The
Holodomor was the result
of actions committed by the Soviet authorities, along with Soviet
dictator Joseph Stalin, and was the result of human actions". In
the same poll, 22.9% of those polled fully or partially agreed with
the view that the famine was caused by natural circumstances, but
50.5% disagreed with that. Furthermore, 45.4% of respondents
believed that the
Holodomor was "a deliberate attempt to destroy the
Ukrainian nation" and 26.2% rather or completely disagreed with
The first public monument to the
Holodomor was erected and dedicated
in 1983 outside City Hall in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, to mark the
50th anniversary of the famine-genocide. Since then, the fourth
Saturday in November has in many jurisdictions been marked as the
official day of remembrance for people who died as a result of the
Holodomor and political repression.
On 22 November 2008, Ukrainian Canadians marked the beginning of
Holodomor Awareness Week. Citizenship, Immigration and
Jason Kenney attended a vigil in Kiev.
In November 2010, Prime Minister
Stephen Harper visited the Holodomor
memorial in Kiev, although Ukrainian President
Viktor Yanukovych did
not join him.
Saskatchewan became the first jurisdiction in North America and the
first province in Canada to recognize the
Holodomor as a
genocide. The Ukrainian
Genocide (Holodomor) Memorial
Day Act was introduced in the Saskatchewan Legislature on May 6,
2008 and received royal assent on May 14, 2008.
On 9 April 2009, the Province of
Ontario unanimously passed bill 147,
Holodomor Memorial Day Act", which calls for the fourth Saturday
in November to be a day of remembrance. This was the first piece of
legislation in the Province's history to be introduced with
Tri-Partisan sponsorship: the joint initiators of the bill were Dave
Levac, MPP for Brant (Liberal Party); Cheri DiNovo, MPP for
Parkdale–High Park (NDP); and Frank Klees, MPP for
Newmarket–Aurora (PC). MPP Levac was made a chevalier of Ukraine's
Order of Merit.
On 2 June 2010, the Province of
Quebec unanimously passed bill 390,
"Memorial Day Act on the great Ukrainian famine and genocide (the
On 25 September 2010, a new
Holodomor monument was unveiled at St.
Mary's Ukrainian Catholic Church, Mississauga, Ontario, Canada,
bearing the inscription "Holodomor:
Famine in Ukraine
1932–1933" and a section in Ukrainian bearing mention of the 10
On September 21, 2014, a statue entitled "Bitter Memories of
Childhood" was unveiled outside the Manitoba Legislature Building in
A monument to the
Holodomor has been erected on Calgary's Memorial
Drive, itself originally designated to honour Canadian servicemen of
the First World War. The monument is located in the district of
Renfrew near Ukrainian Pioneer Park, which pays tribute to the
contributions of Ukrainian immigrants to Canada.
The Ukrainian Weekly
The Ukrainian Weekly reported a meeting taking place on 27 February
1982 in the parish center of the Ukrainian Catholic National Shrine of
the Holy Family in commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Great
Famine caused by the Soviet authorities. On 20 March 1982, the
Ukrainian Weekly also reported a multi-ethnic community meeting that
was held on 15 February on the North Shore Drive at the Ukrainian
Chicago to commemorate the famine which took the lives of
seven million Ukrainians. Other events in commemoration were held in
other places around the United States as well.
On 29 May 2008, the city of Baltimore held a candlelight commemoration
Holodomor at the War Memorial Plaza in front of City Hall.
This ceremony was part of the larger international journey of the
Holodomor Remembrance Torch", which began in
made its way though thirty-three countries. Twenty-two other US cities
were also visited during the tour. Then-Mayor
Sheila Dixon presided
over the ceremony and declared 29 May to be "Ukrainian Genocide
Remembrance Day in Baltimore". She referred to the
the worst cases of man's inhumanity towards man".
On 2 December 2008, a ceremony was held in Washington, D.C., for the
Holodomor Memorial. On 13 November 2009,
U.S. President Barack
Obama released a statement on Ukrainian
Holodomor Remembrance Day. In
this he said that "remembering the victims of the man-made catastrophe
Holodomor provides us an opportunity to reflect upon the plight of
all those who have suffered the consequences of extremism and tyranny
around the world". NSC Spokesman Mike Hammer released a
similar statement on 20 November 2010.
In 2011, the U.S. day of remembrance of
Holodomor was held on 19
November. The statement released by the White House Press Secretary
reflects on the significance of this date, stating: "... in the
wake of this brutal and deliberate attempt to break the will of the
people of Ukraine,
Ukrainians showed great courage and resilience. The
establishment of a proud and independent
Ukraine twenty years ago
shows the remarkable depth of the Ukrainian people's love of freedom
On 7 November 2015, the
Genocide Memorial was opened in
Washington D.C., District of Columbia, USA.
A monument has been erected in the city of Lublin.
A touring van devoted to
Holodomor education, seen in Hamilton,
Ontario, Canada, in 2017.
"Light the candle" event at a
Holodomor memorial in Kiev
Monument in Kiev, called "The Bitter Memory of Childhood"
Memorial cross in Kharkiv, Ukraine
Memorial cross in Dolotetske, Vinnytsia Oblast, Ukraine
Holodomor Memorial in Dovhalivka, Vinnytsia Oblast, Ukraine
Memorial at the Andrushivka village cemetery, Vinnytsia Oblast,
Poltava Oblast, Ukraine
"Barrow of Sorrows" monument in Mhar,
Poltava Oblast, Ukraine
Monument to victims of
Holodomor in Novoaydar, Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine
Holodomor Memorial in Winnipeg, Canada
Holodomor Monument in Edmonton, Canada (first in the world)
Monument near Chicago, Illinois, United States
Plaque in Grand Park, Los Angeles, California, United States
Holodomor Memorial in Windsor, Ontario, Canada
Holodomor Monument in Calgary, Canada
Poster by Australian artist Leonid Denysenko
Stamp of Ukraine, 1993
1984 Жнива розпачу / Harvest of Despair, directed by
Sviatoslav Novytsky (documentary film)
1991 Голод-33 / Famine-33, directed by Oles Yanchuk
2014 Поводир / The Guide, directed by Oles Sanin
2015 Child 44, directed by
Daniel Espinosa based on the book by Tom
Rob Smith briefly describes the Holodomor
2017 Гіркі Жнива / Bitter Harvest, directed by George
Ulas Samchuk's novel Maria (1934) is dedicated to holodomor, (English
translation, Maria. A Chronicle of a Life 1952).
Holodomor memorials and monuments
National Museum "Memorial to
Kazakhstan famine of 1932–1933
Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union
Russian famine of 1921
1921–22 famine in Tatarstan
The Soviet Story
Holodomor: The Unknown Ukrainian Tragedy (1932-1933)
List of famines
Famine of 1876–78
Bengal famine of 1943
Mass killings under Communist regimes
Hurricane Maria § Puerto Rico
^ Also known as "Extermination by hunger" or "Hunger-extermination"
^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2010, pp. 479–484.
^ Jones, Adam (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Taylor
& Francis. p. 194. ISBN 978-0-415-48618-7.
^ Andrea Graziosi, "Les Famines Soviétiques de 1931–1933 et le
Holodomor Ukrainien.", Cahiers du monde russe et soviétique, 46/3, p.
^ Nicolas Werth, "La grande famine ukrainienne de 1932–1933" in
Nicolas Werth, La terreur et le désarroi: Staline et son système,
Paris, 2007, p. 132. ISBN 2-262-02462-6
^ Graziosi, Andrea (2005). LES FAMINES SOVIÉTIQUES DE 1931–1933 ET
LE HOLODOMOR UKRAINIEN. Cahier du Monde Russe. p. 464.
^ Davies 2006, p. 145.
^ Baumeister 1999, p. 179.
^ Sternberg & Sternberg 2008, p. 67.
^ Boriak, Hennadii. Sources for the Study of the "Great Famine" in
Ukraine (Cambridge, Mass 2009)
Genocide of 1932–1933". Ukrainian
Foundation – USA, Inc. Retrieved 22 November 2016.
^ "Joint statement by the delegations of Azerbaijan, Bangladesh,
Belarus, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, Egypt, Georgia,
Guatemala, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Nauru, Pakistan, Qatar, the
Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan,
the Syrian Arab Republic, Tajikistan, Timor-Leste, Ukraine, the United
Arab Emirates and the United States of America on the seventieth
anniversary of the Great
Famine of 1932–1933 in
United Nations addressed to the Secretary-General" (PDF).
Retrieved 11 March 2017. In the former
Soviet Union millions of men,
women and children fell victims to the cruel actions and policies of
the totalitarian regime. The Great
Famine of 1932–1933 in Ukraine
(Holodomor), which took from 7 million to 10 million innocent lives
and became a national tragedy for the Ukrainian people. ... as a
result of civil war and forced collectivization, leaving deep scars in
the consciousness of future generations. ... we deplore the acts and
policies that brought about mass starvation and death of millions of
people. We do not want to settle scores with the past, it could not be
changed, but we are convinced that exposing violations of human
rights, preserving historical records and restoring the dignity of
victims through acknowledgement of their suffering, will guide future
societies and help to avoid similar catastrophes in the future.
^ a b "The famine of 1932–33". Encyclopædia Britannica online.
Retrieved 2 November 2015. The Great
Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–33
– a man-made demographic catastrophe unprecedented in peacetime. Of
the estimated six to eight million people who died in the Soviet
Union, about four to five million were Ukrainians ... Its
deliberate nature is underscored by the fact that no physical basis
for famine existed in Ukraine ... Soviet authorities set
requisition quotas for
Ukraine at an impossibly high level. Brigades
of special agents were dispatched to
Ukraine to assist in procurement,
and homes were routinely searched and foodstuffs confiscated ...
The rural population was left with insufficient food to feed
^ ЗАКОН УКРАЇНИ: Про Голодомор 1932–1933
років в Україні [LAW OF UKRAINE: About the
1932–1933 in Ukraine]. rada.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). 28 November 2006.
Retrieved 6 May 2015.
^ "International Recognition of the Holodomor".
Retrieved 26 December 2015.
^ a b Wheatcroft 2001a.
^ Rosefielde 1983.
^ Snyder 2010, p. 53. "One demographic retrojection suggests a
figure of 2.5 million famine deaths for Soviet Ukraine. This is
too close to the recorded figure of excess deaths, which is about
2.4 million. The latter figure must be substantially low, since
many deaths were not recorded. Another demographic calculation,
carried out on behalf of the authorities of independent Ukraine,
provides the figure of 3.9 million dead. The truth is probably in
between these numbers, where most of the estimates of respectable
scholars can be found. It seems reasonable to propose a figure of
approximately 3.3 million deaths by starvation and hunger-related
disease in Soviet
Ukraine in 1932–1933".
^ David R. Marples. Heroes and Villains: Creating National History in
Contemporary Ukraine. p.50
^ a b Наливайченко назвал количество
жертв голодомора в Украине [Nalyvaichenko
called the number of victims of
Holodomor in Ukraine] (in Russian).
LB.ua. 14 January 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
^ "Yulia Tymoshenko: our duty is to protect the memory of the
Holodomor victims". Tymoshenko's official website. 27 November 2010.
Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 21 July
^ Naimark 2010, p. 70.
^ a b c "Harper accused of exaggerating Ukrainian genocide death
toll". MontrealGazette.com. 30 October 2010. Retrieved 21 July
^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2002, p. 77. "[T]he drought of 1931 was
particularly severe, and drought conditions continued in 1932. This
certainly helped to worsen the conditions for obtaining the harvest in
^ Engerman 2003, p. 194.
^ Zisels, Josef; Halyna Kharaz (11 November 2007). "Will Holodomor
receive the same status as the Holocaust?". world.maidan.org.ua.
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спогадах очевидців [The tragedy of the
the memories of eyewitnesses]. archives.gov.ua.
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2007. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
^ Stanislav Kulchytsky (2 September 2008). "The
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holocaust". ukemonde.com. Retrieved 8 October 2017.
^ Davies, Robert; Wheatcroft, Stephen (2009). The Industrialisation of
Soviet Russia Volume 5: The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture
Palgrave Macmillan UK. p. xiv.
ISBN 978-0-230-27397-9. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
^ Tauger, Mark B. (2001). "Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the
Famine of 1931–1933". The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and
East European Studies (1506): 1–65. doi:10.5195/CBP.2001.89.
^ Werth 2010, p. 396.
^ a b Fawkes, Helen (24 November 2006). "Legacy of famine divides
Ukraine". BBC News. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
^ Hryshko 1978.
^ Dolot 1985.
^ Hadzewycz, Zarycky & Kolomayets 1983.
^ Bilinsky, Yaroslav (July 1983). "Shcherbytskyi, Ukraine, and Kremlin
Politics". Problems of Communism.
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the Ukrainian Holodomor: Is a New Interpretation Possible, and What
Would Its Consequences Be?". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 27 (1–4):
97–115. JSTOR 41036863.
^ O. H. Musiienko, "Hromadians'ka pozytsiia literatury i perebudova"
(The Civic Position of Literature and Perestroika), Literaturna
Ukraina, 18 February 1988, pp. 7–8;
U.S. Commission on the Ukraine Famine
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Famine 1932–1933. Washington, D.C.: United States
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2007-01-07. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
^ Mace 2008, p. 132.
^ Vyacheslav T. Busel, ed. (2001). Великий тлумачний
словник сучасної української мови:-
Голодомор [Great Explanatory Dictionary of Modern Ukrainian:-
Holodomor] (in Ukrainian). Irpin, Perun (2004).
ISBN 966-569-013-2. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016.
Retrieved 29 February 2016. Artificial famine organised on a vast
scale by criminal authorities against the population of their own
^ Dawood, M; Mitra A (December 2012). "Hidden agendas and hidden
illness". Diversity and Equality in Health and Care. 9 (4):
^ ""Голодомор 1932–33 років в Україні:
документи і матеріали"/ Упорядник
Руслан Пиріг; НАН України.Ін-т історії
Ukraine 1932–33: documents and
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^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2010, p. 204.
^ "University of Toronto Data Library Service". Archived from the
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^ "Demoscope Weekly".
^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2010, p. 470, 476.
^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2010, p. xviii.
^ Холодомор – 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
^ "Голод 1932–1933 років на Україні: очима
істориків, мовою документів". Archives.gov.ua.
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^ Сокур, Василий [Sokur, Vasily] (21 November 2008).
Выявленным во время голодомора
людоедам ходившие по селам
медицинские работники давали
отравленные "приманки" – кусок мяса
или хлеба. Facts and Commentaries (in Russian). Retrieved 27
July 2012. The author suggests that never in the history of
mankind was cannibalism so widespread as during the Holodomor.
^ Timothy Snyder. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic
Books, 2010, pp. 50–51. ISBN 0-465-00239-0
^ Várdy & Várdy 2007.
^ Boriak, Hennadii (November 2008). "
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^ a b Kulchytsky, Stanislav (6 March 2007). "
Holodomor of 1932–33 as
genocide: gaps in the evidential basis". Den. access-date=
requires url= (help) Part 1 – Part 2 – Part 3 – Part 4
^ David Marples (30 November 2005). "The great famine debate goes
Edmonton Journal. ExpressNews, University of Alberta.
Archived from the original on 15 June 2008.
^ a b Reid, Anna (7 October 2017). "Rule by Starvation". Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved 8 October 2017. (Subscription required
^ Peter Finn (27 April 2008). "Aftermath of a Soviet Famine".
WashingtonPost.com. Retrieved 21 July 2012. There are no exact figures
on how many died. Modern historians place the number between 2.5
million and 3.5 million. Yushchenko and others have said at least 10
million were killed.
^ David Marples (30 November 2005). "The Great
Famine Debate Goes
Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on 15 April
2009. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
^ Bilinsky 1999.
^ Kulchytsky, Stanislav. "Holodomor-33: Why and how?". Zerkalo Nedeli
(25 November – 1 December 2006). access-date= requires url=
(help) Russian version.
^ a b Snyder 2010, pp. 42–46.
^ The term anodyne administrative measure in the quote means a measure
that was not meant to solve the problem but to calm the hungry crowds,
or a measure which, in of itself, would not create opposition (See
wikt:Anodyne). The term 'Anodyne' refers to pain relieving methods,
drugs or remedies, used prior to the 20th century.
^ Wheatcroft 2001b, p. 885.
^ Valeriy Soldatenko (2003). Голодный тридцать
третий субъективные мысли об
объективных процессах [The starvation of '33:
subjective thoughts about objective processes].
Zerkalo Nedeli (in
Russian) (24, 28 June-4 July). Archived from the original on 11
November 2004. Valeriy Soldatenko (2003). Голодний
тридцять третій суб'єктивні думки про
об'єктивні процеси [The starvation of '33: subjective
thoughts about objective processes].
Zerkalo Nedeli (in Ukrainian)
(24, 28 June–4 July). Archived from the original on 13 March
^ Fawkes, Helen (24 November 2006). "Legacy of famine divides
Ukraine". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 November 2006.
Retrieved 22 July 2012. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
^ a b Sheeter, Laura (24 November 2007). "
Ukraine remembers famine
horror". BBC News. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
^ Kulchytsky, Stanislav (22 August 2003). Причины голода
1933 года в Украине по страницам одной
подзабытой книги [Reasons for the 1933 famine in
Ukraine according to the pages of one all but forgotten book]. Zerkalo
Nedeli (in Russian) (16). Archived from the original on 14 January
2006. Retrieved 25 July 2012. During the hearings, the Ukrainian
politician Stefan Khmara said, 'I would like to address the
scientists, particularly, Stanislav Kulchytsky, who attempts to mark
down the number of victims and counts them as 3–3.5 million. I
studied these questions analysing the demographic statistics as early
as in 1970s and concluded that the number of victims was no less than
^ Yushchenko, Viktor (27 November 2007). "Holodomor". The Wall Street
Journal. Archived from the original on 2008-09-08. Retrieved 21 July
^ "Ukrainian President Yushchenko: Yushchenko's Address before Joint
Session of U.S. Congress". Official Website of President of Ukraine. 6
April 2005. Archived from the original on 6 October 2006. Retrieved 7
^ a b "Holocaust: The ignored reality". Eurozine. 25 June 2009.
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^ Wheatcroft 2000.
^ Valentin Berezhkov, Kak ya stal perevodchikom Stalina, Moscow, DEM,
1993, ISBN 5-85207-044-0. p. 317
^ a b c d e f g Stanislav Kulchytsky, "How many of us perished in
Holodomor in 1933", Zerkalo Nedeli, 23–29 November 2002. Available
online "in Russian". Archived from the original on 21 July 2006.
Retrieved 10 January 2003. and "in Ukrainian". Archived from the
original on 5 May 2006. Retrieved 1 February 2003.
^ Conquest 2002.
^ "Stalislav Kulchytsky, "Demographic losses in Ukrainian in the
twentieth century"". Archived from the original on 21 July 2006.
Retrieved 8 January 2014. , Zerkalo Nedeli, 2–8 October 2004
(in Russian), and "(in Ukrainian)". Archived from the original on 13
March 2007. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
^ Kulchytsky & Yefimenko 2003, pp. 42–63.
^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2010, p. 429.
^ Davies & Wheatcroft 2010, p. 512.
^ a b Sergei Maksudov, "Losses Suffered by the Population of the USSR
1918–1958", in The Samizdat Register II, ed. R. Medvedev
(London–New York 1981)
^ a b Vallin et al. 2002.
^ Meslé, Pison & Vallin 2005, "What is striking in the long-term
picture of Ukrainian life expectancy is the devastating impact of the
calamities of the 1930s and 1940s. In 1933, the famine which had
occasioned unparalleled excess mortality of 2.2 million, cut the
period life expectancy to a low of under 10 years".
^ ce Meslé, Jacques Vallin Mortalité et causes de décès en Ukraine
au XXè siècle + CDRom ISBN 2-7332-0152-2 CD online data
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Wikimedia Commons has media related to Holodomor.
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Joint Statement on Holodomor
Holodomor survivors share their stories". Retrieved 5 Nov 2013.
"Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute's MAPA Digital Atlas of Ukraine
focus on the history of the Holodomor". Retrieved 5 Nov 2013.
"Gareth Jones' international exposure of the Holodomor, plus many
related background articles". Retrieved 5 July 2006.
Ukraine 1932–1933 at the Central State
Ukraine (photos, links)
Stanislav Kulchytsky, Italian Research on the Holodomor, October 2005.
Stanislav Kulchytsky, "Why did
Stalin exterminate the Ukrainians?
Comprehending the Holodomor. The position of Soviet
historians" – Six-part series from Den: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3,
Part 4, Part 5, Part 6; Kulchytsky on
(in Russian)/(in Ukrainian) Valeriy Soldatenko, "A starved 1933:
subjective thoughts on objective processes", Zerkalo Nedeli, 28
June – 4 July 2003. Available online in Russian and in
(in Russian)/(in Ukrainian) Stanislav Kulchytsky's articles in Zerkalo
Nedeli, Kiev, Ukraine
"How many of us perish in
Holodomor on 1933", 23 November
2002 – 29 November 2002. Available online in Russian and in
"Reasons of the 1933 famine in Ukraine. Through the pages of one
almost forgotten book" 16–22 August 2003. Available online in
Russian and in Ukrainian.
"Reasons of the 1933 famine in Ukraine-2", 4 October 2003 – 10
October 2003. Available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.
"Demographic losses in
Ukraine in the twentieth century", 2 October
2004 – 8 October 2004. Available online in Russian and in
"Holodomor-33: Why and how?" 25 November – 1 December.
Available online in Russian
UKRAINIAN FAMINE Revelations from the Russian Archives at the Library
Holodomor by Sergei Melnikoff
The General Committee decided this afternoon not to recommend the
inclusion of an item on the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Great
Famine (Holodomor) of 1932–1933 in Ukraine.
Case Study: The Great Ukrainian
Famine of 1932–1933 By Nicolas Werth
/ CNRS – France
Famine in Soviet
Famine in the
Soviet Union 1929–1934 – collection of archive
Holodomor: The Secret Holocaust in Ukraine – official site of
the Security Service of Ukraine
CBC program about the Great Hunger
Caryle Murphy (1 October 1983). "Ukrainian Americans Commemorate
Famine in Homeland 50 Years Ago". The Washington Post. Archived from
the original on 2012-03-15.
People's war 1917–1932 by
Kiev city organization "Memorial"
Oksana Kis, Defying Death Women's Experience of the Holodomor,
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