The Info List - Hispanic America

America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.[1][2] These countries have significant commonalities with each other and with Spain, its former European metropolis. In all of these countries, Spanish is the main language, sometimes sharing official status with one or more indigenous languages (such as Guaraní, Quechua, Aymara, or Mayan), or English (in Puerto Rico).[3] Catholic Christianity is the predominant religion.[4] Hispanic
America is sometimes grouped together with Brazil
under the term "Ibero-America", meaning those countries in the Americas
with cultural roots in the Iberian Peninsula.[5] Hispanic
America also contrasts with Latin America, which includes not only Hispanic America, but also Brazil, as well as the former French colonies in the Western Hemisphere (areas that are now in either the United States
United States
or Canada
are usually excluded).[6]


1 History 2 Demographics

2.1 Countries 2.2 Largest cities 2.3 Languages

3 Culture

3.1 Cuisine 3.2 Symbols

3.2.1 Flag

4 See also 5 Notes 6 References


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The Spanish conquest of the Americas
began in 1492, and ultimately was part of a larger historical process of world discovery, through which various European powers incorporated a considerable amount of territory and peoples in the Americas, Asia, and Africa
between the 15th and 20th centuries. Hispanic
America became the main part of the vast Spanish Empire. Napoleon's takeover of Spain
in 1808 and the consequent chaos initiated the dismemberment of the Spanish Empire, as the Hispanic American territories began their struggle for emancipation. By 1830, the only remaining Spanish American and Asian territories were the Philippine archipelago and the islands of Cuba
and Puerto Rico, until the 1898 Spanish–American War. Demographics[edit] Countries[edit]

Country Population[7] Area[a] GDP (nominal)[8][b] GDP (nominal) per capita GDP (PPP) GDP (PPP) per capita

Argentina 43,847,430 2,780,400 545.12 12,502.82 874.07 20,047.49

Bolivia 10,887,882 1,098,581 34.83 3,169.56 78.66 7,218.49

Chile[9] 17,909,754 756,950 247.03 13,575.99 438.75 24,112.94

Colombia 48,653,419 1,141,748 282.36 5,792.18 688.82 14,130.18

Costa Rica 4,857,274 51,000 58.11 11,834.84 80.70 16,435.83

Cuba 11,475,982 110,861 81.56[10] 7,600.00 132.90 11,900.00

Dominican Republic 10,648,791 48,730 72.19 7,159.49 161.84 16,049.46

Ecuador 16,385,068 256,370 98.01 5,929.69 183.61 11,108.56

El Salvador 6,334,722 21,040 26.71 4,343.44 54.79 8,909.43

Guatemala 16,582,469 108,890 68.17 4,088.95 131.70 7,899.20

Honduras 9,112,867 112,492 21.36 2,608.58 43.17 5,271.47

Mexico 127,540,423 1,972,550 1,046.00 8,554.61 2,315.65 18,938.32

Nicaragua 6,149,928 129,494 13.05 2,120.31 33.55 5,451.71

Panama 4,034,119 75,571 55.12 13,654.07 92.95 23,023.88

Paraguay 6,725,308 406,752 27.44 4,003.28 64.40 9,396.02

Peru 32,215,538 1,285,220 245.20 6,198.61 479.811 12,903.09

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
(U.S.) 3,411,307 9,104 101.30 29,696.57 130.97 38,393.07

Uruguay 3,444,006 176,215 54.57 15,679.17 74.92 21,527.27

Venezuela 31,568,179 916,445 287.27 9,258.34 426.97 13,760.56

Total 411,342,767 11,466,903 3,315.34 8,059.80 6,414.64 15,594.39

Largest cities[edit]

City Country Population Metro

City  Mexico 8,851,080 23,137,152

Buenos Aires  Argentina 3,050,728 15,941,973

Lima  Peru 9,752,000 12,140,000

Bogotá  Colombia 8,080,734 9,367,587

Santiago  Chile 5,428,590 7,200,000

Caracas  Venezuela 3,273,863 5,239,364

City  Guatemala 2,149,188 4,500,000

Guadalajara  Mexico 1,564,514 4,424,584

Monterrey  Mexico 1,133,814 4,106,054

Medellín  Colombia 2,636,101 3,731,447

Guayaquil  Ecuador 2,432,233 3,328,534

Santo Domingo  Dominican Republic 1,111,838 3,310,171[11]

Havana  Cuba 2,350,000 3,073,000

Maracaibo  Venezuela 2,201,727 2,928,043

Puebla  Mexico 1,399,519 2,728,790

Asunción  Paraguay 525,294 2,698,401

Cali  Colombia 2,068,386 2,530,796

San Juan  Puerto Rico 434,374 2,509,007

San José, Costa Rica  Costa Rica 1,543,000 2,158,898

Toluca  Mexico 820,000 1,936,422

Montevideo  Uruguay 1,325,968 1,868,335

Quito  Ecuador 1,397,698 1,842,201

Managua  Nicaragua 1,380,300 1,825,000

Barranquilla  Colombia 1,148,506 1,798,143

Santa Cruz  Bolivia 1,594,926 1,774,998

Valencia  Venezuela 894,204 1,770,000

Tijuana  Mexico 1,286,157 1,751,302

Tegucigalpa  Honduras 1,230,000 1,600,000

La Paz  Bolivia 872,480 1,590,000

San Salvador  El Salvador 540,090 2,223,092

Barquisimeto  Venezuela 1,116,000 1,500,000

León  Mexico 1,278,087 1,488,000

Córdoba  Argentina 1,309,536 1,452,000

Juárez  Mexico 1,301,452 1,343,000

San Pedro Sula  Honduras 1,250,000 1,300,000

Maracay  Venezuela 1,007,000 1,300,000

Rosario  Argentina 908,163 1,203,000

City  Panama 990,641 1,500,000

Torreón  Mexico 548,723 1,144,000

Bucaramanga  Colombia 516,512 1,055,331


European colonies and claimed areas in the Americas, ca. 1750.

Linguistic map of Latin America. Spanish America in green, Portuguese America (Brazil) in orange, and French Guiana and French Caribbean in blue.

Quechua, Guarani, Aymara, Nahuatl, Mayan languages, Mapudungun.

Spanish is the official language in most Hispanic
American countries, and it is spoken by the vast majority of the population. Native American languages are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay
and Mexico, and to a lesser degree, in Panama, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, and Chile
amongst other countries. In some Hispanic
American countries, the population of speakers of indigenous languages tend to be very small or even non-existent (e.g. Uruguay). Mexico
is possibly the only country that contains the largest variety of indigenous languages than any other Hispanic American country, and the most spoken native language is Nahuatl. In Peru, Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. In Ecuador, while holding no official status, the closely related Quichua is a recognized language of the indigenous people under the country's constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands. In Bolivia, Aymara, Quechua and Guaraní hold official status alongside Spanish. Guaraní, along with Spanish, is an official language of Paraguay, and is spoken by a majority of the population (who are, for the most part, bilingual), and it is co-official with Spanish in the Argentine province of Corrientes. In Nicaragua, Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean coast English and indigenous languages such as Miskito, Sumo, and Rama also hold official status. Colombia
recognizes all indigenous languages spoken within its territory as official, though fewer than 1% of its population are native speakers of these languages. Nahuatl
is one of the 62 native languages spoken by indigenous people in Mexico, which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. Other European languages spoken in Hispanic
America include: English, by some groups in Puerto Rico; German, in southern Chile
and portions of Argentina, Venezuela, and Paraguay; Italian, in Argentina, Venezuela, and Uruguay; Ukrainian, Polish, and Russian in Argentina; and Welsh, in southern Argentina.[12][13][14][15][16][17] Yiddish and Hebrew can be heard around Buenos Aires. Non-European or Asian languages include Japanese in Peru, Bolivia, and Paraguay; Korean in Argentina
and Paraguay; Arabic in Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela, and Chile; and Chinese throughout South America. In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. Creole languages
Creole languages
of mainland Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues. The Garifuna language is spoken along the Caribbean coast in Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua
and Belize
mostly by the Garifuna people
Garifuna people
a mixed race Zambo
people who were the result of mixing between Indigenous Caribbeans and escaped Black slaves. Primarily an Arawakan language, it has influences from Caribbean and European languages. Culture[edit] Cuisine[edit] Hispanic cuisine
Hispanic cuisine
as the term is applied in the Western Hemisphere, is a misnomer. What is usually considered Hispanic cuisine
Hispanic cuisine
in the United States is mostly Mexican and Central American
Central American
cuisine. Mexican cuisine is composed of mainly indigenous— Aztec
and Mayan—and Spanish influences.[citation needed] Mexican cuisine
Mexican cuisine
is considered intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO and can be found all over the United States. In the United States, with its growing Hispanic
population, food staples from Mexican cuisine
Mexican cuisine
and the cuisine from other Hispanic countries have become widely available. Over the years, the blending of these cuisines has produced unique American forms such as Tex-Mex cuisine. This cuisine, which originated in Texas, is based on maize products, heavily spiced ground beef, cheese and tomato sauces with chilies. This cuisine is widely available not just in the United States but across other countries, where American exports are found. In Florida, Cuban food is widely available. All of these Hispanic foods in the United States
United States
have evolved in character as they have been commercially americanized by large restaurant chains and food companies. The cuisine of Spain
has many regional varieties, with Mediterranean flavors based on olive oil, garlic, and tomatoes and due to its long Atlantic and Mediterranean
coastlines, has been graced with a great variety and availability of seafood. In the inland communities of Spain, there is a long tradition of cured meat of different kinds, in addition to an abundance of dishes such as roasts and stews, based on beef, pork, lamb, and poultry. The European and Arab heritage of Spain is reflected in its food, along with cosmopolitan influences beginning in the many new ingredients brought in from the New World
New World
since the 16th century, e.g. tomatoes, potatoes, or chocolate, and the more modern tastes introduced from Europe
since the 19th century, especially through French and Italian dishes. It is only in the last ten years[when?] that Hispanic
American dishes have been introduced in Spain. In the United States
United States
and Canada, the number of Hispanic restaurants has become a growing trend, following the tapas-style restaurants fashion that first appeared in North America
North America
in the 1990s. Cuban, Dominican, and Puerto Rican cuisines, on the other hand, tend to use a lot of pork and can depend heavily on starchy root vegetables, plantain, and rice. The most prominent influences on their Spanish culinary traditions were introduced by African slaves, and to a lesser degree, French influence from Haiti and later Chinese immigrants. The use of spicy chile peppers of varying degrees of strength used as flavour enhancers in Mexican tradition is practically unknown in traditional Spanish–Caribbean dishes. The cuisine of Haiti, a country with a Francophone
majority, is very similar to its regional neighbors in terms of influences and ingredients used. The Argentine diet is heavily influenced by the country's position as one of the world's largest beef and wine producers, and by the impact that European immigration had on its national culture. Grilled meats are a staple of most meals as are pastas, potatoes, rice, paella and a variety of vegetables ( Argentina
is a huge exporter of agricultural products). Italian influence is also seen in the form of pizza and ice cream, both of which are integral components of national cuisine. Chilean cuisine is similar to that of Argentina, though seafood is much more dominant in this coastal nation. As another one of the world's largest producers, wine is as much a staple drink to Chileans as beer is to Germans. In Colombia, Ecuador
and Peru, potato dishes are typical since the potato is originally from this region. Beef
and chicken are common sources of meat. In the Highlands is the cuy, a South American name for guinea pig, a common meat. Given the coastal location, both countries have extensive fishing fleets, which provide a wealth of seafood options, including the signature South American dish, ceviche. While potato is an important ingredient in the Highlands, Rice
is the main side dish on the coast. This diversity in staples and cuisine is also evident in the differing regional cuisines within the national borders of the individual countries. Symbols[edit] Flag[edit]

Flag of Hispanic
Heritage. Motto: Justicia, Paz, Unión y Fraternidad ("Justice, Peace, Union and Fraternity").[18]

While relatively unknown, there is a flag representing the countries of Spanish America, its people, history and shared cultural legacy. It was created in October 1933 by Ángel Camblor, captain of the Uruguayan army. It was adopted by all the states of Spanish America during the Pan-American Conference of the same year in Montevideo, Uruguay.[18] The white background stands for peace, the Inti
sun god of Inca mythology symbolizes the light shining on the Americas, and the three crosses represent Christopher Columbus' caravels, the Niña, Pinta, and Santa María, used in his first voyage from Spain
to the New World in 1492. The deep lilac color of the crosses evokes the color of the lion on the coat of arms of the medieval Crown of Castile.[19] See also[edit]

Hispanic Hispanic
and Latino
Americans (Hispanic, Latino) Hispanidad Hispanism
and Pan-Hispanism Hispanophone Ibero-America Latin America
Latin America
(Latin Americans) Spanish language
Spanish language
in the Americas


^ Values listed in km². ^ Values listed in billions USD.


^ All of the following dictionaries only list "Spanish America" as the name for this cultural region. None list " Hispanic
America." All list the demonym for the people of the region discussed in this article as the sole definition, or one of the definitions, for "Spanish American". Some list "Hispanic," " Hispanic
American" and "Hispano-American" as synonyms for "Spanish American." (All also include as a secondary definition for these last three terms, persons residing in the United States
United States
of Hispanic
ancestry.) The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (3rd ed.) (1992). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-44895-6. Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.) (2003). Springfield: Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-87779-807-9. The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (2nd ed.) (1987). New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-50050-4. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
Shorter Oxford English Dictionary
on Historical Principles (2007). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-920687-2. Webster's New Dictionary and Thesaurus (2002). Cleveland: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 978-0-471-79932-0 ^ " Hispanic
America" is used in some older works such as Charles Edward Chapman's 1933 Colonial Hispanic
America: A History and 1937 Republican Hispanic
America: A History (both New York: The Macmillan Co.); or translated titles that faithfully reproduce Hispanoamérica, such as Edmund Stephen Urbanski (1978), Hispanic
America and its Civilization: Spanish Americans and Anglo-Americans, Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. The Cambridge University Press textbook by two distinguished historians of early Latin America, James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz is entitled, Early Latin America: A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil
1983. ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Languages". Retrieved 2009-04-11.  ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Religions". Retrieved 2009-04-11.  ^ The adjective "Ibero-American" usually refers only to countries of the Western Hemisphere, but in the title of the Organization of Ibero-American States it refers to Iberian and (Ibero-)American countries, plus Equatorial Guinea. ^ "Latin America" The Free Online Dictionary (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000, 4th ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2003.) ^ "Population, total Data". data.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2017-07-11.  ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. Retrieved 2017-07-11.  ^ "Demografia de Chile" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 27, 2009.  ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-11.  ^ "República Dominicana; Población estimada y proyectada por año y sexo, según región, provincia y municipio. 2000-2010" (in Spanish). Oficina Nacional de Estadística (ONE). Archived from the original on 2009-12-19. Retrieved 2010-04-13.  Context page: "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-04-22. Retrieved 2010-04-13.  ("Poblacion estimada y proyectada región provincia y municipio 2000-2010.xls") ^ "Reference for Welsh language
Welsh language
in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Bbc.co.uk. 2008-07-22. Retrieved 2013-04-23.  ^ "The Welsh Immigration to Argentina". 1stclassargentina.com.  ^ Jeremy Howat. "Reference for Welsh language
Welsh language
in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Argbrit.org. Retrieved 2013-04-23.  ^ "Reference for Welsh language
Welsh language
in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Patagonline.com. Retrieved 2013-04-23.  ^ "Reference for Welsh language
Welsh language
in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Andesceltig.com. 2009-09-29. Retrieved 2013-04-23.  ^ "Reference for Welsh language
Welsh language
in southern Argentina, Welsh immigration to Patagonia". Glaniad.com. Retrieved 2013-04-23.  ^ a b Raeside, Rob (ed.) (1999-10-11). "Flag of the Race". Flags of the World. Retrieved 2006-12-23. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Image of the standard of the Crown of Castile

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Regions of the world

v t e

Regions of Africa

Central Africa

Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Cape Lopez Mayombe Igboland


Maputaland Pool Malebo Congo Basin Chad Basin Congolese rainforests Ouaddaï highlands Ennedi Plateau

East Africa

African Great Lakes

Albertine Rift East African Rift Great Rift Valley Gregory Rift Rift Valley lakes Swahili coast Virunga Mountains Zanj

Horn of Africa

Afar Triangle Al-Habash Barbara Danakil Alps Danakil Desert Ethiopian Highlands Gulf of Aden Gulf of Tadjoura

Indian Ocean

Comoros Islands

North Africa


Barbary Coast Bashmur Ancient Libya Atlas Mountains

Nile Valley

Cataracts of the Nile Darfur Gulf of Aqaba Lower Egypt Lower Nubia Middle Egypt Nile Delta Nuba Mountains Nubia The Sudans Upper Egypt

Western Sahara

West Africa

Pepper Coast Gold Coast Slave Coast Ivory Coast Cape Palmas Cape Mesurado Guinea region

Gulf of Guinea

Niger Basin Guinean Forests of West Africa Niger Delta Inner Niger Delta

Southern Africa


Central Highlands (Madagascar) Northern Highlands


North South

Thembuland Succulent Karoo Nama Karoo Bushveld Highveld Fynbos Cape Floristic Region Kalahari Desert Okavango Delta False Bay Hydra Bay


Aethiopia Arab world Commonwealth realm East African montane forests Eastern Desert Equatorial Africa Françafrique Gibraltar Arc Greater Middle East Islands of Africa List of countries where Arabic is an official language Mediterranean
Basin MENA MENASA Middle East Mittelafrika Negroland Northeast Africa Portuguese-speaking African countries Sahara Sahel Sub-Saharan Africa Sudan (region) Sudanian Savanna Tibesti Mountains Tropical Africa

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Regions of Asia


Greater Middle East Aral Sea

Aralkum Desert Caspian Sea Dead Sea Sea of Galilee



Greater Khorasan Ariana Khwarezm Sistan Kazakhstania Eurasian Steppe

Asian Steppe Kazakh Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe

Mongolian-Manchurian grassland Wild Fields

Yedisan Muravsky Trail


Ural Mountains

Volga region Idel-Ural Kolyma Transbaikal Pryazovia Bjarmaland Kuban Zalesye Ingria Novorossiya Gornaya Shoriya Tulgas Iranian Plateau Altai Mountains Pamir Mountains Tian Shan Badakhshan Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Mount Imeon Mongolian Plateau Western Regions Taklamakan Desert Karakoram

Trans- Karakoram

Siachen Glacier


Inner Asia Northeast Far East

Russian Far East Okhotsk-Manchurian taiga

Extreme North Siberia

(Lake Baikal) Transbaikal Khatanga Gulf Baraba steppe

Kamchatka Peninsula Amur Basin Yenisei Gulf Yenisei Basin Beringia Sikhote-Alin


Japanese archipelago

Northeastern Japan Arc Sakhalin Island Arc

Korean Peninsula Gobi Desert Taklamakan Desert Greater Khingan Mongolian Plateau Inner Asia Inner Mongolia Outer Mongolia China proper Manchuria

Outer Manchuria Inner Manchuria Northeast China Plain Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

North China Plain

Yan Mountains

Kunlun Mountains Liaodong Peninsula Himalayas Tibetan Plateau


Tarim Basin Northern Silk Road Hexi Corridor Nanzhong Lingnan Liangguang Jiangnan Jianghuai Guanzhong Huizhou Wu Jiaozhou Zhongyuan Shaannan Ordos Loop

Loess Plateau Shaanbei

Hamgyong Mountains Central Mountain Range Japanese Alps Suzuka Mountains Leizhou Peninsula Gulf of Tonkin Yangtze River Delta Pearl River Delta Yenisei Basin Altai Mountains Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass


Greater Middle East


Red Sea Caspian Sea Mediterranean
Sea Zagros Mountains Persian Gulf

Pirate Coast Strait of Hormuz Greater and Lesser Tunbs

Al-Faw Peninsula Gulf of Oman Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Aden Balochistan Arabian Peninsula

Najd Hejaz Tihamah Eastern Arabia South Arabia

Hadhramaut Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
coastal fog desert

Tigris–Euphrates Mesopotamia

Upper Mesopotamia Lower Mesopotamia Sawad Nineveh plains Akkad (region) Babylonia

Canaan Aram Eber-Nari Suhum Eastern Mediterranean Mashriq Kurdistan Levant

Southern Levant Transjordan Jordan Rift Valley

Israel Levantine Sea Golan Heights Hula Valley Galilee Gilead Judea Samaria Arabah Anti-Lebanon Mountains Sinai Peninsula Arabian Desert Syrian Desert Fertile Crescent Azerbaijan Syria Palestine Iranian Plateau Armenian Highlands Caucasus


Greater Caucasus Lesser Caucasus

North Caucasus South Caucasus

Kur-Araz Lowland Lankaran Lowland Alborz Absheron Peninsula

Anatolia Cilicia Cappadocia Alpide belt


Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley


Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt



Indochina Malay Peninsula


Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe


Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands


Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia


Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group


Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt


Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America


Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth


Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie


South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States


Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River Delta Columbia River Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice
Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt


Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania


Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia


Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula


Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu


Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island


Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America


Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado


Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta


Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula



Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions


Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands


Alaska British Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

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Earth's oceans and seas


Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean
Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea