Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying
widely between times and places. Since all people of the world,
including the most isolated tribal groups, have a form of music, it
may be concluded that music is likely to have been present in the
ancestral population prior to the dispersal of humans around the
world. Consequently, music may have been in existence for at least
55,000 years and the first music may have been invented in Africa and
then evolved to become a fundamental constituent of human life.
A culture's music is influenced by all other aspects of that culture,
including social and economic organization and experience, climate,
and access to technology. The emotions and ideas that music expresses,
the situations in which music is played and listened to, and the
attitudes toward music players and composers all vary between regions
and periods. "Music history" is the distinct subfield of musicology
and history which studies music (particularly Western art music) from
a chronological perspective.
1 Eras of music
1.1 Prehistoric music
1.2 Ancient music
1.3 Biblical period
1.4 Early music
2 Western art music
2.3 Baroque music
Classical music era
2.5 Romantic music
2.6 20th and 21st-century music
Classical music outside Europe
3.5 Middle East
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
Eras of music
before 500 AD
Main article: Prehistoric music
Prehistoric music, once more commonly called primitive music, is the
name given to all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory),
beginning somewhere in very late geological history. Prehistoric music
is followed by ancient music in most of Europe (1500 BC) and later
music in subsequent European-influenced areas, but still exists in
Prehistoric music thus technically includes all of the world's music
that has existed before the advent of any currently extant historical
sources concerning that music, for example, traditional Native
American music of preliterate tribes and Australian Aboriginal music.
However, it is more common to refer to the "prehistoric" music of
non-European continents – especially that which still survives –
as folk, indigenous or traditional music. The origin of music is
unknown as it occurred prior to recorded history. Some suggest that
the origin of music likely stems from naturally occurring sounds and
rhythms. Human music may echo these phenomena using patterns,
repetition and tonality. Even today, some cultures have certain
instances of their music intending to imitate natural sounds. In some
instances, this feature is related to shamanistic beliefs or
practice. It may also serve entertainment (game) or
practical (luring animals in hunt) functions.
It is probable that the first musical instrument was the human voice
itself, which can make a vast array of sounds, from singing, humming
and whistling through to clicking, coughing and yawning. As for other
musical instruments, in 2008 archaeologists discovered a bone flute in
Hohle Fels cave near Ulm, Germany. Considered to be about
35,000 years old, the five-holed flute has a V-shaped mouthpiece and
is made from a vulture wing bone. The oldest known wooden pipes were
discovered near Greystones, Ireland, in 2004. A wood-lined pit
contained a group of six flutes made from yew wood, between 30 and
50 cm long, tapered at one end, but without any finger holes.
They may once have been strapped together.
It has been suggested that the "Divje Babe Flute", a cave bear femur
dated to be approximately 43'500 years old, is the world's oldest
musical instrument and was produced by Neanderthal. Claims that the
femur is indeed a musical instrument are, however, contested by
alternative theories including the suggestion that the femur may have
been gnawed by carnivores to produce holes.
Main article: Ancient music
Sassanid women playing
Chang (instrument) in Taq-e Bostan,
The prehistoric age is considered to have ended with the development
of writing, and with it, by definition, prehistoric music. "Ancient
music" is the name given to the music that followed. The "oldest known
song" was written in cuneiform, dating to 3400 years ago from Ugarit.
It was deciphered by Anne Draffkorn Kilmer, and was demonstrated to be
composed in harmonies of thirds, like ancient gymel, and also was
written using a
Pythagorean tuning of the diatonic scale. The oldest
surviving example of a complete musical composition, including musical
notation, from anywhere in the world, is the Seikilos epitaph.
Double pipes, such as those used by the ancient Greeks, and ancient
bagpipes, as well as a review of ancient drawings on vases and walls,
etc., and ancient writings (such as in Aristotle, Problems, Book
XIX.12) which described musical techniques of the time, indicate
polyphony. One pipe in the aulos pairs (double flutes) likely served
as a drone or "keynote," while the other played melodic passages.
Instruments, such as the seven holed flute and various types of
stringed instruments have been recovered from the Indus valley
civilization archaeological sites.
Indian classical music
Indian classical music (marga) can be found from the scriptures of the
Hindu tradition, the Vedas. Samaveda, one of the four vedas, describes
music at length.
Ravanahatha (ravanhatta, rawanhattha, ravanastron or ravana hasta
veena) is a bowed fiddle popular in Western India. It is believed to
have originated among the Hela civilization of Sri Lanka in the time
of King Ravana. This string instrument has been recognised as one of
the oldest string instruments in world history.
The history of musical development in
Iran (Persian music) dates back
to the prehistoric era. The great legendary king, Jamshid, is credited
with the invention of music. Music in
Iran can be traced back to the
days of the
Elamite Empire (2500-644 BC). Fragmentary documents from
various periods of the country's history establish that the ancient
Persians possessed an elaborate musical culture. The
(AD 226-651), in particular, has left us ample evidence pointing to
the existence of a lively musical life in Persia. The names of some
important musicians such as Barbod, Nakissa and Ramtin, and titles of
some of their works have survived.
Early music era may also include contemporary but traditional or
folk music, including Asian music, Persian music, music of India,
Jewish music, Greek music, Roman music, the music of Mesopotamia, the
music of Egypt, and Muslim music.
Main article: Music of Greece
Greek written history extends far back into Ancient Greece, and was a
major part of ancient Greek theatre. In ancient Greece, mixed-gender
choruses performed for entertainment, celebration and spiritual
reasons. Instruments included the double-reed aulos and the plucked
string instrument, the lyre, especially the special kind called a
kithara. Music was an important part of education in ancient Greece,
and boys were taught music starting at age six.
History of music
History of music in the biblical period
David with his harp" Paris Psalter,
c. 960, Constantinople
According to Easton's Bible Dictionary, Jubal was named by the Bible
as the inventor of musical instruments (Gen. 4:21). The
much given to the cultivation of music. Their whole history and
literature afford abundant evidence of this. After the Deluge, the
first mention of music is in the account of Laban's interview with
Jacob (Gen. 31:27). After their triumphal passage of the Red Sea,
Moses and the children of
Israel sang their song of deliverance (Ex.
15). But the period of Samuel, David, and
Solomon was the golden age
of Hebrew music, as it was of Hebrew poetry. Music was now for the
first time systematically cultivated. It was an essential part of
training in the schools of the prophets (1 Sam. 10:5). There now arose
also a class of professional singers (2 Sam. 19:35; Eccl. 2:8).
Solomon's Temple, however, was the great school of music. In the
conducting of its services large bands of trained singers and players
on instruments were constantly employed (2 Sam. 6:5; 1 Chr. 15:16;
23;5; 25:1-6). In private life also music seems to have held an
important place among the
Hebrews (Eccl. 2:8; Amos 6:4-6; Isa. 5:11,
12; 24:8, 9; Ps. 137; Jer. 48:33; Luke 15:25).
Music and theatre scholars studying the history and anthropology of
Semitic and early
Judeo-Christian culture, have also discovered common
links between theatrical and musical activity in the classical
cultures of the
Hebrews with those of the later cultures of the Greeks
and Romans. The common area of performance is found in a "social
phenomenon called litany," a form of prayer consisting of a series of
invocations or supplications. The Journal of Religion and Theatre
notes that among the earliest forms of litany, "Hebrew litany was
accompanied by a rich musical tradition:"
While Genesis 4.21 identifies Jubal as the "father of all such as
handle the harp and pipe", the
Pentateuch is nearly silent about the
practice and instruction of music in the early life of Israel. Then,
Samuel 10 and the texts which follow, a curious thing happens.
"One finds in the biblical text", writes Alfred Sendrey, "a sudden and
unexplained upsurge of large choirs and orchestras, consisting of
thoroughly organized and trained musical groups, which would be
virtually inconceivable without lengthy, methodical preparation." This
has led some scholars to believe that the prophet
Samuel was the
patriarch of a school which taught not only prophets and holy men, but
also sacred-rite musicians. This public music school, perhaps the
earliest in recorded history, was not restricted to a priestly
class—which is how the shepherd boy
David appears on the scene as a
minstrel to King Saul.
Main article: Early music
Early music is music of the European classical tradition from after
the fall of the Roman Empire, in 476 AD, until the end of the Baroque
era in the middle of the 18th century. Music within
this enormous span of time was extremely diverse, encompassing
multiple cultural traditions within a wide geographic area; many of
the cultural groups out of which medieval Europe developed already had
musical traditions, about which little is known. What unified these
cultures in the Middle Ages was the Roman Catholic Church, and its
music served as the focal point for musical development for the first
thousand years of this period.
Western art music
Periods and eras of
Western classical music
Modern and contemporary/postmodern
Main article: Western art music
While musical life was undoubtedly rich in the early
Medieval era, as
attested by artistic depictions of instruments, writings about music,
and other records, the only repertory of music which has survived from
before 800 to the present day is the plainsong liturgical music of the
Roman Catholic Church, the largest part of which is called Gregorian
chant. Pope Gregory I, who gave his name to the musical repertory and
may himself have been a composer, is usually claimed to be the
originator of the musical portion of the liturgy in its present form,
though the sources giving details on his contribution date from more
than a hundred years after his death. Many scholars believe that his
reputation has been exaggerated by legend. Most of the chant repertory
was composed anonymously in the centuries between the time of Gregory
During the 9th century several important developments took place.
First, there was a major effort by the Church to unify the many chant
traditions, and suppress many of them in favor of the Gregorian
liturgy. Second, the earliest polyphonic music was sung, a form of
parallel singing known as organum. Third, and of greatest significance
for music history, notation was reinvented after a lapse of about five
hundred years, though it would be several more centuries before a
system of pitch and rhythm notation evolved having the precision and
flexibility that modern musicians take for granted.
Several schools of polyphony flourished in the period after 1100: the
St. Martial school
St. Martial school of organum, the music of which was often
characterized by a swiftly moving part over a single sustained line;
Notre Dame school of polyphony, which included the composers
Léonin and Pérotin, and which produced the first music for more than
two parts around 1200; the musical melting-pot of Santiago de
Compostela in Galicia, a pilgrimage destination and site where
musicians from many traditions came together in the late Middle Ages,
the music of whom survives in the Codex Calixtinus; and the English
school, the music of which survives in the
Worcester Fragments and the
Old Hall Manuscript. Alongside these schools of sacred music a vibrant
tradition of secular song developed, as exemplified in the music of
the troubadours, trouvères and Minnesänger. Much of the later
secular music of the early
Renaissance evolved from the forms, ideas,
and the musical aesthetic of the troubadours, courtly poets and
itinerant musicians, whose culture was largely exterminated during the
Albigensian Crusade in the early 13th century.
Forms of sacred music which developed during the late 13th century
included the motet, conductus, discant, and clausulae. One unusual
development was the Geisslerlieder, the music of wandering bands of
flagellants during two periods: the middle of the 13th century (until
they were suppressed by the Church); and the period during and
immediately following the Black Death, around 1350, when their
activities were vividly recorded and well-documented with notated
music. Their music mixed folk song styles with penitential or
apocalyptic texts. The 14th century in European music history is
dominated by the style of the ars nova, which by convention is grouped
with the medieval era in music, even though it had much in common with
Renaissance ideals and aesthetics. Much of the surviving music
of the time is secular, and tends to use the formes fixes: the
ballade, the virelai, the lai, the rondeau, which correspond to poetic
forms of the same names. Most pieces in these forms are for one to
three voices, likely with instrumental accompaniment: famous composers
Guillaume de Machaut
Guillaume de Machaut and Francesco Landini.
The beginning of the
Renaissance in music is not as clearly marked as
the beginning of the
Renaissance in the other arts, and unlike in the
other arts, it did not begin in Italy, but in northern Europe,
specifically in the area currently comprising central and northern
France, the Netherlands, and Belgium. The style of the Burgundian
composers, as the first generation of the Franco-Flemish school is
known, was at first a reaction against the excessive complexity and
mannered style of the late 14th century ars subtilior, and contained
clear, singable melody and balanced polyphony in all voices. The most
famous composers of the
Burgundian school in the mid-15th century are
Guillaume Dufay, Gilles Binchois, and Antoine Busnois.
By the middle of the 15th century, composers and singers from the Low
Countries and adjacent areas began to spread across Europe, especially
into Italy, where they were employed by the papal chapel and the
aristocratic patrons of the arts (such as the Medici, the Este, and
Sforza families). They carried their style with them: smooth
polyphony which could be adapted for sacred or secular use as
appropriate. Principal forms of sacred musical composition at the time
were the mass, the motet, and the laude; secular forms included the
chanson, the frottola, and later the madrigal.
The invention of printing had an immense influence on the
dissemination of musical styles, and along with the movement of the
Franco-Flemish musicians, contributed to the establishment of the
first truly international style in European music since the
Gregorian chant under Charlemagne.
Composers of the middle generation of the Franco-Flemish school
included Johannes Ockeghem, who wrote music in a contrapuntally
complex style, with varied texture and an elaborate use of canonical
Jacob Obrecht, one of the most famous composers of masses in
the last decades of the 15th century; and Josquin des Prez, probably
the most famous composer in Europe before Palestrina, and who during
the 16th century was renowned as one of the greatest artists in any
form. Music in the generation after Josquin explored increasing
complexity of counterpoint; possibly the most extreme expression is in
the music of Nicolas Gombert, whose contrapuntal complexities
influenced early instrumental music, such as the canzona and the
ricercar, ultimately culminating in Baroque fugal forms.
Portrait of Italian composer
Claudio Monteverdi in Venice, by Bernardo
Strozzi, c. 1630
By the middle of the 16th century, the international style began to
break down, and several highly diverse stylistic trends became
evident: a trend towards simplicity in sacred music, as directed by
Counter-Reformation Council of Trent, exemplified in the music of
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina; a trend towards complexity and
chromaticism in the madrigal, which reached its extreme expression in
the avant-garde style of the
Ferrara School of Luzzaschi and the late
century madrigalist Carlo Gesualdo; and the grandiose, sonorous music
of the Venetian school, which used the architecture of the Basilica
San Marco di Venezia
San Marco di Venezia to create antiphonal contrasts. The music of the
Venetian school included the development of orchestration, ornamented
instrumental parts, and continuo bass parts, all of which occurred
within a span of several decades around 1600. Famous composers in
Venice included the Gabrielis, Andrea and Giovanni, as well as Claudio
Monteverdi, one of the most significant innovators at the end of the
Most parts of Europe had active and well-differentiated musical
traditions by late in the century. In England, composers such as
Thomas Tallis and
William Byrd wrote sacred music in a style similar
to that written on the continent, while an active group of home-grown
madrigalists adapted the Italian form for English tastes: famous
composers included Thomas Morley,
John Wilbye and Thomas Weelkes.
Spain developed instrumental and vocal styles of its own, with Tomás
Luis de Victoria writing refined music similar to that of Palestrina,
and numerous other composers writing for the new guitar. Germany
cultivated polyphonic forms built on the Protestant chorales, which
replaced the Roman Catholic Gregorian Chant as a basis for sacred
music, and imported the style of the Venetian school (the appearance
of which defined the start of the Baroque era there). In addition,
German composers wrote enormous amounts of organ music, establishing
the basis for the later Baroque organ style which culminated in the
work of J.S. Bach.
France developed a unique style of musical diction
known as musique mesurée, used in secular chansons, with composers
Guillaume Costeley and
Claude Le Jeune
Claude Le Jeune prominent in the
One of the most revolutionary movements in the era took place in
Florence in the 1570s and 1580s, with the work of the Florentine
Camerata, who ironically had a reactionary intent: dissatisfied with
what they saw as contemporary musical depravities, their goal was to
restore the music of the ancient Greeks. Chief among them were
Vincenzo Galilei, the father of the astronomer, and Giulio Caccini.
The fruits of their labors was a declamatory melodic singing style
known as monody, and a corresponding staged dramatic form: a form
known today as opera. The first operas, written around 1600, also
define the end of the
Renaissance and the beginning of the Baroque
Music prior to 1600 was modal rather than tonal. Several theoretical
developments late in the 16th century, such as the writings on scales
on modes by
Gioseffo Zarlino and Franchinus Gaffurius, led directly to
the development of common practice tonality. The major and minor
scales began to predominate over the old church modes, a feature which
was at first most obvious at cadential points in compositions, but
gradually became pervasive. Music after 1600, beginning with the tonal
music of the Baroque era, is often referred to as belonging to the
common practice period.
Classical music era
Main article: Classical period (music)
The music of the Classical period is characterized by homophonic
texture, or an obvious melody with accompaniment. These new melodies
tended to be almost voice-like and singable, allowing composers to
actually replace singers as the focus of the music. Instrumental music
therefore quickly replaced opera and other sung forms (such as
oratorio) as the favorite of the musical audience and the epitome of
great composition. However, opera did not disappear: during the
classical period, several composers began producing operas for the
general public in their native languages (previous operas were
generally in Italian).
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's compositions characterized music of the
Along with the gradual displacement of the voice in favor of stronger,
clearer melodies, counterpoint also typically became a decorative
flourish, often used near the end of a work or for a single movement.
In its stead, simple patterns, such as arpeggios and, in piano music,
Alberti bass (an accompaniment with a repeated pattern typically in
the left hand), were used to liven the movement of the piece without
creating a confusing additional voice. The now-popular instrumental
music was dominated by several well-defined forms: the sonata, the
symphony, and the concerto, though none of these were specifically
defined or taught at the time as they are now in music theory. All
three derive from sonata form, which is both the overlying form of an
entire work and the structure of a single movement. Sonata form
matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of
instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century.
The early Classical period was ushered in by the Mannheim School,
which included such composers as Johann Stamitz, Franz Xaver Richter,
Carl Stamitz, and Christian Cannabich. It exerted a profound influence
Joseph Haydn and, through him, on all subsequent European music.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was the central figure of the Classical
period, and his phenomenal and varied output in all genres defines our
perception of the period.
Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven and
Franz Schubert were
transitional composers, leading into the Romantic period, with their
expansion of existing genres, forms, and even functions of music.
Main article: Romantic music
The title character from a 19th-century performance of Wagner's opera
In the Romantic period, music became more expressive and emotional,
expanding to encompass literature, art, and philosophy. Famous early
Romantic composers include Schumann, Chopin, Mendelssohn, Bellini, and
Berlioz. The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of
the orchestra, and in the role of concerts as part of urban society.
Famous composers from the second half of the century include Johann
Strauss II, Brahms, Liszt, Tchaikovsky, Verdi, and Wagner. Between
1890 and 1910, a third wave of composers including Dvořák, Mahler,
Richard Strauss, Puccini, and Sibelius built on the work of middle
Romantic composers to create even more complex – and often much
longer – musical works. A prominent mark of late 19th century
music is its nationalistic fervor, as exemplified by such figures as
Dvořák, Sibelius, and Grieg. Other prominent late-century figures
include Saint-Saëns, Fauré, Rachmaninoff and Franck.
20th and 21st-century music
Main article: 20th-century music
The 20th century saw a revolution in music listening as the radio
gained popularity worldwide and new media and technologies were
developed to record, capture, reproduce and distribute music. Music
performances became increasingly visual with the broadcast and
recording of music videos and concerts. Music of all
kinds also became increasingly portable. Headphones allowed people
sitting next to each other to listen to entirely different
performances or share the same performance.
20th-century music brought a new freedom and wide experimentation with
new musical styles and forms that challenged the accepted rules of
music of earlier periods. The invention of musical
amplification and electronic instruments, especially the synthesizer,
in the mid-20th century revolutionized popular music and accelerated
the development of new forms of music.
As for classical music, two fundamental schools determined the course
of the century: that of
Arnold Schoenberg and that of Igor
Contemporary classical music and History of sound recording
Classical music outside Europe
Main article: Classical music
Classical music is a broad, imprecise category, including music
produced in, or rooted in the traditions of art, ecclesiastical and
concert music. A music is classical if it includes some of the
following features: a learned tradition, support from the church or
government, or greater cultural capital.
Classical music is also
described as complex, lasting, transcendent, and abstract.[citation
needed] In many cultures a classical tradition coexisted with
traditional or popular music, occasionally for thousands of years, and
with different levels of mutual borrowing with the parallel tradition.
Main article: African music
African music is by a strong rhythmic interest that
exhibits common characteristics in all regions of this vast territory,
so that Arthur Morris Jones (1889–1980) has described the many local
approaches as constituting one main system. C. K. also affirms the
profound homogeneity of approach. West African rhythmic techniques
carried over the Atlantic were fundamental ingredients in various
musical styles of the Americas: samba, forró, maracatu and coco in
Brazil, Afro-Cuban music and Afro-American musical genres such as
blues, jazz, rhythm & blues, funk, soul, reggae, hip hop and rock
and roll were thereby of immense importance in 20th-century popular
Main article: Byzantine music
Byzantine music (Greek: Βυζαντινή Μουσική) is the
music of the Byzantine Empire composed to Greek texts as ceremonial,
festival, or church music. Greek and foreign historians agree that the
ecclesiastical tones and in general the whole system of Byzantine
music is closely related to the ancient Greek system. It remains the
oldest genre of extant music, of which the manner of performance and
(with increasing accuracy from the 5th century onwards) the names of
the composers, and sometimes the particulars of each musical work's
circumstances, are known.
Main article: Asian music
Asian music covers the music cultures of Arabia, Central Asia, East
Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.
See also: Gagaku, Gamelan, Music of Korea § Classical music, and
Main article: Indian classical music
Indian music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world.
Indus Valley civilization
Indus Valley civilization left sculptures which show dance and
musical instruments (some no longer in use), like the seven holed
flute. Various types of stringed instruments and drums have been
Harrappa and Mohenjo Daro by excavations carried out by
Sir Mortimer Wheeler. The
Rigveda has elements of present Indian
music, with a musical notation to denote the metre and the mode of
chanting. Early Indian musical tradition also speaks of three
accents and vocal music known as "Samagan" (Sama meaning melody and
Gan meaning to sing). The classical music of India includes two
major traditions: the southern
Carnatic music and the northern
Hindustani classical music. India's classical music tradition is
millennia long and remains important to the lives of Indians today as
a source of religious inspiration, cultural expression, and
Indian classical music
Indian classical music (marga) is monophonic, and based on a single
melody line or raga rhythmically organized through talas. Carnatic
music is largely devotional; the majority of the songs are addressed
Hindu deities. There are a lot of songs emphasising love and
other social issues. In contrast to Carnatic music, Hindustani music
was not only influenced by ancient
Hindu musical traditions, Vedic
philosophy and native Indian sounds but also by the Persian
performance practices of the Afghan Mughals. The origins of Indian
classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of
Hindu tradition, the Vedas. Samaveda, one of the four vedas
describes music at length.
Main article: Chinese classical music
Chinese classical music
Chinese classical music is the traditional art or court music of
China. It has a long history stretching for more than three thousand
years. It has its own unique systems of musical notation, as well as
musical tuning and pitch, musical instruments and styles or musical
genres. Chinese music is pentatonic-diatonic, having a scale of twelve
notes to an octave (5+7 = 12) as does European-influenced
Arab classical music
Arab classical music and Andalusian classical music
Ancient Iranians attached great importance to music and poetry. 7th
century plate depicts
Sassanid era musicians. The British Museum.
Main article: Persian traditional music
Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries:
musiqi, the science and art of music, and muzik, the sound and
performance of music (Sakata 1983). See: Music of Iran, Music of
Afghanistan, Music of Tajikistan, Music of Uzbekistan.
To the right are some music samples.
Monteverdi - cruda amarilli
Monteverdi's Cruda Amarilli is an example of polyphonic Renaissance
Problems playing this file? See media help.
Pachelbel's Canon in D major is built on ground bass, a common method
in the Baroque period.
"Hallelujah" from Messiah
The "Hallelujah" Chorus from Georg Frideric Handel's Messiah is an
example of Baroque vocal music.
Problems playing these files? See media help.
Symphony No. 40, 1st mvt.
The opening movement of Mozart's 40th
Symphony is in sonata form.
Problems playing this file? See media help.
Tristan und Isolde
The prelude to Richard Wagner's
Tristan und Isolde
Tristan und Isolde is an example of
Problems playing this file? See media help.
^ Wallin, Nils Lennart; Steven Brown;
Björn Merker (2001). The
Origins of Music. Cambridge: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-73143-6.
^ Krause, Bernie. (2012). "The Great Animal Orchestra: Finding the
Origins of Music in the World's Wild Places," Little Brown/Hachette,
^ Hoppál 2006: 143 Archived 2015-04-02 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Diószegi 1960: 203
^ a b Nattiez: 5
^ 4.3.02, Bruno Desch�nes -. "Inuit Throat-Singing".
www.mustrad.org.uk. Retrieved 28 March 2018. replacement
character in first= at position 12 (help)
^ Conard, NJ (2009). "A female figurine from the basal Aurignacian of
Hohle Fels Cave in southwestern Germany". Nature. 459 (7244):
248–52. doi:10.1038/nature07995. PMID 19444215.
^ Wilford, John N. (June 24, 2009). "Flutes Offer Clues to Stone-Age
Music". The New York Times. Retrieved June 29, 2009.
^ "Schwäbische Alb: Älteste Flöte vom Hohle Fels". epoc.de.
Retrieved 28 March 2018.
^ "Wooden pipe find excites Irish archaeologists". abc.net.au. 10 May
2004. Retrieved 28 March 2018.
^ Kilmer, Crocker, Brown, Sounds from Silence, 1976, Bit Enki,
Berkeley, Calif., LCC 76-16729
^ Massey, Reginald; Massey, Jamila (28 March 1996). "The Music of
India". Abhinav Publications. Retrieved 28 March 2018 – via Google
^ Easton's Bible Dictionary, "Music", 1897
^ a b "A Theatre Before the World: Performance History at the
Intersection of Hebrew, Greek, and Roman Religious Processional" The
Journal of Religion and Theatre, Vol. 5, No. 1, Summer 2006.
^ World Music: The Basics By Nidel Nidel, Richard O. Nidel (page 219)
^ World History: Societies of the Past By Charles Kahn (page 98)
^ World History: Societies of the Past By Charles Kahn (page 11)
^ World Music: The Basics By Nidel Nidel, Richard O. Nidel (page 10)
Music of India
Music of India By Jamila Massey, Reginald Massey (page 13)
Sakata. 1983.[full citation needed].
Lee, Yuan-Yuan and Shen, Sinyan. (1999). Chinese Musical Instruments
(Chinese Music Monograph Series). Chinese Music Society of North
America Press. ISBN 1-880464-03-9
Shen, Sinyan (1987). "Acoustics of Ancient Chinese Bells". Scientific
American. 256: 94. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0487-104.
Merker, Brown, Steven, eds. (2000). The Origins of Music. The MIT
Press. ISBN 0-262-23206-5.
Reese, Gustave (1954). Music in the Renaissance. New York, W.W. Norton
& Co. ISBN 0-393-09530-4.
Bangayan, Phil, Bonet, Giselle and Ghosemajumder, Shuman (2002)
"Digital Music Distribution" (History of the Recorded Music Industry),
MIT Sloan School of Management.
Hoppin, Richard H. (1978).
Medieval Music. New York, W.W. Norton &
Co. ISBN 0-393-09090-6.
Schwartz, Elliot and Godfrey, Daniel (1993). Music Since 1945. United
States, Simon & Schuster Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-873040-2
Kilmer, Crocker, Brown, Sounds from Silence, 1976, Bit Enki, Berkeley,
Calif., LCC 76-16729.
Helmholtz, Sensations of Tone Dover.
Harman, Carter (1956). A Popular History of Music: From Gregorian
Chant to Jazz. Dell. The author was a music reporter for the New
York Times and music editor of Time, as well as a composer.
The Dictionary of the History of Ideas see Music and Science, Music as
a Demonic Art, Music as a Divine Art
Edinburgh University Collection of Historic Musical Instruments
Essentials of Music Classical Music eras, composers, glossary from
Sony Music Entertainment
Glossary of Musical Instruments & Styles and Quotes from
Historic American Sheet Music
Lester S. Levy Sheet Music Collection popular American music,
Music History Resources at GeoCities.com
The Music History Webring
The New Baroque and
Renaissance Music Website at GeoCities.com
National Music Museum from the University of South Dakota
Tim Gracyk's Phonographs and Old Records
U.S. popular music timeline
Music History on Enjoy the Music.com
History of music
History of music and
Hip hop music
Band (rock and pop)
Education and study
Bachelor of Music
Master of Music
Doctor of Musical Arts
A-side and B-side
Music technology (electric)
Music technology (electronic and digital)
Sound recording and reproduction
By sovereign state
Antigua and Barbuda
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Central African Republic
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Federated States of Micronesia
Papua New Guinea
Republic of Macedonia
Republic of the Congo
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
São Tomé and Príncipe
Trinidad and Tobago
United Arab Emirates
Musical forms by era
Cultural and regional genres
Popular music genres
Jazz and popular music glossary
Music and politics
Women in music
Definition and history
History of music
Periods and eras
Modern and contemporary
20th century classical music
Modern (Impressionist, Expressionist)
Contemporary classical music (Postmodern music, New-age music)
21st-century classical music
Classical music by country
Lists: Composers by era · Festivals · Movements · Music students by