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During its long history, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been attacked 52 times, captured and recaptured 44 times, besieged 23 times, and destroyed twice.[1] The oldest part of the city was settled in the 4th millennium BCE, making Jerusalem
Jerusalem
one of the oldest cities in the world.[2] Given the city's central position in both Israeli nationalism and Palestinian nationalism, the selectivity required to summarize more than 5,000 years of inhabited history is often[3][4] influenced by ideological bias or background (see Historiography and nationalism). For example, the Jewish periods of the city's history are important to Israeli nationalists, whose discourse states that modern Jews
Jews
descend from the Israelites
Israelites
and Maccabees,[Note 1][Note 2] while the Islamic periods of the city's history are important to Palestinian nationalists, whose discourse suggests that modern Palestinians descend from all the different peoples who have lived in the region.[Note 3][Note 4] As a result, both sides claim the history of the city has been politicized by the other in order to strengthen their relative claims to the city,[3][3][4][9][10] and that this is borne out by the different focuses the different writers place on the various events and eras in the city's history.

Contents

1 Ancient period

1.1 Proto-Canaanite period 1.2 Canaanite and New Kingdom
New Kingdom
Egyptian period 1.3 Independent Israel and Judah (House of David) period 1.4 Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires period 1.5 Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period

2 Classical antiquity

2.1 Hellenistic Kingdoms (Ptolemaic/Seleucid) period 2.2 Hasmonean
Hasmonean
Period 2.3 Roman Jerusalem 2.4 Roman Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina
period 2.5 Post-Crisis Roman and Early Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire period

3 Middle Ages

3.1 Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates period 3.2 Fatimid
Fatimid
period 3.3 Seljuk period 3.4 Crusader period 3.5 Ayyubid, Bahri Mamluk and Burji Mamluk period

4 Early modern period

4.1 Early Ottoman period

5 Modern era

5.1 Decline of the Ottoman Empire 5.2 British Mandate period 5.3 Partition between Israel and Jordan

6 Division between Jordan and Israel (1948–1967) 7 State of Israel 8 Graphical overview of Jerusalem's historical periods 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Ancient period Proto-Canaanite period Further information: Canaan

Ú-ru-sa-lim inscription in the Amarna letters, 14th century BCE

Archaeological evidence suggests that the first settlement was established near Gihon Spring
Gihon Spring
between 4500–3500 BCE. The first known mention of the city was in c. 2000 BCE in the Middle Kingdom Egyptian Execration Texts
Execration Texts
in which the city was recorded as Rusalimum.[11][12] The root S-L-M
S-L-M
in the name is thought to refer to either "peace" (compare with modern Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew) or Shalim, the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion. Canaanite and New Kingdom
New Kingdom
Egyptian period Further information: City of David Archaeological evidence suggests that by the 17th century BCE, the Canaanites
Canaanites
had built massive walls (4 and 5 ton boulders, 26 feet high) on the eastern side of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to protect their ancient water system.[13] By c. 1550–1400 BCE, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
had become a vassal to Egypt
Egypt
after the Egyptian New Kingdom
New Kingdom
under Ahmose I
Ahmose I
and Thutmose I
Thutmose I
had reunited Egypt
Egypt
and expanded into the Levant. The Amarna letters
Amarna letters
contain correspondence from Abdi-Heba, headman[14] of Urusalim and his suzerain Amenhotep III. The power of the Egyptians in the region began to decline in the 12th century BCE, during the Bronze Age collapse. The Battle of Djahy ( Djahy being the Egyptian name for Canaan) in 1178 BCE between Ramesses III
Ramesses III
and the Sea Peoples
Sea Peoples
marked the beginning of this decline. The gradual loss of a central power gave rise to independent kingdoms in the region. According to the Bible, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at this time was known as Jebus and its independent Canaanite inhabitants at this time were known as Jebusites. Independent Israel and Judah (House of David) period Main article: History of ancient Israel and Judah

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According to the Bible, the Israelite
Israelite
history of the city began in c. 1000 BCE, with King David's sack of Jerusalem, following which Jerusalem
Jerusalem
became the City of David
City of David
and capital of the United Kingdom of Israel.[11] According to the Books of Samuel, the Jebusites managed to resist attempts by the Israelites
Israelites
to capture the city, and by the time of King David
King David
were mocking such attempts, claiming that even the blind and lame could defeat the Israelite
Israelite
army. Nevertheless, the masoretic text for the Books of Samuel
Books of Samuel
states that David managed to capture the city by stealth, sending his forces through a "water shaft" and attacking the city from the inside. Archaeologists now view this as implausible as the Gihon spring
Gihon spring
– the only known location from which water shafts lead into the city – is now known to have been heavily defended (and hence an attack via this route would have been obvious rather than secretive). The older[citation needed] Septuagint
Septuagint
text, however, suggests that rather than by a water shaft, David's forces defeated the Jebusites by using daggers rather than through the water tunnels coming through the Gihon spring. There was another king in Jerusalem, Araunah, during, and possibly before, David's control of the city, according to the biblical narrative,[15] who was probably the Jebusite king of Jerusalem.[16] The city, which at that point stood upon the Ophel, was, according to the biblical account, expanded to the south, and declared by David to be the capital city of the Kingdom of Israel. David also, according to the Books of Samuel, constructed an altar at the location of a threshing floor he had purchased from Araunah; a portion of biblical scholars view this as an attempt by the narrative's author to give an Israelite foundation to a pre-existing sanctuary.[17] Later, according to the biblical narrative, King Solomon
Solomon
built a more substantive temple, the Temple of Solomon, at a location which the Book of Chronicles
Book of Chronicles
equates with David's altar. The Temple became a major cultural centre in the region; eventually, particularly after religious reforms such as those of Hezekiah
Hezekiah
and of Josiah, the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
temple became the main place of worship, at the expense of other, formerly powerful, ritual centres, such as Shiloh and Bethel. However, according to K. L. Noll, in Canaan
Canaan
and Israel in Antiquity: A Textbook on History and Religion, the Biblical account of the centralization of worship in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is a fiction, although by the time of Josiah, the territory he ruled was so small that the Jerusalem temple became de facto the only shrine left.[18] Solomon
Solomon
is also described as having created several other important building works at Jerusalem, including the construction of his palace, and the construction of the Millo
Millo
(the identity of which is somewhat controversial). Archaeologists are divided over whether the biblical narrative is supported by the evidence from excavations.[19] Eilat Mazar contends that her digging uncovered remains of large stone buildings from the correct time period, while Israel Finkelstein disputes both the interpretation and the dating of the finds.[20][21] When the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
split from the larger Kingdom of Israel (which the Bible
Bible
places near the end of the reign of Solomon, c. 930 BCE, though Israel Finkelstein
Israel Finkelstein
and others dispute the very existence of a unified monarchy to begin with[22]), Jerusalem
Jerusalem
became the capital of the Kingdom of Judah, while the Kingdom of Israel located its capital at Shechem
Shechem
in Samaria. Thomas L. Thompson argues that it only became a city and capable of acting as a state capital in the middle of the 7th century.[23] Both the Bible
Bible
and regional archaeological evidence suggest the region was politically unstable during the period 925–732 BCE. In 925 BCE, the region was invaded by Egyptian Pharaoh Sheshonk I
Sheshonk I
of the Third Intermediate Period, who is possibly the same as Shishak, the first Pharaoh mentioned in the Bible
Bible
who captured and pillaged Jerusalem. Around 75 years later, Jerusalem's forces were likely involved in an indecisive battle against the Neo-Assyrian King Shalmaneser III in the Battle of Qarqar. According to the bible, Jehoshaphat
Jehoshaphat
of Judah was allied to Ahab
Ahab
of the Northern Kingdom of Israel
Northern Kingdom of Israel
at this time. The Bible
Bible
records that shortly after this battle, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was sacked by Philistines, Arabs and Ethiopians, who looted King Jehoram's house, and carried off all of his family except for his youngest son Jehoahaz. Two decades later, most of Canaan
Canaan
including Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was conquered by Hazael
Hazael
of Aram Damascus. According to the Bible, Jehoash of Judah
Jehoash of Judah
gave all of Jerusalem's treasures as a tribute, but Hazael
Hazael
proceeded to destroy "all the princes of the people" in the city. And half a century later, the city was sacked by Jehoash of Israel, who destroyed the walls and took Amaziah of Judah
Amaziah of Judah
prisoner. By the end of the First Temple Period, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was the sole acting religious shrine in the kingdom and a centre of regular pilgrimage; a fact which archaeologists generally view as being corroborated by the evidence,[citation needed] though there remained a more personal cult involving Asherah
Asherah
figures, which are found spread throughout the land right up to the end of this era.[22] Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian Empires period Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was the capital of the Kingdom of Judah
Kingdom of Judah
for some 400 years. It had survived an Assyrian siege in 701 BCE by Sennacherib, unlike Samaria, the capital of the northern Kingdom of Israel, that had fallen some twenty years previously. According to the Bible, this was a miraculous event in which an angel killed 185,000 men in Sennacherib's army. According to Sennacherib's own account preserved in the Taylor prism, an inscription contemporary with the event, the king of Judah, Hezekiah, was "shut up in the city like a caged bird" and eventually persuaded Sennacherib
Sennacherib
to leave by sending him "30 talents of gold and 800 talents of silver, and diverse treasures, a rich and immense booty". The siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 597 BCE led to the city being overcome by the Babylonians, who then took the young King Jehoiachin
Jehoiachin
into Babylonian captivity, together with most of the aristocracy. Zedekiah, who had been placed on the throne by Nebuchadnezzar (the Babylonian king), rebelled, and Nebuchadnezzar, who at the time (587/586 BCE) was ruler of a most powerful empire, recaptured the city, killed Zedekiah's descendants in front of him, and plucked out Zedekiah's eyes so that that would be the last thing he ever saw. The Babylonians
Babylonians
then took Zedekiah
Zedekiah
into captivity, along with prominent members of Judah. The Babylonians
Babylonians
then burnt the temple, destroyed the city's walls, and appointed Gedaliah son of Achikam as governor of Judah. After 52 days of rule, Yishmael, son of Netaniah, a surviving descendant of Zedekiah, assassinated Gedaliah after encouragement by Baalis, the king of Ammon. Some of the remaining population of Judah, fearing the vengeance of Nebuchadnezzar, fled to Egypt. Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period

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See also: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Achaemenid period

Judean silver Yehud
Yehud
coin (ma'ah) from the Persian era with an Aramaic inscription "יהד" ( Yehud
Yehud
"Judea") and a lily as a symbol of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on the reverse

According to the Bible, and perhaps corroborated by the Cyrus Cylinder, after several decades of captivity in Babylon and the Achaemenid conquest of Babylonia, Cyrus II of Persia allowed the Jews
Jews
to return to Judah and rebuild the Temple. The books of Ezra-Nehemiah
Ezra-Nehemiah
record that the construction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
was finished in the sixth year of Darius the Great
Darius the Great
(516 BCE), following which Artaxerxes I sent Ezra
Ezra
and then Nehemiah
Nehemiah
to rebuild the city's walls and to govern the Yehud
Yehud
province within the Eber-Nari
Eber-Nari
satrapy. These events represent the final chapter in the historical narrative of the Hebrew Bible.[24] During this period, Aramaic-inscribed " Yehud
Yehud
coinage" were produced – these are believed to have been minted in or near Jerusalem, although none of the coins bear a mint mark. Classical antiquity See also: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Second Temple
Second Temple
Period Hellenistic Kingdoms (Ptolemaic/Seleucid) period When Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
conquered the Persian Empire, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Judea
Judea
fell under Greek control and Hellenistic influence. After the Wars of the Diadochoi following Alexander's death, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Judea fell under Ptolemaic control under Ptolemy I and continued minting Yehud
Yehud
coinage. In 198 BCE, as a result of the Battle of Panium, Ptolemy V lost Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Judea
Judea
to the Seleucids under Antiochus the Great.

Prutah
Prutah
of John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus
(134 to 104 BCE) with the ancient Hebrew inscription "Yehochanan Kohen Gadol
Kohen Gadol
Chaver Hayehudim" ("Yehochanan the High Priest, Chaver of the Jews")

Under the Seleucids many Jews
Jews
had become Hellenized
Hellenized
and with their assistance tried to Hellenize Jerusalem, eventually culminating in a rebellion by the High Priest Matityahu ben Yoḥanan and his five sons: Simon, Yochanan, Eleazar, Jonathan and Yehuda ha-Makabi, also known as the Maccabees. As a result of the rebellion, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
became the capital of the independent Hasmonean
Hasmonean
Kingdom. Hasmonean
Hasmonean
Period The Hasmonean
Hasmonean
Kingdom lasted for 103 years. It was ruled by Simon Maccabaeus, the son of Matityahu; then by his son Yochanan, known as John Hyrcanus, who started minting his own Hasmonean
Hasmonean
coins; then by his son Yehuda Aristobulus; then by his wife Salome Alexandra; then by his brother Alexander Yannai; then by his sons Hyrcanus II
Hyrcanus II
and Aristobulus II. When the brothers Hyrcanus and Aristobulus each asked for Rome
Rome
to intervene on their behalf, Judea
Judea
fell under the greater rule of Rome
Rome
as an autonomous province but still with a significant amount of independence. The last Hasmonean
Hasmonean
king was Aristobulus' son Antigonus II Matityahu.

Prutah
Prutah
of Agrippa I. with Greek inscription "of king Agrippa"

Roman Jerusalem In 37 BCE, Herod the Great
Herod the Great
captured Jerusalem
Jerusalem
after forty-day siege, ending Hasmonean
Hasmonean
rule. Herod ruled the Province of Judea
Judea
as a client-king of the Romans, rebuilt the Second Temple, upgraded the surrounding complex, and expanded the minting of coins to many denominations. Pliny the Elder, writing of Herod's achievements, called Jerusalem
Jerusalem
"the most famous by far of the Eastern cities and not only the cities of Judea." The Talmud comments that "He who has not seen the Temple of Herod
Temple of Herod
has never seen a beautiful building in his life." And Tacitus
Tacitus
wrote that " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is the capital of the Jews. In it was a Temple possessing enormous riches."[25] Herod also built Caesarea Maritima
Caesarea Maritima
which replaced Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as the capital of the Roman province.[Note 5] In 6 CE, following Herod's death in 4 BCE, Judea
Judea
and the city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
came under direct Roman rule through Roman prefects, procurators, and legates (see List of Hasmonean
Hasmonean
and Herodian rulers). Nevertheless, Herod's descendants remained nominal kings of Iudaea Province
Iudaea Province
as Agrippa I (41–44) and Agrippa II (48–100).

First Jewish revolt
First Jewish revolt
shekel issued in 68, saying " Shekel
Shekel
Israel, year 3", and on the reverse: " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the Holy".

Sack of Jerusalem. Inside wall from the Arch of Titus, Rome. The Menorah from the Temple is seen being carried in the victory procession.

In 66 CE, the Jewish population rebelled against the Roman Empire in what is now known as the First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
or Great Revolt. Roman legions under future emperor Titus
Titus
reconquered and subsequently destroyed much of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 70 CE. Also the Second Temple
Second Temple
was burnt and all that remained was the great external (retaining) walls supporting the esplanade on which the Temple had stood, a portion of which has become known as the Western Wall. Titus' victory is commemorated by the Arch of Titus
Arch of Titus
in Rome. Agrippa II died c. 94 CE, which brought the Herodian dynasty
Herodian dynasty
to an end almost thirty years after the destruction of the Second Temple. After the end of this revolt, Jews
Jews
continued to live in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in significant numbers,[citation needed] and were allowed to practice their religion, only if they paid the Jewish Tax.

Judaea Capta coin of Vespasian, struck in 71 to celebrate Rome's victory in the First Jewish-Roman War. Legend on reverse: IVDEA CAPTA, "Judaea conquered".

In the 1st century CE, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
became the birthplace of Early Christianity. According to the New Testament, it is the location of the crucifixion, resurrection and Ascension of Jesus
Ascension of Jesus
Christ (see also Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Christianity). It was in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
that, according to the Acts of the Apostles, the Apostles of Christ received the Holy Spirit at Pentecost
Pentecost
and first began preaching the Gospel
Gospel
and proclaiming his resurrection. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
eventually became an early centers of Christianity and home to one of the five Patriarchates of the Christian Church. After the Great Schism, it remained a part of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Roman Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina
period

Bar Kochba revolt
Bar Kochba revolt
silver shekel, with the Jewish Temple facade and a rising star, surrounded by "Shimon" (obverse). The reverse shows a lulav and the words "To the, freedom of Jerusalem".

See also: Aelia Capitolina What is today known as the "Old City" was laid out by the Roman Emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
in the 2nd century, when he began to rebuild Jerusalem as a pagan city. In 130, Hadrian
Hadrian
visited the ruins of Jerusalem remaining after the First Jewish-Roman War
First Jewish-Roman War
of 66–73. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina
in 135 CE. Hadrian
Hadrian
placed the city's main Roman Forum
Roman Forum
at the junction of the main Cardo
Cardo
and Decumanus, now the location of the (smaller) Muristan. Hadrian
Hadrian
built a large temple to Jupiter Capitolinus, which later became the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[27] He placed restrictions on some Jewish practices, which caused a revolt by the Judeans, led by Simon Bar Kokhba. Hadrian
Hadrian
responded with overwhelming force, putting down the rebellion, killing as many as a half million Jews, and resettling the city as a Roman colonia. Jews
Jews
were forbidden to enter the city but for a single day of the year, Tisha B'Av, (the Ninth of Av), the fast day on which Jews
Jews
mourn the destruction of both Temples. For the next 150 years, the city remained a relatively unimportant pagan Roman town. Post-Crisis Roman and Early Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire period The Emperor Constantine, however, rebuilt Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as a Christian center of worship, building the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
in 335. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
had received special recognition in Canon VII of the First Council of Nicaea
First Council of Nicaea
in 325. Constantine's mother, Helena, made a pilgrimage to the city and claimed to have recovered the cross of Christ. Jews
Jews
were still banned from the city throughout the remainder of its time as a Roman province, except during a brief period of Persian rule from 614 to 629. Middle Ages Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates period Main article: History of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Middle Ages)

Map of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as it appeared in the years 958–1052, according to Arab
Arab
geographers such as al-Muqaddasi

The Hereford
Hereford
Mapa Mundi, depicting Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at the centre of the world

Although the Qur'an
Qur'an
does not mention the name "Jerusalem", the hadith assert that it was from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
that Muhammad
Muhammad
ascended to heaven in the Night Journey, or Isra and Miraj.[citation needed] The city was one of the Arab
Arab
Caliphate's first conquests in 638 CE; according to Arab
Arab
historians of the time, the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab personally went to the city to receive its submission, cleaning out and praying at the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in the process. Sixty years later the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
was built, a structure enshrining a stone from which Muhammad
Muhammad
is said to have ascended to heaven during the Isra. (The octagonal and gold-sheeted Dome is not the Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
to the south, the latest version of which was built more than three centuries later). Umar ibn al-Khattab
Umar ibn al-Khattab
also allowed the Jews
Jews
back into the city and freedom to live and worship after four hundred years. Under the early centuries of Muslim rule, especially during the Umayyad (650–750) and Abbasid (750–969) dynasties, the city prospered; geographers Ibn Hawqal
Ibn Hawqal
and al-Istakhri (10th century) describe it as "the most fertile province of Palestine",[citation needed] while its native son, the geographer al-Muqaddasi (born 946) devoted many pages to its praises in his most famous work, The Best Divisions in the Knowledge of the Climes. Under Muslim rule Jerusalem did not achieve the political or cultural status enjoyed by the capitals Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo etc. Interestingly, al-Muqaddasi derives his name from the Arabic name for Jerusalem, Bayt al-Muqaddas, which is linguistically equivalent to the Hebrew Beit Ha-Mikdash, the Holy House. Fatimid
Fatimid
period The early Arab
Arab
period was also one of religious tolerance.[citation needed] However, in the early 11th century, the Egyptian Fatimid Caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
ordered the destruction of all churches. In 1033, there was another earthquake, severely damaging the Al-Aqsa Mosque. The Fatimid
Fatimid
caliph Ali az-Zahir
Ali az-Zahir
rebuilt and completely renovated the mosque between 1034 and 1036. The number of naves was drastically reduced from fifteen to seven.[28] Az-Zahir built the four arcades of the central hall and aisle, which presently serve as the foundation of the mosque. The central aisle was double the width of the other aisles and had a large gable roof upon which the dome—made of wood—was constructed.[29] Persian geographer, Nasir Khusraw describes the Aqsa Mosque during a visit in 1047: The Haram Area (Noble Sanctuary) lies in the eastern part of the city; and through the bazaar of this (quarter) you enter the Area by a great and beautiful gateway (Dargah)... After passing this gateway, you have on the right two great colonnades (Riwaq), each of which has nine-and-twenty marble pillars, whose capitals and bases are of colored marbles, and the joints are set in lead. Above the pillars rise arches, that are constructed, of masonry, without mortar or cement, and each arch is constructed of no more than five or six blocks of stone. These colonnades lead down to near the Maqsurah.[30] Seljuk period Under Az-Zahir's successur al-Mustansir Billah, the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate entered a period of instability and decline, as factions fought for power in Cairo. In 1071, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was captured by the Turkish warlord warlord Atsiz ibn Uvaq, who seized most of Syria and Palestine as part of the expansion of the Seljuk Turks
Seljuk Turks
throughout the Middle East. As the Turks were staunch Sunnis, they were opposed not only to the Fatimids, but also to the numerous Shia Muslims, who saw themselves removed from dominance after a century of Fatimid
Fatimid
rule. In 1176, riots between Sunnis and Shiites in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
led to a massacre of the latter. Although the Christians of the city were left unmolested, and allowed access to the Christian holy sites, the wars with Byzantium and the general instability in Syria impeded the arrival pilgrims from Europe. The Seljuks also forbade the repair of any church, despite the damages suffered in the recent turmoils. There does not appear to have been a significant Jewish community in the city at this time. In 1086, the Seljuk emir of Damascus, Tutush I, appointed Artuk Bey governor of Jerusalem. Artuk died in 1091, and his sons Sökmen and Ilghazi succeeded him. In August 1098, while the Seljuks were distracted by the arrival of the First Crusade
First Crusade
in Syria, the Fatimids under vizier al-Afdal Shahanshah appeared before the city and laid siege to it. After six weeks, the Seljuk garrison capitulated and was allowed to leave for Damascus
Damascus
and Diyar Bakr. The Fatimid
Fatimid
takeover was followed by the expulsion of most of the Sunnis, in which many of them were also killed. Crusader period Main article: History of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Crusader period Fatimid
Fatimid
control of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
ended when it was captured by Crusaders in July 1099. The capture was accompanied by a massacre of almost all of the Muslim and Jewish inhabitants. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
became the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Godfrey of Bouillon, was elected Lord of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on 22 July 1099, but did not assume the royal crown and died a year later.[31] Barons offered the lordship of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Godfrey's brother Baldwin, Count of Edessa, who had himself crowned by the Patriarch Daimbert on Christmas Day 1100 in the basilica of Bethlehem.[31] Christian settlers from the West set about rebuilding the principal shrines associated with the life of Christ. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was ambitiously rebuilt as a great Romanesque church, and Muslim shrines on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
(the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
and the al-Aqsa Mosque) were converted for Christian purposes. It is during this period of Frankish occupation that the Military Orders of the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
and the Knights Templar
Knights Templar
have their beginnings. Both grew out of the need to protect and care for the great influx of pilgrims travelling to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the 12th century. Ayyubid, Bahri Mamluk and Burji Mamluk period The Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
lasted until 1291; however, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
itself was recaptured by Saladin
Saladin
in 1187 (see Siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(1187)), who permitted worship of all religions. According to Rabbi Elijah of Chelm, German Jews
Jews
lived in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the 11th century. The story is told that a German-speaking Jew saved the life of a young German man surnamed Dolberger. Thus when the knights of the First Crusade came to besiege Jerusalem, one of Dolberger's family members rescued Jews
Jews
in Palestine and carried them back to the German city of Worms to repay the favor.[32] Further evidence of German communities in the holy city comes in the form of halakic questions sent from Germany to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the second half of the 11th century.[33]

Medieval Tower of David
Tower of David
(Migdal David) in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
today

In 1173 Benjamin of Tudela
Benjamin of Tudela
visited Jerusalem. He described it as a small city full of Jacobites, Armenians, Greeks, and Georgians. Two hundred Jews
Jews
dwelt in a corner of the city under the Tower of David. In 1219 the walls of the city were razed by order of al-Mu'azzam, the Ayyubid sultan of Damascus. This rendered Jerusalem
Jerusalem
defenseless and dealt a heavy blow to the city's status. The Ayyubids destroyed the walls in expectation of ceding the city to the Crusaders as part of a peace treaty. In 1229, by treaty with Egypt's ruler al-Kamil, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
came into the hands of Frederick II of Germany. In 1239, after a ten-year truce expired, he began to rebuild the walls; these were again demolished by an-Nasir Da'ud, the emir of Kerak, in the same year. In 1243 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
came again into the power of the Christians, and the walls were repaired. The Khwarezmian Empire took the city in 1244 and were in turn driven out by the Ayyubids in 1247. In 1260 the Mongols under Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan
engaged in raids into Palestine. It is unclear if the Mongols
Mongols
were ever in Jerusalem, as it was not seen as a settlement of strategic importance at the time. However, there are reports that some of the Jews
Jews
that were in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
temporarily fled to neighboring villages.[citation needed] In 1267 the Jewish Catalan sage Nahmanides
Nahmanides
travelled to Jerusalem. In the Old City he established the Ramban Synagogue, the second oldest active synagogue in Jerusalem, after that of the Karaite Jews
Jews
built about 300 years earlier. In the middle of the 13th century, Jerusalem was captured by the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate. Early modern period The first provincial or superior of the Franciscan religious order, founded by Francis of Assisi, was Brother Elia from Assisi. In the year 1219 the founder himself visited the region in order to preach the Gospel
Gospel
to the Muslims, seen as brothers and not enemies. The mission resulted in a meeting with the sultan of Egypt, Malik al-Kamil, who was surprised by his unusual behaviour. The Franciscan Province of the East extended to Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, and the Holy Land. Before the taking over of Acre (on 18 May 1291), Franciscan friaries were present at Acre, Sidon, Antioch, Tripoli, Jaffa, and Jerusalem.[34] From Cyprus, where they took refuge at the end of the Latin Kingdom, the Franciscans started planning a return to Jerusalem, given the good political relations between the Christian governments and the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Around the year 1333 the French friar Roger Guerin succeeded in buying the Cenacle[35] (the room where the Last Supper took place) on Mount Zion
Mount Zion
and some land to build a monastery nearby for the friars, using funds provided by the king and queen of Naples. With two papal bullae, Gratias Agimus and Nuper Carissimae, dated in Avignon, 21 November 1342, Pope Clement VI
Pope Clement VI
approved and created the new entity which would be known as the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land (Custodia Terrae Sanctae).[34][36] The friars, coming from any of the Order's provinces, under the jurisdiction of the father guardian (superior) of the monastery on Mount Zion, were present in Jerusalem, in the Cenacle, in the church of the Holy Sepulcher, and in the Basilica of the Nativity at Bethlehem. Their principal activity was to ensure liturgical life in these Christian sanctuaries and to give spiritual assistance to the pilgrims coming from the West, to European merchants resident or passing through the main cities of Egypt, Syria, and Lebanon, and to have a direct and authorized relation with the Eastern Christianity Oriental communities.[34]

View and Plan of Jerusalem. A woodcut in the Liber Chronicarum Mundi (Nuremberg 1493).

The monastery on Mount Zion
Mount Zion
was used by Brother Alberto da Sarteano for his papal mission for the union of the Oriental Christians (Greeks, Copts, and Ethiopians) with Rome
Rome
during the Council of Florence (1440). For the same reason the party guided by Brother Giovanni di Calabria halted in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on his way to meet the Christian Negus of Ethiopia
Ethiopia
(1482).[34] In 1482, the visiting Dominican priest Felix Fabri described Jerusalem as "a dwelling place of diverse nations of the world, and is, as it were, a collection of all manner of abominations". As "abominations" he listed Saracens, Greeks, Syrians, Jacobites, Abyssinians, Nestorians, Armenians, Gregorians, Maronites, Turcomans, Bedouins, Assassins, a possible Druze
Druze
sect and Mamluks. Christians and Jews alike in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
lived in great poverty and in conditions of great deprivation, there are not many Christians but there are many Jews, and these the Muslims persecute in various ways."[37] Only the Latin Christians "long with all their hearts for Christian princes to come and subject all the country to the authority of the Church of Rome".[38] In 1551 the Friars were expelled by the Turks[39] from the Cenacle
Cenacle
and from their adjoining monastery. However, they were granted permission to purchase a Georgian monastery of nuns in the northwest quarter of the city, which became the new center of the Custody in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and developed into the Latin Convent of Saint Saviour [40] (known as Dayr al Ātīn دير الاتين دير اللاتين Arabic)[41])[34]

Old Yishuv

Jewish life in the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
under Ottoman rule

Key events

Aliya of Nachmanides
Nachmanides
(1267) Alhambra (1492) Manuel I decree (1496) Hebron
Hebron
and Safed
Safed
massacres (1517) Revival of Tiberias
Tiberias
(1563) Sack of Tiberias
Tiberias
(1660) Hebron
Hebron
massacre (1834) Safed
Safed
attack (1838) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
expansion Moshavot establishment

Key figures

Ishtori Haparchi
Ishtori Haparchi
(d. 1313) Joseph Saragossi
Joseph Saragossi
(d. 1507) Obadiah MiBartenura (d. 1515) Levi ibn Habib
Levi ibn Habib
(d. 1545) Jacob Berab
Jacob Berab
(d. 1546) Joseph Nasi
Joseph Nasi
(d. 1579) Moses Galante (d. 1689) Moses ibn Habib (d. 1696) Yehuda he-Hasid
Yehuda he-Hasid
(d. 1700) Haim Abulafia (d. 1744) Menachem Mendel (d. 1788) Haim Farhi
Haim Farhi
(d. 1820) Jacob Saphir
Jacob Saphir
(d. 1886) Haim Aharon Valero (d. 1923)

Economy

Etrog cultivation Winemaking Banking Printing Soap production Textiles

Philanthropy

Kollel Halukka

Montefiore Judah Touro

Communities

Musta'arabim Sephardim Perushim Hasidim

Jerusalem

Mea Shearim Mishkenot Sha'ananim

Hebron Safed Tiberias Jaffa Haifa Peki'in Acco Shechem Gaza Kafr Yasif Shefa-'Amr Petah Tikva

Synagogues

Great Academy of Paris
Great Academy of Paris
(1258) Ramban (1267) Abuhav (1490s) Abraham Avinu (1540) Ari (1570s) Johanan ben Zakai (1600s) Hurva (1700) Tifereth Israel (1872)

Related articles

History of the Jews
Jews
and Judaism in the Land of Israel

Four Holy Cities Applicability of religious laws

History of Zionism

Timeline Pre-Modern Aliyah Return to Zion Three Oaths Haredim and Zionism

Edah HaChareidis ShaDaR

v t e

Early Ottoman period Main article: Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem In 1517, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was taken over by the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and enjoyed a period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent, including the construction of the walls of what is now known as the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(although some foundations were remains of genuine antique walls). The rule of Suleiman and subsequent Ottoman Sultans brought an age of "religious peace"; Jew, Christian and Muslim enjoyed freedom of religion and it was possible to find a synagogue, a church and a mosque on the same street. The city remained open to all religions, although the empire's faulty management after Suleiman the Magnificent meant economical stagnation.[citation needed] In 1700, Judah HeHasid led the largest organized group of Jewish immigrants to the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
in centuries. His disciples built the Hurva Synagogue, which served as the main synagogue in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
from the 18th century until 1948, when it was destroyed by the Arab Legion.[Note 6] The synagogue was rebuilt in 2010. Between 1703 and 1705, Jerusalem's Muslim religious leadership and the majority of its inhabitants revolted against the Ottoman governor of the district, Mehmed Pasha Kurd-Bayram in what became known as the Naqib al-Ashraf Revolt. During the course of the revolt, Jerusalem's residents administered their own affairs, engaging in virtual self-rule, until the central Ottoman authorities restored their control over the city.[citation needed] Modern era Decline of the Ottoman Empire See also: Departure from the walls In the mid-19th century, with the decline of the Ottoman Empire, the city was a backwater, with a population that did not exceed 8,000. Nevertheless, it was, even then, an extremely heterogeneous city because of its significance to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The population was divided into four major communities – Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Armenian – and the first three of these could be further divided into countless subgroups, based on precise religious affiliation or country of origin. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was meticulously partitioned between the Greek Orthodox, Catholic, Armenian, Coptic, and Ethiopian churches. Tensions between the groups ran so deep that the keys to the shrine and its doors were safeguarded by a pair of 'neutral' Muslim families. At the time, the communities were located mainly around their primary shrines. The Muslim community surrounded the Haram ash-Sharif
Haram ash-Sharif
or Temple Mount
Temple Mount
(northeast), the Christians lived mainly in the vicinity of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
(northwest), the Jews
Jews
lived mostly on the slope above the Western Wall
Western Wall
(southeast), and the Armenians lived near the Zion Gate
Zion Gate
(southwest). In no way was this division exclusive, though it did form the basis of the four quarters during the British Mandate (1917–1948).

1883 map of Jerusalem

Several changes with long-lasting effects on the city occurred in the mid-19th century: their implications can be felt today and lie at the root of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Israeli–Palestinian conflict
over Jerusalem. The first of these was a trickle of Jewish immigrants from the Middle East and Eastern Europe. The first such immigrants were Orthodox Jews: some were elderly individuals, who came to die in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and be buried on the Mount of Olives; others were students, who came with their families to await the coming of the Messiah, adding new life to the local population. At the same time, European colonial powers began seeking toeholds in the city, hoping to expand their influence pending the imminent collapse of the Ottoman Empire. This was also an age of Christian religious revival, and many churches sent missionaries to proselytize among the Muslim and especially the Jewish populations, believing that this would speed the Second Coming of Christ. Finally, the combination of European colonialism and religious zeal was expressed in a new scientific interest in the biblical lands in general and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in particular. Archeological and other expeditions made some spectacular finds, which increased interest in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
even more.[citation needed] By the 1860s, the city, with an area of only one square kilometer, was already overcrowded. Thus began the construction of the New City, the part of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
outside of the city walls. Seeking new areas to stake their claims, the Russian Orthodox Church began constructing a complex, now known as the Russian Compound, a few hundred meters from Jaffa
Jaffa
Gate. The first attempt at residential settlement outside the walls of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was undertaken by Jews, who built a small complex on the hill overlooking Zion Gate, across the Valley of Hinnom. This settlement, known as Mishkenot Sha'ananim, eventually flourished and set the precedent for other new communities to spring up to the west and north of the Old City. In time, as the communities grew and connected geographically, this became known as the New City. In 1882, around 150 Jewish families arrived in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
from Yemen. Initially they were not accepted by the Jews
Jews
of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and lived in destitute conditions supported by the Christians of the Swedish-American colony, who called them Gadites.[43] In 1884, the Yemenites moved into Silwan.

Panorama of Jerusalem, early 20th century

British Mandate period

The Ottoman surrender of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to the British, 9 December 1917

The British were victorious over the Ottomans in the Middle East during World War I and victory in Palestine was a step towards dismemberment of that empire. General Sir Edmund Allenby, commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force, entered Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on foot out of respect for the Holy City, on 11 December 1917.[44] By the time General Allenby took Jerusalem
Jerusalem
from the Ottomans in 1917, the new city was a patchwork of neighborhoods and communities, each with a distinct ethnic character. This continued under British rule, as the New City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
grew outside the old city walls and the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
gradually emerged as little more than an impoverished older neighborhood. Sir Ronald Storrs, the first British military governor of the city, issued a town planning order requiring new buildings in the city to be faced with sandstone and thus preserving some of the overall look of the city even as it grew.[45] During the 1930s, two important new institutions, the Hadassah
Hadassah
Medical Center and Hebrew University
Hebrew University
were founded on Jerusalem's Mount Scopus. British rule marked, however, a period of growing unrest. Arab resentment at British rule and the influx of Jewish immigrants (by 1948 one in six Jews
Jews
in Palestine lived in Jerusalem) boiled over in anti-Jewish riots in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1920, 1929, and the 1930s that caused significant damage and several deaths. The Jewish community organized self-defense forces in response to the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
pogrom of April 1920 and later disturbances; while other Jewish groups carried out bombings and attacks against the British, especially in response to suspected complicity with the Arabs and restrictions on immigration during World War II imposed by the White Paper of 1939.[citation needed] The level of violence continued to escalate throughout the 1930s and 1940s. In July 1946 members of the underground Zionist group Irgun
Irgun
blew up a part of the King David
King David
Hotel, where the British forces were temporarily located, an act which led to the death of 91 civilians. On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly
United Nations General Assembly
approved a plan which would partition the British Mandate of Palestine
British Mandate of Palestine
into two states: one Jewish and one Arab. Each state would be composed of three major sections, linked by extraterritorial crossroads, plus an Arab enclave at Jaffa. Expanded Jerusalem
Jerusalem
would fall under international control as a Corpus Separatum.

Jewish Legion
Jewish Legion
soldiers at the Western Wall
Western Wall
after taking part in 1917 British conquest of Jerusalem

Jaffa
Jaffa
Gate in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during 1944 British demolition of recent construction obscuring the historic city walls

Main residential areas of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1947

The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
boundary in 1947 and the proposed boundary of a Corpus Separatum.

Partition between Israel and Jordan After partition, the fight for Jerusalem
Jerusalem
escalated, with heavy casualties among both fighters and civilians on the British, Jewish, and Arab
Arab
sides. By the end of March 1948, just before the British withdrawal, and with the British increasingly reluctant to intervene, the roads to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were cut off by Arab
Arab
irregulars, placing the Jewish population of the city under siege. The siege was eventually broken, though massacres of civilians occurred on both sides,[citation needed] before the 1948 Arab–Israeli War
1948 Arab–Israeli War
began with the end of the British Mandate in May 1948. The 1948 Arab–Israeli War
1948 Arab–Israeli War
led to massive displacement of Arab
Arab
and Jewish populations. According to Benny Morris, due to mob and militia violence on both sides, 1,500 of the 3,500 (mostly ultra-Orthodox) Jews
Jews
in the Old City evacuated to west Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as a unit.[46] See also Jewish Quarter. The comparatively populous Arab
Arab
village of Lifta (today within the bounds of Jerusalem) was captured by Israeli troops in 1948, and its residents were loaded on trucks and taken to East Jerusalem.[46][47][48] The villages of Deir Yassin, Ein Karem
Ein Karem
and Malcha, as well as neighborhoods to the west of Jerusalem's Old City such as Talbiya, Katamon, Baka, Mamilla
Mamilla
and Abu Tor, also came under Israeli control, and their residents were forcibly displaced;[citation needed] in some cases, as documented by Israeli historian Benny Morris and Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi, among others, expulsions and massacres occurred.[46][49] In May 1948 the US Consul, Thomas C. Wasson, was assassinated outside the YMCA building. Four months later the UN mediator, Count Bernadotte, was also shot dead in the Katamon
Katamon
district of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by the Jewish Stern Group.[citation needed] Division between Jordan and Israel (1948–1967) See also: Jordanian annexation of the West Bank
Jordanian annexation of the West Bank
and Islamization of East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
under Jordanian occupation The United Nations
United Nations
proposed, in its 1947 plan for the partition of Palestine, for Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to be a city under international administration. The city was to be completely surrounded by the Arab state, with only a highway to connect international Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to the Jewish state. Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was divided. The Western half of the New City became part of the newly formed state of Israel, while the eastern half, along with the Old City, was occupied by Jordan. According to David Guinn,

Concerning Jewish holy sites, Jordan breached its commitment to appoint a committee to discuss, among other topics, free access of Jews
Jews
to the holy sites under its jurisdiction, mainly in the Western Wall and the important Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, as provided in the Article 8.2 of the Cease Fire Agreement between it and Israel dated April 3, 1949. Jordan permitted the paving of new roads in the cemetery, and tombstones were used for paving in Jordanian army camps. The Cave of Shimon the Just became a stable.[50]

According to Gerald M. Steinberg, Jordan ransacked 57 ancient synagogues, libraries and centers of religious study in the Old City Of Jerusalem, 12 were totally and deliberately destroyed. Those that remained standing were defaced, used for housing of both people and animals. Appeals were made to the United Nations
United Nations
and in the international community to declare the Old City to be an 'open city' and stop this destruction, but there was no response.[51] (See also Hurva Synagogue) On 23 January 1950, the Knesset
Knesset
passed a resolution that stated Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was the capital of Israel.[52] It is also the largest city in the country. State of Israel East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was captured by the Israel Defense Forces
Israel Defense Forces
during the 1967 Six Day War. The Moroccan Quarter
Moroccan Quarter
containing several hundred homes was demolished and its inhabitants expelled; thereafter a public plaza was built in its place adjoining the Western Wall. However, the Waqf
Waqf
( Islamic
Islamic
trust) was granted administration of the Temple Mount and thereafter Jewish prayer on the site was prohibited by both Israeli and Waqf
Waqf
authorities. Most Jews
Jews
celebrated the event as a liberation of the city; a new Israeli holiday was created, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day (Yom Yerushalayim), and the most popular secular Hebrew song, " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of Gold" (Yerushalayim shel zahav), became popular in celebration. Many large state gatherings of the State of Israel
State of Israel
take place at the Western Wall today, including the swearing-in of various Israel army officers units, national ceremonies such as memorial services for fallen Israeli soldiers on Yom Hazikaron, huge celebrations on Yom Ha'atzmaut (Israel Independence Day), huge gatherings of tens of thousands on Jewish religious holidays, and ongoing daily prayers by regular attendees. The Western Wall
Western Wall
has become a major tourist destination spot. Under Israeli control, members of all religions are largely granted access to their holy sites. The major exceptions being security limitations placed on some Arabs from the West Bank
West Bank
and Gaza Strip from accessing holy sites due to their inadmissibility to Jerusalem, as well as limitations on Jews
Jews
from visiting the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
due to both politically motivated restrictions (where they are allowed to walk on the Mount in small groups, but are forbidden to pray or study while there) and religious edicts that forbid Jews
Jews
from trespassing on what may be the site of the Holy of the Holies. Concerns have been raised about possible attacks on the al-Aqsa Mosque after a serious fire broke in the mosque in 1969 (started by Denis Michael Rohan, an Australian fundamentalist Christian found by the court to be insane). Riots broke out following the opening of an exit in the Arab
Arab
Quarter for the Western Wall
Western Wall
Tunnel on the instructions of the Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, which prior Prime Minister Shimon Peres had instructed to be put on hold for the sake of peace (stating "it has waited for over 1000 years, it could wait a few more"). Conversely, Israeli and other Jews
Jews
have showed concerns over excavations being done by the Waqf
Waqf
on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
that could harm Temple Relics, particularly excavations to the north of Solomon's Stables that were designed to create an emergency exit for them (having been pressured to do so by Israeli authorities).[53] Some Jewish sources allege that the Waqf's excavations in Solomon's Stables also seriously harmed the Southern Wall; however an earthquake in 2004 that damaged the eastern wall could also be to blame. The status of East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
remains a highly controversial issue. The international community does not recognize the annexation of the eastern part of the city, and most countries, including the US, maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv. The United States Congress
United States Congress
has pledged to move its embassy to Jerusalem, subject to Presidential approval, which has not been forthcoming as the peace process continues. The United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 478 declared that the Knesset's 1980 " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Law" declaring Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as Israel's "eternal and indivisible" capital was "null and void and must be rescinded forthwith". This resolution advised member states to withdraw their diplomatic representation from the city as a punitive measure. The council has also condemned Israeli settlement in territories captured in 1967, including East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(see UNSCR 452, 465 and 741). Since Israel gained control over East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1967, Jewish settler organizations have sought to establish a Jewish presence in neighborhoods such as Silwan.[54][55] In the 1980s, Haaretz reports, the Housing Ministry "then under Ariel Sharon, worked hard to seize control of property in the Old City and in the adjacent neighborhood of Silwan
Silwan
by declaring them absentee property. The suspicion arose that some of the transactions were not legal; an examination committee ... found numerous flaws." In particular, affidavits claiming that Arab
Arab
homes in the area were absentee properties, filed by Jewish organizations, were accepted by the Custodian without any site visits or other follow-up on the claims.[56] ElAd, a settlement organization[57][58][59][60] which Haaretz says promotes the "Judaization" of East Jerusalem,[61] and the Ateret Cohanim organization, are working to increase Jewish settlement in Silwan
Silwan
in cooperation with the Committee for the Renewal of the Yemenite Village in Shiloah.[62] See Jewish Quarter (Jerusalem). Graphical overview of Jerusalem's historical periods

Notes

^ "No city in the world, not even Athens or Rome, ever played as great a role in the life of a nation for so long a time, as Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has done in the life of the Jewish people."[5] ^ "For three thousand years, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been the center of Jewish hope and longing. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, culture, religion and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Throughout centuries of exile, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
remained alive in the hearts of Jews
Jews
everywhere as the focal point of Jewish history, the symbol of ancient glory, spiritual fulfillment and modern renewal. This heart and soul of the Jewish people engenders the thought that if you want one simple word to symbolize all of Jewish history, that word would be 'Jerusalem.'"[6] ^ "Throughout history a great diversity of peoples has moved into the region and made Palestine their homeland: Canaanites, Jebusites, Philistines
Philistines
from Crete, Anatolian and Lydian Greeks, Hebrews, Amorites, Edomites, Nabateans, Arameans, Romans, Arabs, and European crusaders, to name a few. Each of them appropriated different regions that overlapped in time and competed for sovereignty and land. Others, such as Ancient Egyptians, Hittites, Persians, Babylonians, and Mongols, were historical 'events' whose successive occupations were as ravaging as the effects of major earthquakes ... Like shooting stars, the various cultures shine for a brief moment before they fade out of official historical and cultural records of Palestine. The people, however, survive. In their customs and manners, fossils of these ancient civilizations survived until modernity – albeit modernity camouflaged under the veneer of Islam and Arabic culture."[7] ^ "(With reference to Palestinians
Palestinians
in Ottoman times) Although proud of their Arab
Arab
heritage and ancestry, the Palestinians
Palestinians
considered themselves to be descended not only from Arab
Arab
conquerors of the 7th century but also from indigenous peoples who had lived in the country since time immemorial, including the ancient Hebrews
Hebrews
and the Canaanites
Canaanites
before them. Acutely aware of the distinctiveness of Palestinian history, the Palestinians
Palestinians
saw themselves as the heirs of its rich associations."[8] ^ "When Judea
Judea
was converted into a Roman province
Roman province
in 6 CE, Jerusalem ceased to be the administrative capital of the country. The Romans moved the governmental residence and military headquarters to Caesarea. The centre of government was thus removed from Jerusalem, and the administration became increasingly based on inhabitants of the Hellenistic cities (Sebaste, Caesarea and others)."[26] ^ "This was not done in the heat of battle, but by official order. Explosives were placed carefully and thoughtfully under the springing points of the domes, of the great Hurva synagogue."[42]

References

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Jerusalem
Besieged. ^ "Timeline for the History of Jerusalem". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 16 April 2007.  ^ a b c Azmi Bishara. "A brief note on Jerusalem". Archived from the original on 5 December 2010. Retrieved 22 September 2010.  ^ a b Daniel Pipes. "Constructing a Counterfeit History of Jerusalem". Retrieved 7 January 2011.  ^ David Ben-Gurion, 1947 ^ Teddy Kollek
Teddy Kollek
(1990). Jerusalem. Policy Papers. 22. Washington, DC: Washington Institute For Near East Policy. pp. 19–20. ISBN 9780944029077.  ^ Ali Qleibo, Palestinian anthropologist ^ Walid Khalidi, 1984, Before Their Diaspora: A Photographic History of the Palestinians, 1876–1948. Institute for Palestine Studies ^ Eric H. Cline. "How Jews
Jews
and Arabs Use (and Misuse) the History of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
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Israel Finkelstein
(2010). "A Great United Monarchy?". In Reinhard G. Kratz and Hermann Spieckermann. One God, One Cult, One Nation (PDF). De Gruyter. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2013.  ^ a b Israel Finkelstein
Israel Finkelstein
& Neil Asher Silberman (2002). The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743223386.  ^ Thompson, Thomas L., 1999, The Bible
Bible
in History: How Writers Create a Past, Jonathan Cape, London, ISBN 978-0-224-03977-2 p. 207 ^ Albright, William (1963). The Biblical Period from Abraham to Ezra: An Historical Survey. Harpercollins College Div. ISBN 0-06-130102-7.  ^ Kasher, Aryeh. King Herod: a persecuted persecutor: a case study in psychohistory and psychobiography, Walter de Gruyter, 2007, p. 229. ISBN 3-11-018964-X ^ A History of the Jewish People, ed. by H. H. Ben-Sasson, 1976, p. 247. ^ Virgilio Corbo, The Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem
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(1981) ^ Ma'oz, Moshe and Nusseibeh, Sari. (2000). Jerusalem: Points of Friction, and Beyond Brill. pp. 136–38. ISBN 90-411-8843-6. ^ Elad, Amikam. (1995). Medieval Jerusalem
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Worship Holy Places, Ceremonies, Pilgrimage Brill, pp. 29–43. ISBN 90-04-10010-5. ^ "The travels of Nasir-i-Khusrau to Jerusalem, 1047 C.E." Homepages.luc.edu. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2010.  ^ a b Bréhier, Louis Latin Kingdom
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of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
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Ottoman Empire
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(Bar-Ilan University) ^ "Modern Israel & the Diaspora Timeline (1950-1959)". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 14 August 2012.  ^ Temple Mount
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destruction stirred archaeologist to action, 8 February 2005 by Michael McCormack, Baptist Press "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 July 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  ^ "Letter dated October 16, 1987, from the Permanent Representative of Jordan to the United Nations
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addressed to the Secretary-General"[permanent dead link] UN General Assembly Security Council ^ "Elad in Silwan: Settlers, Archaeologists and Dispossession". mathaba.net. Archived from the original on 2012-09-08.  ^ Meron Rapoport.Land lords Archived 20 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine.; Haaretz, 20 January 2005 ^ Yigal Bronner. "Archaeologists for hire: A Jewish settler organisation is using archaeology to further its political agenda and oust Palestinians
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from their homes"; The Guardian, 1 May 2008 ^ Ori Kashti and Meron Rapoport."Settler group refuses to vacate land slated for school for the disabled"; Haaretz, 15 January 2008 ^ The Other Israel: America-Israel Council for Israeli-Palestinian Peace newsletter Archived 8 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Seth Freedman. "Digging into trouble". The Guardian.  ^ "Group 'Judaizing' East Jerusalem
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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of Jerusalem.

 Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Before 71 CE)". Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.  Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(71–1099) – Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia article Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom
Latin Kingdom
of (1099–1291) – Catholic Encyclopedia article Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(After 1291) – Catholic
Catholic
Encyclopedia article 4,000-year-old cemetery uncovered in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(8 November 2006) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Through Coins History.com – Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Timeline from Kind David to the

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