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A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also includes other public roads and public tracks: It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, autoroute, etc. In North American and Australian English, major roads such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are often state highways (Canada: provincial highways). Other roads may be designated "county highways" in the US and Ontario. These classifications refer to the level of government (state, provincial, county) that maintains the roadway. In British English, "highway" is primarily a legal term. Everyday use normally implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc. The term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol and highwayman. The term highway exists in distinction to "waterway".

Contents

1 Overview 2 Terminology

2.1 England
England
and Wales 2.2 Scotland 2.3 United States

3 History 4 Social effects 5 Economic effects 6 Environmental effects 7 Road
Road
traffic safety 8 Statistics 9 Bus lane

9.1 South Korea 9.2 Hong Kong 9.3 Philippines

10 Gallery 11 See also

11.1 General 11.2 By country

12 References 13 External links

Overview[edit] Major highways are often named and numbered by the governments that typically develop and maintain them. Australia's Highway
Highway
1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi and runs almost the entire way around the continent. China
China
has the world's largest network of highways followed closely by the United States
United States
of America. Some highways, like the Pan-American Highway
Highway
or the European routes, span multiple countries. Some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U.S. Route 10, which crosses Lake Michigan. Traditionally highways were used by people on foot or on horses. Later they also accommodated carriages, bicycles and eventually motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing heavily in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and bolster national defense. Major modern highways that connect cities in populous developed and developing countries usually incorporate features intended to enhance the road's capacity, efficiency, and safety to various degrees. Such features include a reduction in the number of locations for user access, the use of dual carriageways with two or more lanes on each carriageway, and grade-separated junctions with other roads and modes of transport. These features are typically present on highways built as motorways (freeways). Terminology[edit] England
England
and Wales[edit] The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction; this is distinct from e.g. the popular use of the word in the US. A highway is defined in English common law by a number of similarly-worded definitions such as "a way over which all members of the public have the right to pass and repass without hindrance"[1] usually accompanied by "at all times"; ownership of the ground is for most purposes irrelevant thus the term encompasses all such ways from the widest trunk roads in public ownership to the narrowest footpath providing unlimited pedestrian access over private land. A highway might be open to all forms of lawful land traffic (i.e. vehicular, horse, pedestrian) or limited to specific types of traffic or combinations of types of traffic; usually a highway available to vehicles is available to foot or horse traffic, a highway available to horse traffic is available to pedestrians but exceptions can apply usually in the form of a highway only being available to vehicles or subdivided into dedicated parallel sections for different users. A highway can share ground with a private right of way for which full use is not available to the general public as often will be the case with farm roads which the owner may use for any purpose but for which the general public only has a right of use on foot or horseback. The status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are typically dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted (taken into the care and control of a council or other public authority). In England
England
and Wales, a public highway is also known as "The Queen's Highway".[2] The core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes but only for the specific matters dealt with in each such piece of legislation. This is typically in the case of bridges, tunnels and other structures whose ownership, mode of use or availability would otherwise exclude them from the general definition of a highway, examples in recent years are commonly toll bridges and tunnels which have the definition of highway imposed upon them (in a legal order applying only to the individual structure) to allow application of most traffic laws to those using them but without causing all of the general obligations or rights of use otherwise applicable to a highway. Scotland[edit] Scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation. What is defined in England
England
as a highway will often in Scotland be what is defined by s.151 Roads (Scotland) Act 1984 (but only "in this act" although other legislation could imitate) simply as a road, that is :-

"any way (other than a waterway) over which there is a public right of passage (by whatever means [and whether subject to a toll or not]) and includes the road’s verge, and any bridge (whether permanent or temporary) over which, or tunnel through which, the road passes; and any reference to a road includes a part thereof; "

The word highway is itself no longer a statutory expression in Scots law[3] but remains in common law. United States[edit] In American law, the word "highway" is sometimes used to denote any public way used for travel, whether a "road, street, and parkway";[4] however, in practical and useful meaning, a "highway" is a major and significant, well-constructed road that is capable of carrying reasonably heavy to extremely heavy traffic.[citation needed] Highways generally have a route number designated by the state and federal departments of transportation.[clarification needed] California Vehicle
Vehicle
Code, Sections 360, 590, define a "highway" as only a way open for use of motor vehicles, but the California Supreme Court has held that "the definition of 'highway' in the Vehicle
Vehicle
Code is used for special purposes of that act," and that canals of the Los Angeles neighborhood of Venice, California, are "highways" that are entitled to be maintained with state highway funds.[5] Smaller roads may be termed byways.[6] History[edit]

A German Autobahn
Autobahn
in the 1930s.

See also: Road
Road
and History of road transport Modern highway systems developed in the 20th century as the automobile gained popularity. The world's first limited access road was constructed on Long Island New York in the United States
United States
known as the Long Island Motor Parkway
Long Island Motor Parkway
or the Vanderbilt Motor Parkway. It was completed in 1911.[7] Construction of the Bonn–Cologne autobahn began in 1929 and it was opened in 1932 by the mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer.[8] In the USA, the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 (Phipps Act) enacted a fund to create an extensive highway system. In 1922, the first blueprint for a national highway system (the Pershing Map) was published. The Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956
Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956
allocated $25 billion for the construction of the 41,000-mile-long (66,000 km) Interstate Highway System
Interstate Highway System
over a 20-year period.[9] In Great Britain, the Special Roads Act 1949 provided the legislative basis for roads for restricted classes of vehicles and non-standard or no speed limits applied (later mostly termed motorways but now with speed limits not exceeding 70 mph);[10] in terms of general road law this legislation overturned the usual principle that a road available to vehicular traffic was also available to horse or pedestrian traffic as is usually the only practical change when non-motorways are reclassified as special roads. The first section of motorway in the UK opened in 1958 (part of the M6 motorway) and then in 1959 the first section of the M1 motorway.[11] Social effects[edit]

Commonwealth Avenue, a major intercity highway in northeastern Manila metropolitan area, the Philippines.

Reducing travel times relative to city or town streets, modern highways with limited access and grade separation create increased opportunities for people to travel for business, trade or pleasure and also provide trade routes for goods. Modern highways reduce commute and other travel time but additional road capacity can also release latent traffic demand. If not accurately predicted at the planning stage, this extra traffic may lead to the new road becoming congested sooner than would otherwise be anticipated by considering increases in vehicle ownership. More roads allow drivers to use their cars when otherwise alternatives may have been sought, or the journey may not have been made, which can mean that a new road brings only short-term mitigation of traffic congestion. Where highways are created through existing communities, there can be reduced community cohesion and more difficult local access. Consequently, property values have decreased in many cutoff neighborhoods, leading to decreased housing quality over time. Economic effects[edit] Main article: Transport economics In transport, demand can be measured in numbers of journeys made or in total distance travelled across all journeys (e.g. passenger-kilometres for public transport or vehicle-kilometres of travel (VKT) for private transport). Supply is considered to be a measure of capacity. The price of the good (travel) is measured using the generalised cost of travel, which includes both money and time expenditure. The effect of increases in supply (capacity) are of particular interest in transport economics (see induced demand), as the potential environmental consequences are significant (see externalities below). In addition to providing benefits to their users, transport networks impose both positive and negative externalities on non-users. The consideration of these externalities—particularly the negative ones—is a part of transport economics. Positive externalities
Positive externalities
of transport networks may include the ability to provide emergency services, increases in land value and agglomeration benefits. Negative externalities are wide-ranging and may include local air pollution, noise pollution, light pollution, safety hazards, community severance and congestion. The contribution of transport systems to potentially hazardous climate change is a significant negative externality which is difficult to evaluate quantitatively, making it difficult (but not impossible) to include in transport economics-based research and analysis. Congestion is considered a negative externality by economists.[12] A 2016 study finds that for the United States
United States
"a 10% increase in a region's stock of highways causes a 1.7% increase in regional patenting over a five-year period."[13] Environmental effects[edit]

Noise, light and air pollution are negative environmental effects highways can have on their surroundings.

Main article: Environmental impacts of roads Highways
Highways
are extended linear sources of pollution. Roadway noise
Roadway noise
increases with operating speed so major highways generate more noise than arterial streets. Therefore, considerable noise health effects are expected from highway systems. Noise mitigation strategies exist to reduce sound levels at nearby sensitive receptors. The idea that highway design could be influenced by acoustical engineering considerations first arose about 1973.[14][15] Air quality
Air quality
issues: Highways
Highways
may contribute fewer emissions than arterials carrying the same vehicle volumes. This is because high, constant-speed operation creates an emissions reduction compared to vehicular flows with stops and starts. However, concentrations of air pollutants near highways may be higher due to increased traffic volumes. Therefore, the risk of exposure to elevated levels of air pollutants from a highway may be considerable, and further magnified when highways have traffic congestion. New highways can also cause habitat fragmentation, encourage urban sprawl and allow human intrusion into previously untouched areas, as well as (counterintuitively) increasing congestion, by increasing the number of intersections. They can also reduce the use of public transport, indirectly leading to greater pollution. High-occupancy vehicle lanes are being added to some newer/reconstructed highways in North America and other countries around the world to encourage carpooling and mass-transit. These lanes help reduce the number of cars on the highway and thus reduces pollution and traffic congestion by promoting the use of carpooling in order to be able to use these lanes. However, they tend to require dedicated lanes on a highway, which makes them difficult to construct in dense urban areas where they are the most effective. To address habitat fragmentation, wildlife crossings have become increasingly popular in many countries. Wildlife crossings
Wildlife crossings
allow animals to safely cross human-made barriers like highways.[16] Road
Road
traffic safety[edit] Main article: Road
Road
traffic safety Road
Road
traffic safety describes the safety performance of roads and streets, and methods used to reduce the harm (deaths, injuries, and property damage) on the highway system from traffic collisions. It includes the design, construction and regulation of the roads, the vehicles used on them and the training of drivers and other road-users. A report published by the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
in 2004 estimated that some 1.2m people were killed and 50m injured on the roads around the world each year[17] and was the leading cause of death among children 10–19 years of age. The report also noted that the problem was most severe in developing countries and that simple prevention measures could halve the number of deaths.[18] For reasons of clear data collection, only harm involving a road vehicle is included.[19] A person tripping with fatal consequences or dying for some unrelated reason on a public road is not included in the relevant statistics. Statistics[edit]

International sign used widely in Europe denoting the start of special restrictions for a section of highway classed as a motorway.

The Cross Bronx Expressway
Cross Bronx Expressway
in New York, United States
United States
uses asphalt and concrete pavement, both of which are popular road surfaces on highways.

The United States
United States
has the world's largest network of highways, including both the Interstate Highway System
Interstate Highway System
and the U.S. Highway System. At least one of these networks is present in every state and they interconnect most major cities. China's highway network is the second most extensive in the world, with a total length of about 3.573 million km.[20][21][22][23][24] China's expressway network is the longest Expressway system in the world, and it is quickly expanding, stretching some 85,000 km at the end of 2011.[25][26] In 2008 alone, 6,433 km expressways were added to the network.[27]

Longest international highway The Pan-American Highway, which connects many countries in the Americas, is nearly 25,000 kilometres (15,500 mi) long as of 2005[update].[citation needed] The Pan-American Highway
Pan-American Highway
is discontinuous because there is a significant gap in it in southeastern Panama, where the rainfall is immense and the terrain is entirely unsuitable for highway construction. Longest national highway (point to point) Trans-Canada Highway
Trans-Canada Highway
has two routes, with the northern Route spanning 7,821 km (4,860 mi) long as of 2006[update] alone, and over 10,700 km long including the southern portion. The T.C.H. runs east-west across southern Canada, the populated portion of the country, and it connects many of the major urban centres along its route crossing almost all of the provinces, and reaching almost all of the capital cities.[28] The T.C.H. begins on the east coast in Newfoundland, traverses that island, and crosses to the mainland by ferry. It reaches most of the Maritime Provinces
Maritime Provinces
of eastern Canada, and a side route using ferries traverses the province of Prince Edward Island. After crossing the two most populous provinces of Quebec
Quebec
and Ontario, the T.C.H. continues westward across Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia. After reaching Vancouver, B.C., on the Pacific Coast, there is a ferry route west to Vancouver Island
Vancouver Island
and the provincial capital city of Victoria, B.C. Longest national highway (circuit) Australia's Highway
Highway
1 at over 14,500 km (9,000 mi).[citation needed] It runs almost the entire way around the continent's coastline. With the exception of the Federal Capital of Canberra, which is far inland, Highway
Highway
1 links all of Australia's capital cities, although Brisbane and Darwin are not directly connected, but rather are bypassed short distances away. Also, there is a ferry connection to the island state of Tasmania, and then a stretch of Highway
Highway
1 that links the major towns and cities of Tasmania, including Launceston and Hobart (this state’s capital city). Largest national highway system The United States
United States
of America has approximately 6.43 million kilometres (4,000,000 mi) of highway within its borders as of 2008[update].[29] Busiest highway Highway
Highway
401 in Ontario, Canada, has volumes surpassing an average of 500,000 vehicles per day in some sections of Toronto
Toronto
as of 2006[update].[30][31] Widest highway (maximum number of lanes) The Katy Freeway
Freeway
(part of Interstate 10) in Houston, Texas, has a total of 26 lanes in some sections as of 2007[update].[citation needed][32] However, they are divided up into general use/ frontage roads/ HOV
HOV
lanes, restricting the traverse traffic flow. Widest highway (maximum number of through lanes) Interstate 5 along a two-mile-long (3.2 km) section between Interstate 805
Interstate 805
and California State Route 56
California State Route 56
in San Diego, California, which was completed in April 2007, is 22 lanes wide.[33] Highest international highway The Karakoram Highway, between Pakistan
Pakistan
and China, is at an altitude of 4,693 metres (15,397 ft).[citation needed]

Bus lane[edit]

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Highway
Highway
bus lane on Gyeongbu Expressway
Gyeongbu Expressway
in South Korea.

Some countries incorporate bus lanes onto highways.

Country Highway Bus lanes (km) Section

Australia M2 Hills Motorway

Abbott Road–Beecroft Road
Road
(Sydney)

India National Highway
Highway
(India) 19 30 lanes Road (Mumbai)

Canada Don Valley Parkway 0.458 shoulder converted as bypass lane from Lawrence Avenue East to York Mills Road

Canada Ontario
Ontario
Highway
Highway
417 7 Eagleson Road– Ontario
Ontario
Highway
Highway
417 (Ottawa)

Canada Ontario
Ontario
Highway
Highway
403 6 Mavis Road–Winston Churchill Boulevard
Boulevard
(Mississauga)

Hong Kong Tuen Mun
Tuen Mun
Road

South Korea Gyeongbu Expressway 137.4 Hannam IC (Seoul) ~ Sintanjin IC (Daejeon)

Netherlands A1 motorway (Netherlands)

End of A6-Vechtbrug (Muiden)

South Korea[edit] In South Korea, in February 1995— Bus lane
Bus lane
(essentially an HOV-9) established between the northern terminus and Sintanjin for important holidays and on 1 July 2008— Bus lane
Bus lane
enforcement between Seoul
Seoul
and Osan (Sintanjin on weekends) becomes daily between 6 AM and 10 PM. On 1 October this is adjusted to 7 AM to 9 PM weekdays, 9 AM to 9 PM weekends. Hong Kong[edit] In Hong Kong, some highways are set up with bus lanes to solve the traffic congestion.

District Highway Section

Tuen Mun Tuen Mun
Tuen Mun
Road So Kwun Wat
So Kwun Wat
to Sham Tseng

Sha Tin Lion Rock Tunnel The entry of the tunnel

Philippines[edit] Traffic congestion
Traffic congestion
was a principal problem in major roads and highways in the Philippines, especially in Metro Manila
Metro Manila
and other major cities. The government decided to set up some bus lanes in Metro Manila
Metro Manila
like in the Epifanio delos Santos Avenue. Gallery[edit]

Gravelly Hill Interchange
Gravelly Hill Interchange
in Birmingham, England

A1 Motorway
Motorway
near Athens, Greece
Greece
with rest area above

The ten-lane Highway
Highway
A1 near Bologna, Italy

A Polish expressway in Bielsko-Biała

E4 motorway with rest area outside Nyköping, Sweden

Highway
Highway
401 with collector and express lanes in Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

Highway
Highway
404 (southbound) with HOV
HOV
lanes in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

The Pan-American Highway
Pan-American Highway
where it serves as the main street in Máncora, Peru

A typical expressway in China

North Lantau Highway
North Lantau Highway
in Hong Kong

A typical Indian highway

32-lane toll plaza at an Indian expressway

Chennai- Bangalore
Bangalore
Highway

Mumbai
Mumbai
Pune Expressway as seen from Khandala

A highway interchange in Tehran, Iran

The Metropolitan Expressway
Metropolitan Expressway
in Tokyo, Japan

A highway in Kuwait City

Karakoram Highway, Pakistan

North Luzon Expressway, the Philippines

Namhae Expressway
Namhae Expressway
in Jinju, South Korea

Ja-Ela
Ja-Ela
Interchange in the Airport Expressway(E03) in Ja-Ela, Sri Lanka

3/4 highway interchange in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

National Route 1A near Từ Sơn, Vietnam

See also[edit] General[edit]

Bypass route Controlled-access highway Divided highway
Divided highway
(dual carriageway) Freeway Highway
Highway
systems by country Highwayman Infrastructure Limited-access road List of roads and highways Motorway Parkway

Passing lane Ring road Road Road
Road
junction Road
Road
safety Road
Road
transport Roadway air dispersion modeling Roadway noise Toll road Undivided highway
Undivided highway
(single carriageway)

By country[edit]

Algeria East–West Highway Autobahns of Austria Autoput
Autoput
and Autocesta
Autocesta
(Bosnia and Herzegovina) Rodovia
Rodovia
(Brazil) Avtomagistrala (Bulgaria, Ukraine) Freeways in Canada Expressway (China) Autocesta
Autocesta
(Croatia) Dálnice
Dálnice
(Czech Republic) Autostrada (Egypt, Poland, Romania) Autoroute (France) Autobahns of Germany Aftokinitodromos
Aftokinitodromos
(Greece) Autópálya
Autópálya
(Hungary) National Highways
Highways
and Expressways (India) Motorway
Motorway
(Ireland) List of highways in Israel Autostrade of Italy
Italy
(Italy) Kōsokudōro (Japan)

Lebuhraya (Malaysia) Avtopat
Avtopat
(Rep. Macedonia) Autoroute (Morocco) Motorvei
Motorvei
(Norway) Motorways and National Highways
Highways
of Pakistan Autoestrada [34] (Portugal) Autoput
Autoput
(Serbia) Avtocesta
Avtocesta
(Slovenia) Autopista (Spain) Motorväg
Motorväg
(Sweden) Autobahns of Switzerland Freeways in Taiwan Highways
Highways
in the United Kingdom Interstate Highway, U.S. Highway, state highway (United States) Autofamba
Autofamba
(Zimbabwe)

References[edit]

^ Diplock LJ, Suffolk County Council v. Mason [1979] AC 705 ^ "Queen's highway". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2013.  ^ Faulds, Ann; Craggs, Trudi & Saunders, John (31 January 2008). Chapter 4: The Definition of a Road?. Scottish Roads
Roads
Law (2nd ed.). Practical Law Company. Retrieved 21 March 2014.  ^ "23 U.S. Code § 101".  ^ "City of Long Beach v. Payne". Justia Law. Retrieved 2017-02-14.  ^ "highways and byways". The free dictionary. Retrieved 21 April 2010.  ^ "An Autobahn
Autobahn
Timeline". About.com. Retrieved 10 April 2010.  ^ "German Myth 8 Hitler and the Autobahn". About.com.  ^ "History of the Interstate Highway
Highway
System". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 10 April 2010.  ^ " Special
Special
Roads
Roads
Act 1949" (PDF). Office of Public Sector Information.  ^ "M1 London: Yorkshire Motorway, M10 and M45". Motorway
Motorway
Archives. Archived from the original on 16 April 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2010.  ^ Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ibañez, José A. (1998). Road
Road
Pricing for Congestion Management: The Transition from Theory to Policy. The University of California Transportation Center, University of California at Berkeley. p. 213.  ^ " Roads
Roads
and Innovation". doi:10.1162/rest_a_00619#.v1we4ualsfq.  ^ Shadely, John (1973). Acoustical analysis of the New Jersey Turnpike widening project between Raritan and East Brunswick. Bolt Beranek and Newman.  ^ Hogan, Michael (17–18 April 1973). Highway
Highway
Noise. 3rd Environmental Pollution
Pollution
Symposium, sponsored by AIAA, ACS, ASME, SAE. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.  ^ Zimmerman, Jess. "These beautiful bridges are just for animals".  ^ "World report on road traffic injury prevention". World Health Organisation. Retrieved 14 April 2010.  ^ "UN raises child accidents alarm". BBC News. 10 December 2008.  ^ "National Motor Vehicle
Vehicle
Crash Causation Survey" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 2014-08-07.  ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma (16 November 2007). " China
China
says needs extra million km of roads by 2020". Reuters.  ^ "15-3 Length of Transport Routes at Year-end by Region". China National Bureau of Statististcs. 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2013.  ^ " China
China
Has 3.48 Mln Km of Highways
Highways
in Operation". Chinagate.cn. 6 March 2007. Retrieved 12 January 2013.  ^ "National highway target set for year". Chinadaily.com.cn. 7 January 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2013.  ^ " China
China
Road
Road
Construction Report, 2007–2008". Okokok.com.cn. 22 December 2008. Retrieved 12 January 2013.  ^ Staff (10 February 2011). " China
China
Expressway System to Exceed US Interstates". New Geography. Retrieved 21 March 2014.  ^ "中国高速公路总里程达8.5万公里 今年新增1.1万 – 沈阳广播电视台官方网站 – 沈阳电视台 – 资讯潮流 趣味生活 尽在沈视网!". Csytv.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 12 January 2013.  ^ "More rural roads planned this year". Chinadaily.com.cn. 16 January 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2013.  ^ CBC Archives (6 August 2002). "Trans- Canada
Canada
Highway: Bridging the Distance". CBC News. Retrieved 20 December 2006.  ^ Central Intelligence Agency. "Transportation: Roadways". CIA World Factbook.  ^ Ministry of Transportation (Ontario) (6 August 2002). "Ontario government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway
Highway
401". Archived from the original on 2007-09-14. Retrieved 20 December 2006.  ^ Gray, Brian (10 April 2004). "GTA Economy Dinged by Every Crash on the 401: North America's Busiest Freeway". Toronto
Toronto
Sun. Retrieved 18 March 2007 – via Urban Planet. The 'phenomenal' number of vehicles on Hwy. 401 as it cuts through Toronto
Toronto
makes it the busiest freeway in North America...  ^ "List of World record highways". Inautonews.com. Retrieved 21 March 2014.  ^ Schmidt, Steve (28 March 2007). "Four new southbound lanes at I-5/805 merge set to open". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011.  ^ Notable for the introduction of the world's first electronic toll collection system, the Via Verde.

External links[edit]

Look up highway in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Highway

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Highways.

Full list of Euroroutes with distances The Greenroads Rating System Legal opinion, Kansas, U.S.A. Proposed Trans-Global Highway Euroroutes with distances Ontario
Ontario
Super Highway
Highway
Program (June 19, 2011) Video of Highway
Highway
401 through Greater Toronto

v t e

Streets and roadways

Types of road

Limited-access

Freeway / Motorway Dual carriageway / Divided highway / Expressway Elevated highway

By country

Australia Brazil China Croatia Czech Republic Germany Greece Hong Kong India Ireland Italy Pakistan Portugal Spain United Kingdom United States

Main roads

Arterial road Collector road County highway Express-collector setup Farm-to-market road Highway Link road Two-lane expressway 2+1 road 2+2 road Parkway Super two Trunk road Highway
Highway
systems by country

Local roads

Alley Backroad Bicycle boulevard Boulevard Country lane Dead end Driveway Frontage road Green lane Main street Primitive road Road Side road Single carriageway Single-track road Street Sunken lane

Other terms

Channelization Concurrency Detour Hierarchy of roads Private highway Route number

Special
Special
route Business route

Street
Street
hierarchy Toll road

Road
Road
junctions

Interchanges (grade-separated)

Cloverleaf Diamond Free-flow Directional T Diverging diamond Parclo Raindrop Roundabout Single-point urban (SPUI) Stack Three-level diamond Trumpet

Intersections (at-grade)

3-way junction Bowtie Box junction Continuous flow Hook turn Jughandle Michigan left Offset T-intersection Protected intersection Quadrant roadway Right-in/right-out
Right-in/right-out
(RIRO) Roundabout Seagull intersection Split intersection Superstreet Texas
Texas
U-turn Traffic circle Turnaround

Surfaces

Asphalt concrete Bioasphalt Brick Chipseal Cobblestone Concrete

Reinforced concrete

Corduroy Crocodile cracking Crushed stone Diamond grinding of pavement Dirt Full depth recycling Glassphalt Gravel Ice Macadam Pavement milling Permeable Plank Rubberized asphalt Sealcoat Sett Stamped asphalt Tarmac Texture

Road
Road
hazards

Aquaplaning Black ice Bleeding Crosswind Dead Man's Curve Expansion joint Fog Ford Hairpin turn Level crossing Manhole cover Oil spill Oversize load Pothole Road
Road
debris Road
Road
slipperiness Road
Road
train Roadkill Rockfall Rut Speed bump Storm drain Washboarding Washout Whiteout

Space and time allocation

Barrier transfer machine Bicycle lane Climbing lane Complete streets Contraflow lane Contraflow lane
Contraflow lane
reversal High-occupancy toll lane High-occupancy vehicle lane Lane Living street Managed lane Median / Central reservation Motorcycle lane Passing lane Pedestrian
Pedestrian
crossing Pedestrian
Pedestrian
zone Refuge island Reversible lane Road
Road
diet Road
Road
verge Runaway truck ramp Shared space Sidewalk / Pavement Shoulder Street
Street
running railway Traffic calming Traffic directionality Traffic island Traffic lanes Traffic signal preemption Unused highway Wide outside lane Woonerf

Demarcation

Bollard Botts' dots Cable barrier Cat's eye (road) Concrete
Concrete
step barrier Constant-slope barrier Curb F-Shape barrier Guard rail Jersey barrier Kassel kerb Noise barrier Raised pavement marker Road
Road
surface marking Rumble strip Traffic barrier Traffic cone

Structures

Bridge Causeway Overpass / Flyover Underpass / Tunnel

Glossary of road transport terms Road
Road
types

.