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Hisham II
Hisham II
(Arabic: ھشام المؤيد بالله‬‎) (son of Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
and Subh of Cordoba) was the third Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliph
Caliph
of Spain, in Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
from 976–1009, and 1010–13.[1] In 976, at the age of 11, Hisham II
Hisham II
succeeded his father Al-Hakam II as Caliph
Caliph
of Cordoba. Hisham II
Hisham II
was a minor at the time of his accession and therefore was unfit to rule. In order to benefit the Caliphate, his mother Subh was aided by first minister Jafar al-Mushafi to act as regents with Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir
Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir
(Almanzor) as her steward. In 978 Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir
Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir
(Almanzor) manipulated his way into the position of royal chamberlain. In an attempt to position himself as a prospective ruler of the Caliphate, Almanzor
Almanzor
and General Ghalib sabotaged the brother of Al-Hakam II
Al-Hakam II
who was set to succeed his brother and become the next Caliph
Caliph
of Cordoba. Too young to rule, Hisham II
Hisham II
handed his political reins of power over to Almanzor
Almanzor
in 981 who became the de facto leader of the Caliphate until his death in 1002.[2] Al-Mansur ibn Abi Amir
Al-Mansur ibn Abi Amir
perpetuated his position as the omnipotent ruler in charge of the empire while he exiled Hisham II and essentially kept him prisoner leaving him impotent for most of his reign as the third Caliph
Caliph
of Cordoba. With his countless successful campaigns against Christian powers in the Spanish North such as Barcelona
Barcelona
in 985, León in 988, as well as a major strike on the church of St. James in the Galician city of Santiago de Compostela in 998,[3] Almanzor
Almanzor
is known for bringing the Caliphate of Córdoba
Caliphate of Córdoba
to its apex of power in Islamic Iberian history. In 1002, after the death of his father (Almanzor), Abd al-Malik (1002–1008) became the ruler of the Caliphate and lead successful campaigns against Navarre
Navarre
and Barcelona. In 1008 Abd ur-Rahman Sangul (1008–1009) is said to have poisoned his brother (Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar) which led to his death in October 1008.[4] In 1009, while Abd al-Rahman Sanchuelo was waging war against Alfonso V in León, Muhammad II al-Mahdi
Muhammad II al-Mahdi
usurped the throne from Hisham II
Hisham II
then held him hostage in Cordoba. In November of the same year, just months after initiating his control as the ruler of the Caliphate, Muhammad II al-Mahdi was overthrown by a primarily Berber army (that he had previously commanded, but by which he was later abandoned) which was led by Sulayman ibn al-Hakam
Sulayman ibn al-Hakam
in the battle of Alcolea. After the battle, Abd al-Malik al-Muzaffar was exiled to Toledo at which point Sulayman laid siege to Cordoba freeing Hisham II
Hisham II
from the imprisonment that took place under the rule of Muhammad II al-Mahdi. Sulayman ibn al-Hakam was appointed to Caliph
Caliph
by his Berber army and maintained that position until Muhammad II al-Mahdi
Muhammad II al-Mahdi
re-conquered the territory in May, 1010. Finally the Slavic troops of the Caliphate under al-Wahdid restored Hisham II
Hisham II
as Caliph
Caliph
(1010–1013). Hisham II
Hisham II
was now under the influence of al-Wahdid, who was nevertheless unable to gain control of the Berber troops - these still supported Sulaiman, and the civil war continued. It is known that Hisham "openly kept a male harem."[5] In 1013 the Berbers took Cordoba with much plundering and destruction. What happened to Hisham after that is uncertain – supposedly he was killed on 19 April 1013 by the Berbers. In any case, Sulaiman al-Mustain (1013–1016) became Caliph.[6] See also[edit]

Islam portal Spain portal Biography portal History portal

Jacob ibn Jau

References[edit]

^ "First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936, Volume 3". Retrieved 25 September 2016.  ^ Clarke, Nicola (2016-01-02). "Heirs and Spares: Elite Fathers and Their Sons in the Literary Sources of Umayyad
Umayyad
Iberia". Al-Masāq. 28 (1): 67–83. doi:10.1080/09503110.2016.1152805. ISSN 0950-3110.  ^ "al- Mansur, 914–1002, Moorish regent of Córdoba: Discovery Service for Loyola Marymount Univ". eds.b.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2016-12-13.  ^ "Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba : The Life and Works of a Controversial Thinker". eds.b.ebscohost.com. Retrieved 2016-12-13.  ^ Daniel Eisenberg, “Homosexuality” in Medieval Iberia: An Encyclopedia, ed. Michael Gerli (Routledge, 2003), 398. ^ "The Cambridge Medieval History vol 3 - Germany and the Western Empire". Retrieved 25 September 2016. 

External links[edit]

Al-Andalus: the art of Islamic Spain, an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on Hisham II
Hisham II
(see index)

Hisham II Banu Umayyah Cadet branch of the Banu Quraish

Preceded by Al-Hakam II Caliph
Caliph
of Córdoba 976–1009 Succeeded by Mohammed II

Preceded by Sulaiman al-Mustain Caliph
Caliph
of Córdoba 1010–1013 Succeeded by Sulaiman al-Mustain

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Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphs

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Caliphs of Damascus (661–750)

Muawiyah I Yazid I Muawiya II Marwan I Abd al-Malik Al-Walid I Sulayman Umar II Yazid II Hisham Al-Walid II Yazid III Ibrahim Marwan II

Emirs of Córdoba (756–929)

Abd al-Rahman I Hisham I Al-Hakam I Abd ar-Rahman II Muhammad I Al-Mundhir Abdullah Abd-ar-Rahman III

Caliphs of Córdoba (929–1031)

Abd-ar-Rahman III Al-Hakam II Hisham II Muhammad II Sulayman Hisham II Sulayman Abd ar-Rahman IV Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir[H] Al-Qasim al-Ma'mun
Al-Qasim al-Ma'mun
ibn Hammud[H] Yahya ibn Ali al-Mu'tali[H] Al-Qasim al-Ma'mun
Al-Qasim al-Ma'mun
ibn Hammud[H] Abd ar-Rahman V Muhammad III Yahya ibn Ali al-Mu'tali[H] Hisham III

[H] indicates Hammudid usurpers

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 297011986 GND

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