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The History of the Punjab
Punjab
concerns the history of the Punjab
Punjab
region the Northern area of the Indian Subcontinent
Indian Subcontinent
between the modern day countries of India
India
and Pakistan. Historically known as Saptasindhu, or the land of seven rivers, the name Punjab
Punjab
was given by later Islamic conquerers. Ancient Punjab
Punjab
was the primary geographical extant of the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilization, which was notable for advanced technologies and amneties that the people of the region had used. Ancient Punjab was historically a Hindu
Hindu
region, divided into various Janapadas——or city states——and was known for its high activity of scholarship, technology, and arts. Intermittent wars between various small and large Janapadas was characteristic of this time, except in times of temporary unification under centralized Empires. After the arrival of Islamic invaders that had managed to rule throughout a long period of the country's history, much of the Western Punjab
Punjab
had became a center of Islamic culture
Islamic culture
in South Asia. An interlude of Sikh
Sikh
rule under the Mahraja Ranjit Singh and his Sikh Empire had saw a brief resurfacement of traditional culture, until the British had annexed the region into their larger British Empire. After the British had left, the region was partitioned into a Hindu-Sikh majority area that would go to the secular state of India, and a Muslim
Muslim
majority area that would go to the Islamic state of Pakistan.

Contents

1 Vedic Era

1.1 Indus
Indus
Valley Civilisation 1.2 Vedic Descriptions

2 Mauryan Era (c.356B.C -c.180B.C)

2.1 Alexander's invasion 2.2 Maurya Empire

3 Golden Age(c.320-c.1001)

3.1 Gupta Empire 3.2 Empire of Harsha

4 Islamic Invasions (1001-1761)

4.1 Early Islamic Invasions 4.2 Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate 4.3 Mughal Empire 4.4 Durranis and Marathas

5 Sikh
Sikh
Rule (1799-1849)

5.1 Background 5.2 The Sikh
Sikh
Empire

6 British Raj
British Raj
(1849-1947) 7 Modern Day Punjab
Punjab
(1947-Present) 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External links

Vedic Era[edit] Indus
Indus
Valley Civilisation[edit] Main article: Indus
Indus
Valley Civilisation Punjab
Punjab
in ancient times was known as the Sapt-Sindhava, or land of the seven rivers. The name Punjab
Punjab
was given by later Islamic invaders. The aforementioned seven rivers were the Vitsta and Vitamasa (Jhelum), Asikni (Chenab), Parusni and Iravati (Ravi), Vipasa (Beas), and the Satudri (Sutlej). It is believed by most scholars that the earliest trace of human inhabitation in India
India
traces to the Soan valley between the Indus
Indus
and the Jhelum rivers. This period goes back to the first inter-glacial period in the Second Ice Age, and remnants of stone and flint tools have been found.[1] Punjab
Punjab
and the surrounding areas are the location of the ruins of the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilization. There are ruins of cities, thousands of years old, found in these areas with the most notable of which being those of Harappan and Mohenjo-Daro. Besides the aforementioned sites, hundreds of Ancient Indus
Indus
Valley settlements have been found throughout the region spanning an area of about a hundred miles. These ancient towns and cities had advanced features such as city-planning, brick-built houses, sewage and draining systems, as well as public baths. The people of the Indus
Indus
Valley also developed a writing system, that has to this day still not been fully deciphered.[2]

The ruins of an old city at Mohenjo-daro ca. 2600-1500 BCE.

Vedic Descriptions[edit] Literary evidence from the Vedic era suggests a transition from early small janas, or tribes, to many Janapadas (territorial civilizations) and gana-samgha societies. The gana samgha soceties are loosely translated to being oligarchies or republics. These political entities were represented from the Rig Veda to the Astadhyayi by Panini. Archeologically, the time span of these entities corresponds to phases also present in the Indo-Gangetic divide and the upper Gangetic basin.[3] Some of the early Janas of the Rigveda can be strongly attributed to the Punjab. Although their distribution patterns are not satisfactorily ascertinable, they are associated with the Porusni, Asikni, Satudri, Vipas, and Saraswati. The rivers of the Punjab
Punjab
often corresponded to the eastern Janapadas. Rigvedic
Rigvedic
Janas such as the Druhyus, Anus, Purus, Yadus, Turvasas, Bharatas, and others were associated in Punjab
Punjab
and the Indo-Gangetic plain. Other Rig Vedic Janapadas such as the Pakhthas, Bhalanasas, Visanins, and Sivas were associated with areas in the North and West of the Punjab.[3]

A map of India
India
during the Vedic period, including the Punjab
Punjab
region.

An important event of the Rigvedic
Rigvedic
era was the "Battle of Ten Kings" which was fought on the banks of the river Parusni (identified with the present-day river Ravi) between king Sudas of the Trtsu lineage of the Bharata clan on the one hand and a confederation of ten tribes on the other. The ten tribes pitted against King Sudas comprised five major tribes: the Purus, the Druhyus, the Anus, the Turvasas and the Yadus ; in addition to five minor ones;the Pakthas, the Alinas, the Bhalanas, the Visanins and the Sivas. King Sudas was supported by the Vedic Rishi
Rishi
Vasishtha, while his former Purohita the Rishi Viswamitra
Viswamitra
sided with the confederation of ten tribes.[4] King Sudas had earlier defeated Samvaran and ousted him from Hastinapur. It was only after the death of Sudas that Samvaran could return to his kingdom.[5] A second battle, referred to as the Mahabharat in ancient texts, was fought in the Punjab
Punjab
in a battlfield known as Kurukshetra. The battle was fought between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Duryodhana, a descendant of Kuru (who was the son of king Samvaran), had tired to insult the Panchali princess Draupadi in revenge for defeating his ancestor Samvaran.[5] Many Janapadas were mentioned from vedic texts and are confirmed by Ancient Greek historical sources. Most of the Janapadas that had exerted large territorial influence, or Mahajanapadas, had been raised in the Indo-Gangetic plain with the exception of Gandhara in modern-day Afghanistan. There was a large level of contact between all the Janapadas of ancient India
India
with descriptions being given of trading caravans, movement of students from universities, and itineraries of Princes.[6] Pre-Islamic Punjab
Punjab
was also a center of learning for Ancient India, and aside from a great many ashrams, it had featured many Universities . The most notable of which being the University at Taxila (also referred to as Takhsh-Shila), which was dedicated to the study of the 'three Vedas and 18 branches of knowledge'. In its heyday, the University had attracted students from all over India
India
as well as those from surrounding countries.[5] Mauryan Era (c.356B.C -c.180B.C)[edit] Alexander's invasion[edit]

The Mauryan Empire
Mauryan Empire
around 265 BCE. Prior to Alexander's invasion, much of the region was ruled by the Mahajanapada
Mahajanapada
of the Nanda Empire
Nanda Empire
as well as other smaller Janapadas.

After overrunning the Achaemenid Empire, Alexander turned his sights to India. This was the first time Alexander moved beyond the limits of the Persian Empire. Alexander sent heralds ahead to the native rulers on the west side of the Indus
Indus
and divided his army into two. One wing led by himself, and the other led by Hephastion. Alexander took his troops and razed several cities, fought a battle at Massaka which turned into a massacre, and conducted the battle at Aornos rock. Somewhere in this region, Alexander visited a city called Nysa which was in legend founded by a God.[7] After crossing the Indus, Alexander was welcomed by the native ruler of Takshashila, known to the Greeks as Taxila, and other allies. Onesikritos was sent to interview the native ascetics about their way of life, but the conversation was rumored to be difficult as the Greeks had to use three different levels of interpreters. Alexander was nevertheless impressed enough to bring an Indian philosopher whom the Greeks called Kalanos. Another Indian philosopher was asked as well, but had refused to come. When Alexander had reached Malloi and Oxydrakai in 325 B.C, the people had claimed that they always lived freely, directly contradicting with Persian accounts of rule over the region. After this, Alexander's first opponent was the Raja Porus. Porus
Porus
and Taxiles were longtime enemies, and the latter saw Alexander's arrival as a way to settle old scores.[8] Porus
Porus
and Alexander had fought a battle on the Hydaspes. This was the last major battle of Alexander's campaign. The armies had met in June, when the monsoon had begun, and it was the first time Alexander and his troops had encountered Elephants in battle. After the defeat of Porus
Porus
in Greek sources, most armies that he had encountered had came to submit, with very few refusing to do so such as the people of Sangala who were massacred.[9] Supposedly after the disheartened and homesick attitude of his troops, Alexander had returned home through Malois.[5] On his return, Alexander had conquered many resisting Indian janas and janapadas, and those who had refused were killed. Many Brahmans were noted to be executed by Alexander, much to the shock of the Indians. After his return, Alexander had made little effort in order to retain much of the land he had conquered.[10] Maurya Empire[edit] Main article: Maurya Empire Chandragupta Maurya, with the aid of Kautilya, had established his empire around 320 B.C. The early life of Chandragupta Maurya is not clear. Kautilya took a young Chandragupta to the University at Taxila and enrolled him in order to educate him in the arts, sciences, logic, mathematics, warfare, and administration. With the help of the small Janapadas of Punjab
Punjab
and Sindh, he had went on to conquer much of the North West.[11] He then defeated the Nanda rulers in Pataliputra to capture the throne. Chandragupta Maurya fought Alexander's successor in the east, Seleucus, when the latter invaded. In a peace treaty, Seleucus ceded all territories west of the Indus
Indus
and offered a marriage, including a portion of Bactria, while Chandragupta granted Seleucus 500 elephants.[11] Chandragupta's rule was a very well organized one. The Mauryans had an autocratic and centralized administration system, aided by a council of ministers; the Empire also had a well established espionage system for his rule. Much of Chandragupta's success is attributed to Chanakya, the author of the Arthashastra. Much of the Mauryan rule had a strong bureaucracy that had regulated tax collection, trade and commerce, industrial activities, mining, statistics and data, maintenance of public places, and upkeep of temples.[11] Mauryan rule was advanced for its time, and foreign accounts of Indian cities mention many temples, libraries, universities, gardens, and parks. A notable account was that of the Greek ambassador Megasthenes who had visited the Mauryan capital of Pataliputra.[11] The assassination of the last Mauryan Emperor by the general Pushyamitra did not end in the break up of Mauryan rule entirely. Some of the eastern provinces, such as that of Kalinga, were quick to assert Independence. Punjab
Punjab
and much of the Indo-Gangetic plain were still under the hold of Pushyamitra's Empire as well as under the subsequent smaller offshoots that had asserted its claim over the region. [12] Golden Age(c.320-c.1001)[edit]

The Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
at its maximum extent. The Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
ruled during a period known as India's Golden age.

Gupta Empire[edit] Main article: Gupta Empire The Gupta Empire's origins are believved to be from local Rajas as only the father and grandfather of Chandra Gupta are mentioned in inscriptions. Chandra Gupta's reign was an unsetted one, but under his son Samudra Gupta, the Empire reached supremacy over India
India
roughly similar to the proportions that the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
had excercised before. Various records exist of Samudra Gupta's conquest, showing that nearly all of North India
India
and a portion of Southern India
India
had been under Gupta rule.[13] The Empire was organized along the lines of provinces, frontier feudatories, and subordinate kings of vassal states that had sworn fealty to the Empire. In the case of Punjab, the local Janapadas were semi-Independent but were expected to obey orders and pay homage to the Empire. [13] Samudra Gupta was regarded as a patron of the arts and humanities. Inscriptions give evidence to the Raja not only being a learned man, but one fond of the company of poets and writers; one type of coinage even shows him playing on the Veena.[14] Samudra Gupta was succeeded by his son Rama Gupta in whose time the Scythians, known as the Sakas, had begin to be recognized as a threat. Rama Gupta had attempted to pay off the Sakas, but this had cost him his throne. Usurped by Chandra Gupta II, the new Emperor had begun to consoldiate the power of the Empire where traces of disruption had presented himself.[14] Chandra Gupta II had went on to defeat the Sakas, earning him the name 'Sakari Chandra Gupta'. By this time the Empire still ruled over much of North India, but the authority on the South had seemed to lapse. [14] Although the main acheivement for which Chandra Gupta II will be known for is the victory over invaders, the ruler was described as devoted to the arts of peace. Chandra Gupta II was an ardent worshipper of Vishnu, and was a patron of the revival of Puranic Hinduism——a movement that had revived and redefined Hinduism——displacing much of Buddhist influence within the period of a century. Under the Gupta court at this time the arts, sciences, and literature had flourished. [15] The two hundred years of Gupta rule are said to be the climax of Hindu Imperial tradition. From the context of literature, art, religion, science, commerce, and architecture, the period under Gupta rule had prospered. The Mauryan Bureacracy, already converted to caste, had functioned with impartial loyalty throughout the Empire and surrounding areas. The Empire was organized in similar lines to that of the Mauryan Empire, and had a system of viceroys, governors, administrators, and ministers. Seals of police chiefs, military suppliers, and chief justices give further insight into the administration of the Guptas. [16]The Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
was also known for its art and architecture, characterized by the reduction of the foreign influence of the Greeks and Kushans, and re-assertion of Hindu art. The Gupta period was also the classical age of Sanskrit literature. Much of the original ancient Hindu
Hindu
texts from before the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
are lost, but the current iterations of Sanskrit works such as that of the Mahabharata and Bhagvad Gita are from the editions of this time. [17] The complete re-writing of the Hindu
Hindu
texts raised the question of why the writers of the period would do this. A historian claims that this was due to the foreign influence that was present due to previous invaders, and a re-writing was required for the re-assertion of the original ideals.[18] Another feature of the Gupta rule was the development of Indian science. The early development of the decimal system with respect to zero, the heliocentric model, accurate calculations of the duration of a day, reasons behind eclipses, and advances in the natural sciences were all achivements from this period. Major scholars from this time included Aryabhata and Varahamhira. [19] The White Huns, who initially were part of the predominantly Buddhist Hephthalite group, established themselves in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by the first half of the 5th century, with their capital at Bamiyan. The Huns invaded the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
under Kumara Gupta (r.415-455). Kumara Gupta had just earlier defeated several revolts from the Pushyamitras, a tribe of central India. After the death of Kumaragupta in 467, the Huns renewed their attacks and managed to invade border provinces around this time.[20] Kumara Gupta's son Skanda Gupta had managed to defeat further Hun invasions. Skanda Gupta managed to defeat the Huns in such a manner that they were fully routed; the consequences of the Gupta victory over the Huns were far reaching, leading a historian to believe that this was likely the reason for the Hun invasions further West.[21] After the death of Skanda Gupta, the Empire suffered from various wars of succession. The last major Gupta King was Buddha Gupta; after him, the Empire had split into various branches across India. Nevertheless, by the sixth century, the Huns had established themselves and Toramana and his son Mihirakula, who has been described to be a Saivite Hindu, had ruled over the approximate areas of Punjab, Rajputana, and Kashmir. Several accounts, including those by Chinese pilgrims, make reference to the cruelty of the Huns. There had been several alliances throughout this time that had checked the advance of the Huns, but it was not until 533-534 that Raja Yashovarman of Mandasor firmly defeated them.[20][21] Empire of Harsha[edit] Main article: Harsha After the disintegration of the Gupta Empire, Northern India
India
was ruled by several independent kingdoms which carried on the traditions of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
within their own territories.[22] Harshavardhana, commonly called Harsha, was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India from 606 to 647 from his capital Kanauj.Harsha's grandfather was Adityavardhana, a feuduatory ruler of Thanesvar in the eastern Punjab. Under his son Prabhakarvardhana, the dynasty emerged as a major state which was constantly at odds with the Huns and the nearby rulers of Malwa. Harsha
Harsha
was his newphew, and seeked to conquer all of the country; at the height of his power his kingdom spanned the entirety of Northern India. Harsha
Harsha
was defeated by the south Indian Emperor Pulakeshin II
Pulakeshin II
of the Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
when Harsha
Harsha
tried to expand his Empire into southern peninsular of India.[23] Islamic Invasions (1001-1761)[edit] Early Islamic Invasions[edit] Arab armies had earlier tried to penetrate deep into South Asia but were defeated by the South Indian Emperor Vikramaditya II
Vikramaditya II
of the Chalukya dynasty, South Indian general Dantidurga of the Rashtrakuta dynasty in Gujarat, and by Nagabhata of the Pratihara
Pratihara
Dynasty in Malwa in the early 8th century.[24][25][26] Despite repeated campaigns, in 698 and 700, Arabs also failed to occupy the Kandahar-Ghazni-Kabul route to the Khyber Pass. Two small Hindu
Hindu
states of Zabul and Kabul in southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
stubbornly defended this strategic area between the river Sindh and Koh Hindu
Hindu
Kush.[27][28] A Brahmin dynasty, more commonly known as the Hindu
Hindu
Shahis, was ruling from Kabul and later Waihind, another Brahmin dynasty ruled in Punjab.[29] During this period a Turkic kingdom was established Ghazni and Sabuktagin ascended its throne in 977. The kingdom had rapidly conquered nearby kingdoms, and also conquered the Shahi capital of Kabul. Alarmed by the rapid expansion of the Ghaznavids, Jayapala twice attacked Sabuktagin but failed in his objective.[30] Gradually, Sabuktagin conquered all Shahi territories in Afghanistan, north of the Khyber Pass. He died in 997 and was succeeded by his son Mahmud after a brief war of succession among the brothers. [31] Bhima Deva Shahi was the fourth king of the Hindu
Hindu
Kabul Shahis. As a devout Brahmin, in his old age, he committed ritual suicide in his capital town of Waihind, located on the right side of river Sindh, fourteen miles above Attock.[32] As Bhimadeva had no male heir, Jayapala
Jayapala
succeeded the Shahi throne, which had included areas spanning from Punjab
Punjab
to Kabul in Afghanistan.[33] Jayapala
Jayapala
was defeated at Peshawar by Mahmud of Ghazni and the Shahis lost all territory north of river Sindh.[34] Anandapala and Trilochanapala, his son and grandson respectively, resisted Mahmud for another quarter of a century but Punjab
Punjab
was finally annexed to the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Ghazni, around 1021.[35] After the Muslim
Muslim
attacks, many Punjabi scholars of Sanskrit had fled to schools and universities in Benares and Kashmir, which were at the time unaffected from Islamic invasion. Al Biruni wrote: "Hindu sciences have fled far away from those parts of the country that have been conquered by us, and fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, to Benares, and other places." These places were later to face the same depredations.[36] Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate[edit] Main articles: Muhammad Ghori, Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, and Timurid Dynasty The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanates were a series of Muslim
Muslim
sultanates based in Delhi that had encompassed large areas of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
between 1206 to 1526.[37][38] The dynasties that ruled the Delhi
Delhi
sultanate in order are: the Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty (1206–90), the Khalji dynasty (1290–1320), the Tughlaq dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
(1320–1414),[39] the Sayyid dynasty (1414–51), and the Lodi dynasty
Lodi dynasty
(1451–1526).The Sultanate had successfully repelled an attack by the Mongols,[40] and enthroned one of the few female rulers in Islamic history, Razia Sultana, who reigned from 1236 to 1240.[41] Qutb al-Din Aibak, a former Mamluk
Mamluk
slave of Muhammad Ghori, was the first sultan of Delhi, and his Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty conquered large areas of Northern India. Afterwards, the Khalji dynasty
Khalji dynasty
was also able to conquer most of central India, but both failed to conquer the whole of the Indian subcontinent. The sultanate reached the peak during the Tughlaq dynasty, occupying most of the Indian subcontinent.[42] This was followed by decline due to Hindu
Hindu
reconquests, states such as the Vijayanagara Empire
Vijayanagara Empire
asserting independence, and new Muslim
Muslim
sultanates such as the Bengal Sultanate
Bengal Sultanate
breaking off.[43][44] The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate was known for large-scale demolitions of Hindu
Hindu
temples and other institutions, as well as forced conversions.[45] Mughal Empire[edit] Main article: Mughal Empire

The Lahore Fort
Lahore Fort
is one of the most famous landmarks left behind from the empire

In 1526, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur
Timur
and Genghis Khan from the Fergana Valley
Fergana Valley
(modern-day Uzbekistan) was ousted from his ancestral domain in Central Asia. Bābur turned to India, and crossed the Khyber Pass.[46] From his base in Afghanistan, he was able to secure control of the Punjab, and in 1526 he decisively defated the forces of the Delhi
Delhi
sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī at the First Battle of Panipat. The next year, he defeated the Rajput confederacy under Rana Sanga of Mewar, and in 1529 defeated the remnants of the Delhi sultanates. At his death in 1530 the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
encompassed almost all of Northern India.[47] Bābur’s son Humāyūn (reigned 1530–40 and 1555–56) had lost territory to rebels, but Humāyūn’s son Akbar (reigned 1556–1605) defeated the Hindu
Hindu
king Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat (1556) and reestablished Mughal rule. Akbar's son Jahangir
Jahangir
had furthered the size of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
through conquest, yet left much of the state bankrupt as a result. Akbar's son Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan
(reigned 1628-1658) was known for his monuments, including the Taj Mahal. Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb was especially known for his religious intolerance, and was known for his destruction of schools and temples which he saw as unislamic. In addition to the murder of a Sikh
Sikh
Guru, Aurangzeb had instilled heavy taxes on Hindus
Hindus
and Sikhs
Sikhs
that had later led to an economic depression.[47][48][49][50] During the reign of Muḥammad Shah (1719–48), the empire began to decline, accelerated by warfare and rivalries, and. After the death of Muḥammad Shah in 1748, the Marathas attacked and ruled almost all of northern India. Mughal rule was reduced to only a small area around Delhi, which passed under Maratha (1785) and then British (1803) control. The last Mughal, Bahādur Shah II (reigned 1837–57), was exiled to Burma by the British.[47] Durranis and Marathas[edit] Main articles: Durrani Empire, Maratha conquest of North-west India, and Sikh
Sikh
holocaust of 1762 In 1747, the Durrani kingdom was established by the Pakhtun general, Ahmad Shah Abdali, and included Balochistan, Peshawar, Daman, Multan, Sindh, and Punjab. The first time Ahmad Shah invaded Hindustan, the Mughal imperial army checked his advance successfully. Yet subsequent events led to a double alliance, one by marriage and another politically, between the Afghan King and the Mughal Emperor. The battle of Panipat was the effect of this political alliance. After the victory of Panipat, Ahmad Shah Durrani became the primary ruler over Northern India. The influence of Durrani monarch continued in Northern India
India
up to his death.[51] In 1757, the Sikhs
Sikhs
were persistently ambushing guards to loot trains. In order to send a message, and prevent such occurrences from recurring, Ahmad Shah destroyed the Harminder Sahib and filled the pool with cow carcasses.[52] In 1758 the Maratha Empire's general Raghunathrao
Raghunathrao
attacked and conquered Lahore
Lahore
and Attock
Attock
driving out Timur
Timur
Shah Durrani, the son and viceroy of Ahmad Shah Abdali, in the process. Lahore, Multan, Kashmir
Kashmir
and other subahs on the eastern side of Attock
Attock
were under Maratha rule. In Punjab
Punjab
and Kashmir, the Marathas were now major players.[53][54] In 1761, following the victory at the Third battle of Panipat between the Durrani and the Maratha Empire, Ahmad Shah Abdali captured remnants of the Maratha Empire
Maratha Empire
in Punjab
Punjab
and Kashmir
Kashmir
regions and had consolidated control over them.[55] In 1762, there were persistent conflicts with the Sikhs. The rebuilt Harminder Sahib was destroyed, and the pool was filled with cow entrails, again. This time the conflict was a lot more significant, as it resulted in the death of 25,000-30,000 Sikhs.[56][57] Sikh
Sikh
Rule (1799-1849)[edit] Main article: Sikh
Sikh
Empire Background[edit]

Ranjit Singh's Empire encompassed much of the Punjab
Punjab
region.

The Sikh
Sikh
religion began around the time of the conquest of Northern India
India
by Babur
Babur
Shah, the founder of the Mughal Empire.[58] The later Muslim
Muslim
Emperor Jahangir, however, saw the Sikhs
Sikhs
as a political threat. He ordered Guru Arjun Dev
Guru Arjun Dev
to be put to death after he had refused to change the passage about Islam
Islam
in the Adi Granth. When the Guru refused, Jahangir
Jahangir
ordered him to be put to death by torture.[59] Guru Arjan Dev's death led to the sixth Guru Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
to declare sovreignty in the creation of the Akal Takht
Akal Takht
and the establishment of a fort to defend Amritsar.[60] Jahangir
Jahangir
then jailed Guru Hargobind
Guru Hargobind
at Gwalior, but released him after a number of years when he no longer felt threatened. The succeeding son of Jahangir, Shah Jahan, took offence at Guru Hargobind's declaration and after a series of assaults on Amritsar, forced the Sikhs
Sikhs
to retreat to the Sivalik Hills.[60] The ninth Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur, moved the Sikh
Sikh
community to Anandpur and travelled extensively to visit and preach in defiance of Aurangzeb, who attempted to install Ram Rai as new guru. Guru Tegh Bahadur aided Kashmiri Pandits
Kashmiri Pandits
in avoiding conversion to Islam
Islam
and was arrested by Aurangzeb. When offered a choice between conversion to Islam
Islam
and death, he chose to die rather than compromise his principles and was executed.[61] Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
assumed the guruship in 1675 and established the Khalsa, a collective army of baptised Sikhs, on 30 March 1699. The establishment of the Khalsa
Khalsa
united the Sikh
Sikh
community against various Mughal-backed claimants to the guruship.[62] Banda Singh Bahadur (also known as Lachman Das, Lachman Dev and Madho Das), (1670–1716) met Guru Gobind Singh
Guru Gobind Singh
at Nanded and adopted the Sikh
Sikh
religion. A short time before his death, Guru Gobind Singh ordered him to conquer the Punjab
Punjab
and gave him a letter that commanded all Sikhs
Sikhs
to join him. After two years of gaining supporters, Banda Singh Bahadur initiated an agrarian uprising by breaking up the large estates of Zamindar families and distributing the land to the peasants.[63] During the rebellion, Banda Singh Bahadur made it a point to destroy the cities in which the Muslims had been cruel to the supporters of Guru Gobind Singh. He executed Wazir Khan in revenge for the deaths of Guru Gobind Singh's sons after the Sikh
Sikh
victory at Sirhind.[64] He ruled the territory between the Sutlej river
Sutlej river
and the Yamuna river, established a capital in the Himalayas
Himalayas
at Lohgarh and struck coinage in the names of Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
and Guru Gobind Singh.[63] In 1716, he was defated by the Mughals at his fort at Gurdas Nangal. The captured sikhs were beheaded, their heads stuffed with hay, mounted on spears and carried on a procession to Delhi
Delhi
en route to the Qutb Minar. Banda Singh was told to dismount, as the Muslims placed his child in his arms and bade him to kill it. The child was ripped open and fed to him, as the Muslims had dismembered his limbs after refusing to convert to Islam.[65][66] The Sikh
Sikh
Empire[edit] In 1799, a process to unify the Punjab
Punjab
was started by Ranjit Singh. Training his army under the style of the East India
India
Company, it was able to conquer much of the Punjab
Punjab
and surrounding areas. The use of the suzrein-vassal polity as established by previous rulers had been instrumental in establishing the political control of the Sikhs. During this time, there was an increase in the population of Sikhs
Sikhs
as well. In towns and cities, there was an increase in the population of urban Sikhs, while the same happened with an increase in rural Sikhs. This had also likely led to some of the idealogical differences between Sikhs
Sikhs
around this time.[67] The invasions of the Muslim
Muslim
Zaman Shah, the second successor Ahmad Shah Abdali had served as a catalyst. After the first invasion, Singh had recovered his own fort at Rohtas. During the second invasion, he had emerged as a leading Sikh
Sikh
chief. After the third invasion, he had decisively defated Zamah Shah. This had eventually led to the takeover of Lahore
Lahore
in 1799. In 1809, Singh signed the Treaty of Amritsar
Amritsar
with the British; in this treaty, Singh was recognized as the sole ruler of the Punjab
Punjab
by the British and was given freedom to fight against the Muslims of surrounding areas.[68] Within ten years of Ranjit Singh's death in 1839, the Empire was taken over by the British who had already more or less exerted indirect or direct influence throughout the Subcontinent. At Lahore, there were increasing levels of nobles vying for power. A growing instability, allowed the British to come in and takeover control of the area. After the British victories at the battles of the Sutlej in 1845-46, the army and territory of the boy Raja Duleep Singh was cut down. Lahore was garrisoned by British troops, and given a resident in the Durbar. In 1849, the British had formally taken control.[67] British Raj
British Raj
(1849-1947)[edit]

The British Brigadier-General R.E.H Dyer fired upon protesters at Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, killing between 300-1000 people.The act served to rally the Indian Independence movement.

Main article: Punjab
Punjab
Province (British India) The Punjab
Punjab
ruled under the British was larger than that under Ranjit Singh. The colonial rule of Punjab
Punjab
had instated a system of bureaucracy and measure of law. Replacing the 'paternal' system of ruling was replaced by 'machine rule' with a system of laws, codes, and procedures. For purposes of control, the British established new forms of communication and transportation. These included post systems, railways, roads, and telegraphs. Irrigation projects between 1860 and 1920 brought 10 million acres of land under cultivation. Despite these developments, colonial rule was marked by exploitation of resources. For the purpose of exports, the majority of external trade was controlled by British export banks. The Imperial government excercised control over the finances of the Punjab
Punjab
and took the majority of the income for itself.[69] To the agrarian and commercial class was added a professional middle class that had risen the social ladder through the use of the English education, which opened up new professions in law, government, and medicine.[70] By the 1870's there had been communities of Muslims of the Wahabi sect, drawn from the lower classes, that intended to use jihad to get rid of the non-Muslims by force. A highlight of religious controversy during this time was that of the Ahmaddiya movement. Mirza Gulam Ahmad in his Burahin-i-Ahmaddiya which was meant to rejuvanate Islam
Islam
on the basis of the Quran, had attempted to refute both Christian missionaries, and Hindus
Hindus
and Sikhs. In another work, Ahmad argued that Guru Nanak
Guru Nanak
was a Muslim. He interpreted Jihad as a peaceful method, and declared himself to be the Messiah. This was met with significant controversy.[71] In the first and second decades of the early 20th century, the idea of Hindu
Hindu
and Muslim
Muslim
separation had become an active political tone. Muslims were told to remain aloof of the Indian National Congress, the main body seeking Indian Independence, because there was a general fear that representation based on elections and employment based upon competition was not in their interest. The All India
India
Muslim
Muslim
League's demand for separate electorates for Muslims was granted at Amritsar
Amritsar
in 1909. The Muslim
Muslim
league also demanded separate electorates in every province, even in those without Muslim
Muslim
majority populations, which was also granted by the Indian National Congress in 1916.[72] An important event of the British Raj
British Raj
in Punjab
Punjab
was the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre of 1919. The British brigadier-general R.E.H Dyer marched fity riflemen of the 1/9th Gurkhas, 54th Sikhs, and 59th Sikhs into the Bagh and ordered them to open fire into the crowd that had collected there. The official number of deaths given by the British was given as 379 people dead, but there are reported to be greater than a 1000 killed.[73] There had been many Indian Independence movements in Punjab
Punjab
at the time as well. Notably, the actions of Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev, and Rajguru on the 17th of December, 1928 in which the trio were responsible for killing J.P Saunders in revenge for the latter's murder of Lala Lajpati Rai. They were also responsible for the bombing of the Legislative Assembly in Delhi
Delhi
on the 8th of April in 1929. The three believed that the nonviolent movement was a failure. Nevertheless, the use of violence in the Indian Independence movement became unpopular after the execution of the trio on the 23 of March in 1932.[74] Modern Day Punjab
Punjab
(1947-Present)[edit]

The retreat ceremony at the India- Pakistan
Pakistan
International Border
International Border
near Wagah, in Punjab

See also: Punjab
Punjab
(India) and Punjab
Punjab
(Pakistan) In 1947, the Punjab
Punjab
Province of British India
India
was divided along religious lines into West Punjab
Punjab
and East Punjab. The western part was assimilated into new country of Pakistan
Pakistan
while the east stayed in India. This led to riots. The Partition of India
Partition of India
in 1947 split the former Raj province of Punjab; the mostly Muslim
Muslim
western part became the Pakistani province of West Punjab
Punjab
and the mostly Sikh
Sikh
and Hindu eastern part became the Indian province of Punjab. Many Sikhs
Sikhs
and Hindus
Hindus
lived in the west, and many Muslims lived in the east, and so partition saw many people displaced and much intercommunal violence. Several small Punjabi princely states, including Patiala, also became part of India. The undivided Punjab, of which Punjab
Punjab
(Pakistan) forms a major region today, was home to a large minority population of Punjabi Sikhs
Sikhs
and Hindus
Hindus
unto 1947 apart from the Muslim
Muslim
majority.[75] Backed and trained by the Pakistani Inter-Services-Intelligence starting from the 1970's, a small minority of Sikhs
Sikhs
called for the creation of a state known as Khalistan, along the lines of Pakistan. This had led to the state of emergency given by Indira Gandhi, who had called in Indian troops to stop the militants who were in the Golden Temple and held it hostage.[76] Terrorist attacks targeted members of the Sikh
Sikh
majority that wished to stay with India, and opposed the creation of Khalistan. The extremists continued to carry out attacks, including placing a bomb in an Air India
India
flight over the Atlantic Ocean, killing more than 300 people. Other terrorist attacks had continued, notably against the Punjab
Punjab
police and others, in which more Sikhs
Sikhs
were killed than other groups. Most of the Sikh
Sikh
fringe separatist movements were based in Pakistan, and these were under close watch by the Indian government. In addition, much of the funding for fringe group had come from expatriate sources abroad in America and Europe.[77] See also[edit]

History of Sindh History of India History of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

References[edit]

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in 1920s – A Case study of Muslims, Zarina Salamat, Royal Book Company, Karachi, 1997 ISBN 969-407-230-1 Grewal, J.S (1990). The Sikhs
Sikhs
of the Punjab, Volumes 2-3. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-2688-4-2.  Singh, Kulwant (2006). Sri Gur Panth Prakash: Episodes 1 to 81. Institute of Sikh
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Further reading[edit]

R. M. Chopra, "The Legacy of the Punjab", (1997), Punjabee Bradree, Calcutta.

External links[edit]

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