HOME
The Info List - History Of Colorado


--- Advertisement ---



The human history of Colorado
Colorado
extends back more than 14,000 years. The region that is today the state of Colorado
Colorado
was first inhabited by American Indians. The Lindenmeier Site
Lindenmeier Site
in Larimer County, Colorado, is a Folsom culture
Folsom culture
archaeological site with artifacts dating from approximately 8710 BCE. When explorers, early trappers and hunters and gold miners visited and settled in Colorado, the state was populated by American Indian nations. Westward expansion
Westward expansion
brought European settlers to the area and Colorado's recorded history began with treaties and wars with Mexico and American Indian nations to gain territorial lands to support the transcontinental migration. In the early days of the Colorado
Colorado
gold rush, Colorado
Colorado
was a Territory of Kansas
Territory of Kansas
and Territory of Jefferson. On August 1, 1876, Colorado
Colorado
was admitted as a state, maintaining its territorial borders.

Contents

1 Historic American Indian people 2 European settlement 3 Pike's Peak Gold
Gold
Rush 4 Territory of Jefferson 5 Territory of Colorado 6 Colorado
Colorado
War 7 Colorado
Colorado
becomes a state 8 Mining
Mining
in Colorado 9 "The World's Sanitarium" 10 Twentieth century 11 Twenty-first century 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading

14.1 Primary sources

15 External links

Historic American Indian people[edit]

Chief Ouray
Chief Ouray
and Chipeta

Ancient Pueblo Peoples
Ancient Pueblo Peoples
— A diverse group of peoples that lived in the valleys and mesas of the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau Apache Nation
Apache Nation
— An Athabaskan-speaking nation that lived in the Great Plains
Great Plains
in the 18th century, then migrated southward to Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona, leaving a void on the plains that was filled by the Arapaho
Arapaho
and Cheyenne
Cheyenne
from the east. Arapaho Nation
Arapaho Nation
— An Algonquian-speaking nation that migrated westward to the base of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
in the late 19th century and settled on the piedmont and the eastern plains. They were relocated entirely out of Colorado
Colorado
in 1865 following the Colorado
Colorado
War. Cheyenne Nation
Cheyenne Nation
— An Algonquian-speaking nation very closely related to the Arapaho. Like the Arapaho, they migrated westward in the 18th century to the base of the Rockies. They often lived in bands interspersed among the Arapaho, and were also relocated out of Colorado
Colorado
in the 1860s. Comanche Nation
Comanche Nation
— A Numic-speaking nation that lived on the High Plains of southeastern Colorado. Closely related to the Shoshone, they acquired the horse from the Spaniards and roamed the southern Great Plains. The Comanche
Comanche
were removed to Indian territory. Shoshone Nation
Shoshone Nation
— A Numic-speaking nation that inhabited intermountain valleys along the north edge of the state, especially in the Yampa River
Yampa River
valley, up through the late 19th century. Areas included North Park and Browns Park. Ute Nation
Ute Nation
— A Numic-speaking nation that has lived in the Southern and the Western Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
for many centuries. Their leaders were Chief Ouray
Chief Ouray
and his wife Chipeta. They often clashed with the Arapaho and Cheyenne, and resisted the encroachment of these nations into the mountains. Until the 1880s, the Ute controlled nearly all of Colorado west of the continental divide, a situation that eroded after the silver boom of 1879. After clashing with white settlers in the 1880s in the Meeker Massacre, they were nearly entirely relocated out of the state into Utah, except for two small reservations in southwestern Colorado.

European settlement[edit]

Juan De Oñate, first Governor of New Spain

The first Europeans to visit the region were Spanish conquistadors. Juan de Oñate
Juan de Oñate
who lived until 1626, founded what would become the Spanish province of Santa Fé de Nuevo México
Santa Fé de Nuevo México
among the pueblos of the Rio Grande
Rio Grande
on July 11, 1598. In 1706 Juan de Ulibarri claimed the territory of Colorado.[citation needed] In 1787 Juan Bautista de Anza established the settlement of San Carlos near present-day Pueblo, Colorado, but it quickly failed.[1] This was the only Spanish attempt to create a settlement north of the Arkansas River. Colorado
Colorado
became part of the Spanish province of Santa Fe de Nuevo México
Santa Fe de Nuevo México
as part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.[2] The Spaniards traded with Native Americans who lived there and established the Comercio Comanchero ( Comanche
Comanche
Trade) among the Spanish settlements and the Native Americans.[3] In 1803 the United States
United States
acquired a territorial claim to the eastern flank of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
by the Louisiana Purchase
Louisiana Purchase
from France. However, the claim conflicted with Spain's claim to sovereignty over the territory. Zebulon Pike
Zebulon Pike
led a U.S. Army
U.S. Army
reconnaissance expedition into the disputed region in 1806. Pike and his men were arrested by Spanish cavalry in the San Luis Valley, taken to Chihuahua, then expelled from México. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
declared Mexico's independence from Spain
Spain
on September 16, 1810. In 1819, the United States
United States
ceded its claim to the land south and west of the Arkansas River
Arkansas River
to Spain
Spain
with the Adams-Onís Treaty, at the same time purchasing Florida. Mexico finally won its independence with the Treaty of Córdoba
Treaty of Córdoba
signed on August 24, 1821, and assumed the territorial claims of Spain. Although Mexican traders ventured north, settlers stayed south of the 37th parallel north until the United States
United States
signed a peace treaty with the Ute Nation
Ute Nation
in 1850.

Trading posts such as Bent's Old Fort
Bent's Old Fort
served fur traders in the early 19th century.

During the period 1832 to 1856, traders, trappers, and settlers established trading posts and small settlements along the Arkansas River, and on the South Platte near the Front Range. Prominent among these were Bent's Fort
Bent's Fort
and Fort Pueblo
Pueblo
on the Arkansas and Fort Saint Vrain on the South Platte. The main item of trade offered by the Indians was buffalo robes,[4] see Early history of the Arkansas Valley in Colorado. In 1846 the United States
United States
went to war with Mexico, and the defeated nation was forced to relinquish its northern territories by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848. This opened the Southern Rocky Mountains to American settlement, including what is now the lower portion of Colorado. The newly gained land was divided into the Territory of New Mexico and the Territory of Utah, both organized in 1850, and the Territory of Kansas
Territory of Kansas
and the Territory of Nebraska, organized in 1854. Most settlers avoided the rugged Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
and headed for Oregon, the Deseret, or California, usually following the North Platte River and the Sweetwater River to South Pass in what is now Wyoming. On April 9, 1851, Hispanic settlers from Taos, New Mexico, settled the village of San Luis, then in the New Mexico
New Mexico
Territory, but now Colorado's first permanent European settlement. Pike's Peak Gold
Gold
Rush[edit] Main article: Pike's Peak Gold
Gold
Rush

Pikes Peak, Albert Bierstadt

On June 22, 1850, a wagon train bound for California
California
crossed the South Platte River just north of the confluence with Clear Creek, and followed Clear Creek west for six miles. Lewis Ralston dipped his gold pan in a stream flowing into Clear Creek, and found almost $5 in gold (about a quarter of a troy ounce) in his first pan. John Lowery Brown, who kept a diary of the party's journey from Georgia to California, wrote on that day: "Lay bye. Gold
Gold
found." In a notation above the entry, he wrote, "We called this Ralston's Creek because a man of that name found gold here." Ralston continued on to California, but returned to 'Ralston's Creek' with the Green Russell
Green Russell
party eight years later. Members of this party founded Auraria (later absorbed into Denver
Denver
City) in 1858 and touched off the gold rush to the Rockies. The confluence of Clear Creek and Ralston Creek, the site of Colorado's first gold discovery is now in Arvada, Colorado. In 1858, several parties of gold seekers bound for the California
California
Gold Rush panned small amounts of gold from various streams in the South Platte River Valley
Valley
at the foot of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
in then western Kansas Territory, now northeast Colorado. The gold nuggets initially failed to impress the gold seekers, but rumors of gold in the Rocky Mountains persisted, and several small parties explored the region. In the summer of 1857, a party of Spanish-speaking gold seekers from the New Mexico
New Mexico
Territory worked a placer deposit along the South Platte River about 5 miles (8 km) above Cherry Creek (in what is today the Overland Park neighborhood of Denver.)[5] The following year, William Greeneberry "Green" Russell led a party of Cherokee
Cherokee
gold seekers from the State of Georgia to search for gold along the South Platte River. In the first week of July 1857, Green Russell and Sam Bates found a small placer deposit near the mouth of Little Dry Creek (in present-day Englewood) that yielded about 20 troy ounces (622 grams) of gold, the first significant gold discovery in the Rocky Mountain region. News of this discovery soon spread and precipitated the Pike's Peak Gold
Gold
Rush.[6] An estimated 100,000 gold seekers flocked to the region over the next three years. The placer gold deposits along the rivers and streams of the region rapidly played out, but miners soon discovered far more valuable seams of hard rock gold, silver, and other minerals in the nearby mountains. This gold rush helped to attract people to the state and resulted in a population boom. Territory of Jefferson[edit] Main article: Territory of Jefferson The Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson
Territory of Jefferson
was organized on October 24, 1859, but the new territory failed to secure federal sanction. The Provisional Government freely administered the region despite its lack of official status until the U.S. Territory of Colorado
Colorado
was organized in 1861. Territory of Colorado[edit] Main article: Territory of Colorado

William Gilpin, first Governor of Colorado
Colorado
Territory

The Territory of Colorado
Colorado
was a historic, organized territory of the United States
United States
that existed between 1861 and 1876. Its boundaries were identical to the current State of Colorado. The territory ceased to exist when Colorado
Colorado
was admitted to the Union as a state on August 1, 1876. The territory was organized in the wake of the 1859 Pike's Peak Gold
Gold
Rush, which had brought the first large concentration of white settlement to the region. The organic act[7] creating the territory was passed by Congress and signed by President James Buchanan
James Buchanan
on February 28, 1861, during the secessions by Southern states that precipitated the American Civil War. The organization of the territory helped solidify Union control over a mineral rich area of the Rocky Mountains. Statehood was regarded as fairly imminent, as during the run-up to the 1864 presidential election the Republican–controlled Congress was actually eager to get two more Republican senators and three more electoral votes for President Lincoln's re-election bid. Territorial Governor John Evans persuaded Congress to adopt an enabling act, but a majority of the 6,192 Coloradoans who voted, in a population of around 35,000, turned down the first attempt at a state constitution and the second attempt at statehood.[8] Later, at the end of 1865, territorial ambitions for statehood were thwarted again, this time by a veto by President Andrew Johnson. Statehood for the territory was a recurring issue during the Ulysses Grant
Ulysses Grant
administration, with Grant advocating statehood against a less willing Congress during Reconstruction. Colorado
Colorado
War[edit] Main article: Colorado
Colorado
War The Colorado
Colorado
War (1863–1865) was an armed conflict between the United States
United States
and a loose alliance among the Kiowa, Comanche, Arapaho, and Cheyenne
Cheyenne
nations of Native Americans (the last two were particularly closely allied). The war was centered on the Eastern Plains of the Colorado
Colorado
Territory and resulted in the removal of these four Native American peoples from present-day Colorado
Colorado
to present-day Oklahoma. The war included a particularly notorious episode in November 1864 known as the Sand Creek Massacre. The battle, initially hailed by the U.S. press as a great victory, was later learned to be one of genocidal brutality. The resulting hearings in the United States Congress regarding the malfeasance of the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
commander, John Chivington, were a watershed in the white views of the Indian Wars at the close of the American Civil War. In 1868 the U.S. Army, led by George Armstrong Custer, renewed the conflict against the Arapaho
Arapaho
and Cheyenne
Cheyenne
at the Battle of Washita River. Colorado
Colorado
becomes a state[edit] The United States Congress
United States Congress
passed an enabling act on March 3, 1875, specifying the requirements for the Territory of Colorado
Colorado
to become a state.[9] On August 1, 1876 (28 days after the Centennial of the United States), U.S. President
U.S. President
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
signed a proclamation admitting the state of Colorado
Colorado
to the Union as the 38th state and earning it the moniker "Centennial State".[10] The borders of the new state coincided with the borders established for the Colorado Territory. Women won the right to vote in Colorado
Colorado
in 1893. Colorado
Colorado
was the first state in the union to grant this right to women through a popular election. ( Wyoming
Wyoming
approved the right of women to vote in 1869 through a vote of the territorial legislature.) Governor Davis H. Waite campaigned for the Constitutional amendment granting women the right to vote in Colorado. Governor Waite is also noted as one of the few elected officials ever to call out the state militia to protect miners from a force raised by mine owners[citation needed]. Governor Waite belonged to the Populist Party. Mining
Mining
in Colorado[edit]

Colorado
Colorado
Mineral Belt

Participants in the Pike's Peak Gold Rush
Pike's Peak Gold Rush
from 1858 to 1861 were called Fifty-Niners
Fifty-Niners
and many of the new arrivals settled in the Denver area. Gold
Gold
in paying quantities was also discovered in the Central City area. In 1879, silver was discovered in Leadville, resulting in the Colorado
Colorado
Silver
Silver
Boom. Many early mining efforts were cooperative ventures. However, as easy-to-reach surface deposits played out, miners increasingly turned to hard rock mining. Such industrial operations required greater capital, and the economic concept of mineral rights resulted in periodic conflicts between the mine owners, and the miners who increasingly sold their labor to work in the mines. As the mines were dug deeper, they became more dangerous, and the work more arduous, creating the conditions for conflict. In 1880, Colorado Governor Pitkin, a Republican, declared martial law to suppress a violent mining strike at Leadville. In the 1890s many Colorado
Colorado
miners began to form unions in order to protect themselves. The mine operators often formed mine owners' associations in response, setting up the conditions for a conflict. Notable labor disputes between hard rock miners and the mine operators included the Cripple Creek strike of 1894 and the Colorado
Colorado
Labor Wars of 1903-04. Coal mining in Colorado
Colorado
began soon after the first settlers arrived. Although the discovery of coal did not cause boom cycles as did the precious metals, the early coal mining industry also established the conditions for violent confrontations between miners and mine owners. The usual issues were wages, hours, and working conditions, but miners were also concerned about issues of fairness, and company control over their personal lives. Early coal mining in Colorado
Colorado
was extremely dangerous, and the state had one of the highest death rates in the nation. During the three decades from 1884 to 1914, more than 1700 men died in Colorado's coal mines.[11] Coal miners also resented having to pay for safety work such as timbering the mines, and they were sometimes paid in scrip that had value only in the company store, with the cost of goods set by the company. A strike in 1913 resulted in the 1914 Ludlow massacre. Another coal strike in 1927 is best known for Colorado's first Columbine massacre. In 1933, federal legislation for the first time allowed all Colorado coal miners to join unions without fear of retaliation. Like all resource extraction, mining is a boom or bust industry, and over the years many small towns were established, then abandoned when the ore ran out, the market collapsed, or another resource became available. There were once more than a hundred coal mines in the area north of Denver
Denver
and east of Boulder. The mines began to close when natural gas lines arrived. Coal and precious metals are still mined in Colorado, but the mining industries have changed dramatically in recent decades.

Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
patients lie in beds on the porch of a building at the Jewish Consumptive Relief Society (J.C.R.S.) sanatorium

Reports of the revival of molybdenum mining in 2007 resulted in ambivalent responses[12] with Leadville welcoming the opening of the mine at Climax,[13][14] but strong opposition in Crested Butte over proposed operations at Mount Emmons.[15] Opinion in Rico, site of the Silver
Silver
Creek stockwork Molybdenum
Molybdenum
deposit[16] is more divided. There, land slated for development is being bought up by a mining company.[17] Today there are many small mining towns scattered throughout Colorado, such as Leadville, Georgetown, Cripple Creek, Victor, and Central City. Although many of the mines no longer operate, the remnants of the operations can be seen in the form of mine shafts, outbuildings, and mounds of rock extracted from the hills. Many former mining towns turned to gambling to draw visitors, with Blackhawk and Cripple Creek serving as good examples. The 19th century ended with a difficult law-and-order situation in some places, most notably, Creede, Colorado, where gunmen like Robert Ford (the assassin of Jesse James) and con men like Soapy Smith
Soapy Smith
reigned. In "The World's Sanitarium"[edit] Starting in the 1860s, when tuberculosis (TB) was a major deadly disease, physicians in the eastern United States
United States
recommended that their patients relocate to sunny, dry climates for their lungs. As a result, the number of people with tuberculosis, called "lungers", in the state grew alarmingly and without the services or facilities to support their needs. Not knowing how to manage a population of homeless, ill people, many were taken to jail. Because of the number of people with TB and their families who came to Denver
Denver
for their health, by the 1880s it was nicknamed the "World's Sanitarium". Cynthia Stout, a history scholar, asserted that by 1900 "one-third of Colorado's population were residents of the state because of tuberculosis."[18][19] See also: Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
treatment in Colorado
Colorado
Springs Twentieth century[edit]

Branding cattle on a Colorado
Colorado
ranch, c. 1900

In the early 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
was an important political force in Colorado, but it was unable to get any of its proposals enacted into law, and it died out by 1930.[20] The 1930s saw the beginning of the ski industry in Colorado. Resorts were established in areas such as Estes Park, Gunnison, and on Loveland Pass.[21] During WWII, the 10th Mountain Division
10th Mountain Division
established Camp Hale
Camp Hale
to train elite ski troops.[22] In the 1940s, the Republican governor of Colorado, Ralph Carr, spoke out against racial discrimination and against the federal internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II. In 1967, Governor John A. Love signed the nation's first liberalized abortion law.[23] The late 1960s saw violence in Denver, in the form of race riots, and college buildings being burned by radicals. In 1972, Colorado
Colorado
became the only state to reject the award of hosting the Olympic Games
Olympic Games
after they had been granted. When Representative Lamm led a successful movement to reject a bond issue for expenses related to hosting the event, the International Olympic Committee relocated the 1976 Winter Olympics
1976 Winter Olympics
to Innsbruck, Austria. No venue had rejected the award before nor has any venue since. In 1999, the Columbine High School massacre
Columbine High School massacre
became the most devastating high-school massacre in United States
United States
history until the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School Shooting in 2018, when Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold killed 12 students and one teacher before taking their own lives as well.[24] Twenty-first century[edit] On July 20, 2012, not far from the location of the aforementioned massacre at Columbine High School, 12 people were killed and 70 people were injured[25] in the 2012 Aurora shooting, when James Eagan Holmes, a former neuroscience doctoral student, walked into an Aurora, Colorado
Colorado
Cinemark
Cinemark
movie theater with multiple firearms and tear gas grenades, and started shooting at random at people trying to escape during a midnight Thursday showing of The Dark Knight Rises, killing 12 people and injuring 70 others.[26] It was the deadliest shooting in Colorado
Colorado
since the Columbine High School massacre
Columbine High School massacre
and, in terms of both the dead and wounded in the number of casualties, was the largest single mass shooting in U.S. history.[27] Colorado
Colorado
is now 1 of 8 states[28] that have legalized both medical and recreational marijuana, allowing them to tax the product. As of July 2014, six months after recreational shops began sales of marijuana in Colorado, the state has enjoyed a tax revenue of 45 million with 98 million expected by the end of the calendar year. This is in addition to increased economic revenues from "pot tourists." See also[edit]

History portal North America portal United States
United States
portal Colorado
Colorado
portal

Main articles: Historical outline of Colorado
Colorado
and Timeline of Colorado history

Cuerno Verde Colorado
Colorado
counties Colorado
Colorado
municipalities Colorado
Colorado
Silver
Silver
Boom Colorado
Colorado
1870-2000 Constitution of the State of Colorado History Colorado
Colorado
(aka the Colorado
Colorado
Historical Society) History of Denver, Colorado History of the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau History of the Great Plains History of the Rocky Mountains Index of Colorado-related articles List of counties in Colorado List of ghost towns in Colorado List of Governors of Colorado List of Lieutenant Governors of Colorado Outline of Colorado Pike's Peak Gold
Gold
Rush Prehistory of Colorado State of Colorado

Santa Fe de Nuevo Méjico Louisiane Luisiana District of Louisiana Territory of Missouri State of Deseret Territory of New Mexico Territory of Utah Territory of Kansas Territory of Nebraska Territory of Jefferson Territory of Colorado

Territorial evolution of Colorado Territorial evolution of the United States U.S. congressional delegations from Colorado Category:History of Colorado

commons:Category:History of Colorado

References[edit]

^ Carl Ubbelohde, Duane A. Smith, Maxine Benson: A Colorado
Colorado
History, Pruett Publishing, 2006, p. 17 ^ Cardelús, Borja (2007). La huella de España y de la cultura hispana en los Estados Unidos (2. ed.). Madrid: Centro de Cultura Iberoamericana (CCI). p. 174. ISBN 9788461150366.  ^ Torres, Fernando Martínez Láinez, Carlos Canales (2008). Banderas lejanas : la exploración, conquista y defensa por España del territorio de los actuales Estados Unidos (1 ̇ed. ed.). Madrid: Edaf. ISBN 9788441421196. CS1 maint: Extra text (link) ^ Janet Lecompte, Pueblo, Hardscrabble, Greenhorn: The Upper Arkansas, 1832-1856, University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, 1977, hardcover, 354 pages, ISBN 0-8061-1462-2 ^ Thomas J. Noel. " Denver
Denver
History: The Arapaho
Arapaho
Camp". City and County of Denver. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2008-03-03.  ^ Gehling, Richard (2006). "The Pike's Peak Gold
Gold
Rush". Richard Gehling. Archived from the original on 2008-06-28. Retrieved 2007-06-12.  ^ "An Act to provide a temporary Government for the Territory of Colorado" (PDF). Thirty-sixth United States
United States
Congress. February 28, 1861. Retrieved 2006-12-27.  ^ Kopel, Jerry (July 30, 2000). "History of how Colorado
Colorado
finally became a state" (PDF). Retrieved February 24, 2017.  ^ Forty-third United States Congress
United States Congress
(1875-03-03). "An Act to Enable the People of Colorado
Colorado
to Form a Constitution and State Government, and for the Admission of the Said State into the Union on an Equal Footing with the Original States". Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-07. Retrieved 2008-04-14.  ^ President of the United States
United States
of America (1876-08-01). "Proclamation of the Admission of Colorado
Colorado
to the Union" (php). The American Presidency Project. Retrieved 2008-04-14.  ^ James Whiteside, Regulating danger: the struggle for mine safety in the Rocky Mountain coal industry, U of Nebraska Press, 1990, page xii (preface) ^ " Colorado
Colorado
mining divided over molybdenum" article by Jason Blevins in The Denver
Denver
Post Last Updated: 12/09/2007 08:06:50 AM MST ^ "Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold
Gold
Inc. Announces Plans to Restart Climax Molybdenum
Molybdenum
Mine" Archived 2008-01-22 at the Wayback Machine. Press release
Press release
by Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold
Gold
Inc. December 4, 2007 ^ "Many ready to again embrace old path to prosperity" article by Jason Blevins in The Denver
Denver
Post Last Updated: 12/09/2007 02:07:37 AM MST ^ "Coalitions build to again keep mining off beloved peak" article by Jason Blevins in The Denver
Denver
Post Last Updated: 12/09/2007 02:09:08 AM MST ^ "Hydrothermal alteration and mass exchange in the hornblende latite porphyry, Rico, Colorado" Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, ISSN 0010-7999 (Print) ISSN 1432-0967 (Online), Volume 116, Numbers 1-2 / March, 1994, doi:10.1007/BF00310700, Pages 199-215, Wednesday, December 1, 2004 ^ "Divided town weighs promise of jobs vs. peace and quiet" article by Nancy Lofholm in The Denver
Denver
Post Last Updated: 12/09/2007 02:07:13 AM MST ^ Tuberculosis
Tuberculosis
in Colorado
Colorado
history, The Denver
Denver
Post, 05/31/2007. Retrieved 2011-06-16 ^ Varnell, pp. 39-40. ^ William Wyckoff (1999). Creating Colorado: The Making of a Western American Landscape, 1860-1940. Yale UP. p. 267.  ^ Colorado
Colorado
Ski History.com. 1930-1939. Retrieved 3 November 2011 ^ 10th Mountain Division
10th Mountain Division
History Archived 2010-07-24 at the Wayback Machine. Metropolitan State College of Denver, 2004. Retrieved January 30, 2010. ^ " Colorado
Colorado
Abortion Law is Signed by Gov. Love". Lincoln Evening Journal. April 26, 1967. p. 2. Retrieved July 10, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ "Investigators focus on accomplices in school shooting". Santa Cruz Sentinel. April 28, 1999. p. 15. Retrieved July 10, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ "Officials release complete list of injured victims in Aurora massacre" ^ "Officials release complete list of injured victims in Aurora massacre". Fox News Channel. January 10, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2013.  ^ Brown, Jennifer (July 21, 2012). "12 shot dead, 58 wounded in Aurora movie theater during Batman premier". The Denver
Denver
Post. Retrieved July 21, 2012.  ^ http://www.businessinsider.com/marijuana-states-legalized-weed-2016-11

Further reading[edit]

Abbott, Carl, et al. Colorado: A History of the Centennial State, 2005, textbook; 553 pages, ISBN 0-87081-800-7 Athearn, Robert G. Rebel of the Rockies: A History of the Denver
Denver
and Rio Grande
Rio Grande
Western Railroad. 1962. Baker, James H., and Leroy R. Hafen, eds. History of Colorado. 5 vol State Historical Society of Colorado, 1927, with many short biographical sketches Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of Nevada, Colorado, and Wyoming, 1540-1888 (1890) 828 pages; famous classic; online edition Berwanger, Eugene W. The Rise of the Centennial State: Colorado Territory, 1861–76, (2007) 208 pages Cassels, E. Steve. The Archeology of Colorado. Boulder: Johnson Books, 1983 Cronin, Thomas E. and Robert D. Loevy. Colorado
Colorado
Politics & Government: Governing the Centennial State, (1993) online edition Ellis, Elmer. Henry Moore Teller: Defender of the West. 1941. Ellis, Richard N., and Duane A. Smith. Colorado: A History in Photographs. 1991. Gulliford, Andrew. Boomtown Blues: Colorado
Colorado
Oil Shale, 1885-1985. 1989. Hafen, Le Roy R. Colorado: The Story of a Western Commonwealth. 1933. Hogan, Richard. Class and Community in Frontier Colorado. 1990. Lamm, Richard D., and Duane A. Smith. Pioneers and Politicians: 10 Colorado
Colorado
Governors in Profile. 1981. popular Lecompte, Janet. Pueblo, Hardscrabble, Greenhorn: The Upper Arkansas, 1832-1856, University of Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Press, 1977, hardcover, 354 pages, ISBN 0-8061-1462-2 Lorch, Robert S. Colorado's Government. 5th ed. 1991. textbook Ormes, Robert M. Guide to the Colorado
Colorado
Mountains. 7th ed. 1979. Parsons, Eugene. The Making of Colorado: A Historical Sketch (1908) 324 pages online edition Philpott, William. Vacationland: Tourism and Environment in the Colorado
Colorado
High Country (University of Washington Press; 2013) 488 pages; the post 1945 transformation of a once isolated and little-visited region into a major ski and tourist destination Rohrbough, Malcolm J. Aspen: The History of a Silver
Silver
Mining
Mining
Town, 1879-1893. 1986. scholarly study Scamehorn, Lee. High Altitude Energy: A History of Fossil Fuels in Colorado
Colorado
(2002) online edition Scamehorn, Lee. Mill & Mine: The Cf&I in the Twentieth Century (1992) online edition Schulte, Steven C. Wayne Aspinall and the Shaping of the American West (2002) online edition Schulten, Susan. "The Civil War and the Origins of the Colorado Territory," Western Historical Quarterly (Spring 2013) 44#1 pp 21–46. Smith, Duane A. The Trail of Gold
Gold
and Silver: Mining
Mining
in Colorado, 1859–2009 (Boulder: University Press of Colorado, 2009. xiv, 282 pp.) ISBN 978-0-87081-957-5 Smith, Duane A. Henry M. Teller: Colorado's Grand Old Man, 2002 online edition Sprague, Marshall. Money Mountain: The Story of Cripple Creek Gold (1979) online edition Ubbelohde, Carl, Maxine Benson, and Duane Smith. A Colorado
Colorado
History. 6th ed. 1988. textbook Varnell, Jeanne. Women of Consequence: The Colorado
Colorado
Women's Hall of Fame, Johnson Press, Boulder, 1999, ISBN 1-55566-214-5. Wiatrowski, Claude. Railroads of Colorado: Your Guide to Colorado's Historic Trains and Railway Sites, Voyageur Press, 2002, hardcover, 160 pages, ISBN 0-89658-591-3 Wickens, James F. "The Depression and New Deal in Colorado," in John Braeman et al. eds. The New Deal: Volume Two - the State and Local Levels (1975) pp 269–310 Wright, James Edward. The Politics of Populism: Dissent in Colorado. 1974. on 1890s Wyckoff, William (1999). Creating Colorado: The Making of a Western American Landscape, 1860-1940. Yale UP. 

Primary sources[edit]

Ubbelohde, Carl, ed. A Colorado
Colorado
Reader (2nd ed 1964) Fossett, Frank. Colorado: A Historical, Descriptive and Statistical Work on the Rocky Mountain Gold
Gold
and Silver
Silver
Mining
Mining
Region (1878) 470 pages online edition Fossett, Frank. Colorado, Its Gold
Gold
and Silver
Silver
Mines: Farms and Stock Ranges, and Health and Pleasure Resorts (1880), online edition Parsons, Eugene. A Guidebook to Colorado
Colorado
(1911) 390 pages online edition

External links[edit]

Find more aboutHistory of Coloradoat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

State of Colorado History Colorado " Colorado
Colorado
only state ever to turn down Olympics" from Denver
Denver
Rocky Mountain News Capitol Bureau Old Photographs of Colorado Colorado
Colorado
Ski Museum Info Please: Colorado
Colorado
History

v t e

Years in Colorado
Colorado
(1876–present)

1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029

v t e

 State of Colorado

Denver
Denver
(capital)

Topics

Index Coloradans Elections Federal lands Geography Government Highways History

Timeline

Images Law Military Mountains Museums Public Defender Paleontology Rivers Symbols Transportation Tourist attractions

Seal of Colorado

Society

Crime Culture Demographics Economy Education Politics Sports

Regions

Central Colorado Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area Eastern Plains Front Range Grand Valley High Plains High Rockies Mineral Belt Northern Colorado Northwestern Colorado Piedmont Plateau Roan Plateau Roaring Fork Valley San Luis Valley Sangre de Cristo Mountains South-Central Colorado Southwest Colorado Uinta Mountains Uintah Basin Western Slope

Municipalities

Akron Alamosa Arvada Aspen Aurora Boulder Breckenridge Brighton Broomfield Cañon City Castle Rock Centennial Colorado
Colorado
Springs Commerce City Cortez Craig Delta Denver Durango Englewood Erie Evans Fairplay Federal Heights Fort Collins Fort Morgan Fountain Golden Glenwood Springs Grand Junction Greeley Greenwood Village Gunnison La Junta Lafayette Lakewood Lamar Leadville Littleton Longmont Louisville Loveland Montrose Northglenn Parker Platteville Pueblo Salida Steamboat Springs Sterling Superior Thornton Trinidad Vail Westminster Wheat Ridge Windsor

Counties

Adams Alamosa Arapahoe Archuleta Baca Bent Boulder Broomfield Chaffee Cheyenne Clear Creek Conejos Costilla Crowley Custer Delta Denver Dolores Douglas Eagle El Paso Elbert Fremont Garfield Gilpin Grand Gunnison Hinsdale Huerfano Jackson Jefferson Kiowa Kit Carson La Plata Lake Larimer Las Animas Lincoln Logan Mesa Mineral Moffat Montezuma Montrose Morgan Otero Ouray Park Phillips Pitkin Prowers Pueblo Rio Blanco Rio Grande Routt Saguache San Juan San Miguel Sedgwick Summit Teller Washington Weld Yuma

v t e

History of the United States
History of the United States
by polity

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

v t e

Spanish Empire

Timeline

Catholic Monarchs Habsburgs Golden Age Encomiendas New Laws
New Laws
in favour of the indigenous Expulsion of the Moriscos Ottoman–Habsburg wars French Wars of Religion Eighty Years' War Portuguese Restoration War Piracy in the Caribbean Bourbons Napoleonic invasion Independence
Independence
of Spanish continental Americas Liberal constitution Carlist Wars Spanish–American War German–Spanish Treaty (1899) Spanish Civil War Independence
Independence
of Morocco (Western Sahara conflict)

Territories

Kingdoms of Naples, Sicily and Sardinia Milan Union with Holy Roman Empire Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France Franche-Comté Union with Portugal Philippines East Pacific (Guam, Mariana, Caroline, Palau, Marshall, Micronesia, Moluccas) Northern Taiwan Tidore Florida New Spain
Spain
(Western United States, Mexico, Central America, Spanish Caribbean) Spanish Louisiana (Central United States) Coastal Alaska Haiti Belize Jamaica Trinidad and Tobago Venezuela, Western Guyana New Granada (Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, a northernmost portion of Brazilian Amazon) Peru (Peru, Acre) Río de la Plata (Argentina, Paraguay, Charcas (Bolivia), Banda Oriental (Uruguay), Falkland Islands) Chile Equatorial Guinea North Africa (Oran, Tunis, Béjaïa, Peñón of Algiers, Western Sahara, Spanish Morocco, Ifni
Ifni
and Cape Juby)

Administration

Archivo de Indias Council of the Indies Cabildo Trial of residence Laws of the Indies Royal Decree of Graces School of Salamanca Exequatur Papal bull

Administrative subdivisions

Viceroyalties

New Spain New Granada Perú Río de la Plata

Audiencias

Bogotá Buenos Aires Caracas Charcas Concepción Cusco Guadalajara Guatemala Lima Manila Mexico Panamá Quito Santiago Santo Domingo

Captaincies General

Chile Cuba Guatemala Philippines Puerto Rico Santo Domingo Venezuela Yucatán Provincias Internas

Governorates

Castilla de Oro Cuba Luisiana New Andalusia (1501–1513) New Andalusia New Castile New Navarre New Toledo Paraguay Río de la Plata

Economy

Currencies

Dollar Real Maravedí Escudo Columnario

Trade

Manila galleon Spanish treasure fleet Casa de Contratación Guipuzcoan Company of Caracas Barcelona Trading Company Camino Real de Tierra Adentro

Military

Armies

Tercio Army of Flanders Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia Indian auxiliaries Spanish Armada Legión

Strategists

Duke of Alba Antonio de Leyva Martín de Goiti Alfonso d'Avalos García de Toledo Osorio Duke of Savoy Álvaro de Bazán the Elder John of Austria Charles Bonaventure de Longueval Pedro de Zubiaur Ambrosio Spinola Bernardo de Gálvez

Sailors

Christopher Columbus Pinzón brothers Ferdinand Magellan Juan Sebastián Elcano Juan de la Cosa Juan Ponce de León Miguel López de Legazpi Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Sebastián de Ocampo Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca Alonso de Ojeda Vasco Núñez de Balboa Alonso de Salazar Andrés de Urdaneta Antonio de Ulloa Ruy López de Villalobos Diego Columbus Alonso de Ercilla Nicolás de Ovando Juan de Ayala Sebastián Vizcaíno Juan Fernández Felipe González de Ahedo

Conquistadors

Hernán Cortés Francisco Pizarro Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada Hernán Pérez de Quesada Francisco Vázquez de Coronado Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar Pedro de Valdivia Gaspar de Portolà Pere Fages i Beleta Joan Orpí Pedro de Alvarado Martín de Ursúa Diego de Almagro Pánfilo de Narváez Diego de Mazariegos Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera Pere d'Alberní i Teixidor

Battles

Old World

Won

Bicocca Landriano Pavia Tunis Mühlberg St. Quentin Gravelines Malta Lepanto Antwerp Azores Mons Gembloux Ostend English Armada Cape Celidonia White Mountain Breda Nördlingen Valenciennes Ceuta Bitonto Bailén Vitoria Tetouan Alhucemas

Lost

Capo d'Orso Preveza Siege of Castelnuovo Algiers Ceresole Djerba Tunis Spanish Armada Leiden Rocroi Downs Montes Claros Passaro Trafalgar Somosierra Annual

New World

Won

Tenochtitlan Cajamarca Cusco Bogotá savanna Reynogüelén Penco Guadalupe Island San Juan Cartagena de Indias Cuerno Verde Pensacola

Lost

La Noche Triste Tucapel Chacabuco Carabobo Ayacucho Guam Santiago de Cuba Manila Bay Asomante

Spanish colonizations

Canary Islands Aztec Maya

Chiapas Yucatán Guatemala Petén

El Salvador Honduras Nicaragua Chibchan Nations Colombia Peru Chile

Other civil topics

Spanish missions in the Americas Architecture Mesoamerican codices Cusco painting tradition Indochristian painting in New Spain Quito painting tradition Colonial universities in Latin America Colonial universities in the Philippines General Archive of the Indies Colonial Spanish Horse Castas Old inquisition Slavery in Spanish Empire British and American slaves granted their free

.