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The Info List - Hezbollah





Participant in the Lebanese Civil War, Israeli–Lebanese conflict, 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War, 2008 Lebanon Conflict
2008 Lebanon Conflict
and the Syrian Civil War

Primary target in War on Terror

Active 1985 – present

Headquarters Lebanon

Size 20,000 to 50,000

Allies

State allies:

 Iran  Syria  Iraq  Cuba  North Korea  Venezuela

Non state allies:

Amal Movement Houthis Hamas Popular Resistance Committees March 8 Alliance

Opponents

State opponents:

 United States[8]  Israel[9]  Saudi Arabia  Bahrain[10]  Canada[11]  Australia[12]  New Zealand[13]  United Kingdom[14]  France[15]  Netherlands[16]  Azerbaijan[17]  Japan[18]  Taiwan[19]

Suprastate organizations opponents:

 Arab League  Gulf Cooperation Council  European Union  NATO[20]

Non state opponents:

South Lebanon
Lebanon
Army Al-Qaeda  Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant Free Syrian Army Al-Nusra Front

Battles and wars Lebanese Civil War Israeli–Lebanese conflict 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War 2008 Lebanon
Lebanon
Conflict Syrian Civil War

Part of a series on

Hezbollah

Ideology History Flag

Foreign relations Funding

Political activities

2008 conflict in Lebanon 2006–08 Lebanese political protests Doha Agreement

Military activities

Lebanese Civil War

(1983 US Embassy bombing War of the Camps)

South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict (1982–2000)

2000–06 Shebaa Farms
Shebaa Farms
conflict 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War 2008 conflict in Lebanon Iran– Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
proxy conflict Syrian Civil War Hezbollah
Hezbollah
involvement in the Syrian Civil War Lebanese conflict (2012–present)

Capabilities

Armed strength Imam al-Mahdi Scouts

Organizations

Bayt al-Mal Jihad al-Bina

Islamic Resistance Support Organization (IRSO)

Media

Al-Manar Al-Nour

People

Secretaries-General

Subhi al-Tufayli Abbas al-Musawi Hassan Nasrallah

v t e

Hezbollah
Hezbollah
(pronounced /ˌhɛzbəˈlɑː/;[21] Arabic: حزب الله‎ Ḥizbu 'llāh, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.[22]—is a Shi'a
Shi'a
Islamist
Islamist
political party and militant group based in Lebanon.[23][24] Hezbollah's paramilitary wing is the Jihad Council,[25] and its political wing is Loyalty to the Resistance Bloc party in the Lebanese parliament. After the death of Abbas al-Musawi in 1992, the group has been headed by Hassan Nasrallah, its Secretary-General. The group is considered a terrorist organization by the governments of the United States, Israel, Canada, the Arab League,[26] the Gulf Cooperation Council,[27][28] along with its military/security wing by the United Kingdom, Australia
Australia
and the European Union. After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon
Lebanon
in 1982 in support of the Free Lebanon
Lebanon
State, Israel
Israel
occupied a strip of south Lebanon, which was controlled by the South Lebanon Army
South Lebanon Army
(SLA), a Lebanese Christian militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was founded in the early 1980s as part of an Iranian effort to aggregate a variety of militant Lebanese Shi'a
Shi'a
groups under one roof. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
acts as a proxy for Iran
Iran
in the ongoing Iran– Israel
Israel
proxy conflict.[29] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran
Iran
primarily to harass the Israeli occupation.[5] Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran
Iran
with permission from the Syrian government,[30] which was in occupation of Lebanon
Lebanon
at the time. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its objectives as the expulsion of "the Americans, the French and their allies definitely from Lebanon, putting an end to any colonialist entity on our land", submission of the Phalangists to "just power" and bringing them to justice "for the crimes they have perpetrated against Muslims and Christians", and permitting "all the sons of our people" to choose the form of government they want, while calling on them to "pick the option of Islamic government".[31] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
waged a guerilla campaign in South Lebanon
Lebanon
and as a result, Israel
Israel
withdrew from Lebanon
Lebanon
on 24 May 2000, and SLA collapsed and surrendered. Backed by Iran, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters fought against Serbian forces during the Bosnian War.[32] Hezbollah's military strength has grown so significantly[33][34] that its paramilitary wing is considered more powerful than the Lebanese Army.[35][36] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has been described as a "state within a state",[37] and has grown into an organization with seats in the Lebanese government, a radio and a satellite TV station, social services and large-scale military deployment of fighters beyond Lebanon's borders.[38][39][40] Hezbollah is part of the March 8 Alliance
March 8 Alliance
within Lebanon, in opposition to the March 14 Alliance. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
maintains strong support among Lebanon's Shi'a
Shi'a
population,[41] while Sunnis have disagreed with the group's agenda.[42][43] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
also finds support from within some Christian areas of Lebanon
Lebanon
that are Hezbollah
Hezbollah
strongholds.[44] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
receives military training, weapons, and financial support from Iran, and political support from Syria.[45] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and Israel fought each other in the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War. After the 2006–08 Lebanese protests[46] and clashes,[47] a national unity government was formed in 2008, with Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and its opposition allies obtaining eleven of thirty cabinets seats, which gives them veto power.[24] In August 2008, Lebanon's new Cabinet unanimously approved a draft policy statement which recognized Hezbollah's existence as an armed organization and guarantees its right to "liberate or recover occupied lands" (such as the Shebaa Farms).[48] Since 2012, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war
Syrian civil war
in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has described as a Zionist plot and a "Wahhabi-Zionist conspiracy" to destroy its alliance with Assad
Assad
against Israel.[49][50] It has deployed its militia in both Syria
Syria
and Iraq
Iraq
to fight or train local forces to fight against ISIS.[51][52] Once seen as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab world,[23] this image upon which the group's legitimacy rested has been severely damaged due to the sectarian nature of the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
in which it has become embroiled.[38][53][54]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Foundation 1.2 1980s 1.3 After 1990 1.4 Islamic Jihad Organization (IJO)

2 Ideology

2.1 1985 manifesto 2.2 Online Media 2.3 Attitudes, statements, and actions concerning Israel
Israel
and Zionism 2.4 Attitudes and actions concerning Jews and Judaism

3 Organization

3.1 Funding

4 Social services 5 Political activities

5.1 Media operations

6 Secret services 7 Armed strength 8 Military activities

8.1 Lebanese Resistance Brigades 8.2 Alleged suicide and terror attacks 8.3 During the Bosnian War 8.4 Conflict with Israel

8.4.1 South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict 8.4.2 2000 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
cross-border raid 8.4.3 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War 8.4.4 2010 gas field claims 8.4.5 2011 attack in Istanbul 8.4.6 2012 planned attack in Cyprus 8.4.7 2012 Burgas attack 8.4.8 2015 Shebaa farms
Shebaa farms
incident

8.5 Assassination of Rafic Hariri 8.6 Involvement in the Syrian Civil War 8.7 Involvement in Iranian-led intervention in Iraq 8.8 Other

9 Attacks on Hezbollah
Hezbollah
leaders 10 Targeting policy 11 Foreign relations

11.1 Public opinion 11.2 Designation as a terrorist organization or resistance movement

11.2.1 In the Western world 11.2.2 In the Arab and Muslim world 11.2.3 In Lebanon 11.2.4 Scholarly views

11.3 Views of foreign legislators

12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

15.1 UN resolutions regarding Hezbollah 15.2 Other links

History Main article: History of Hezbollah Foundation After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon
Lebanon
in 1982, Israel
Israel
occupied a strip of south Lebanon, which was controlled by the South Lebanon
Lebanon
Army (SLA), a militia supported by Israel. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was conceived by Muslim clerics and funded by Iran
Iran
primarily to harass the Israeli occupation.[5] Its leaders were followers of Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of 1,500 Revolutionary Guards that arrived from Iran
Iran
with permission from the Syrian government,[30] which was in occupation of Lebanon
Lebanon
at the time. Scholars differ as to when Hezbollah
Hezbollah
came to be a distinct entity. Various sources list the official formation of the group as early as 1982[55][56][57][58] whereas Diaz and Newman maintain that Hezbollah remained an amalgamation of various violent Shi'a
Shi'a
extremists until as late as 1985.[59] Another version states that it was formed by supporters of Sheikh
Sheikh
Ragheb Harb, a leader of the southern Shia resistance killed by Israel
Israel
in 1984.[60] Regardless of when the name came into official use, a number of Shi'a
Shi'a
groups were slowly assimilated into the organization, such as Islamic Jihad, Organization of the Oppressed on Earth and the Revolutionary Justice Organization[citation needed]. These designations are considered to be synonymous with Hezbollah
Hezbollah
by the US,[61] Israel[62] and Canada.[63] 1980s Main articles: Lebanese civil war
Lebanese civil war
and South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict (1982–2000) Hezbollah
Hezbollah
emerged in South Lebanon
Lebanon
during a consolidation of Shia militias as a rival to the older Amal Movement. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
played a significant role in the Lebanese civil war, opposing American forces in 1982–83 and opposing Amal and Syria
Syria
during the 1985–88 War of the Camps. However, Hezbollah's early primary focus was ending Israel's occupation of southern Lebanon[5] following Israel's 1982 invasion and siege of Beirut.[64] Amal, the main Lebanese Shia political group, initiated guerrilla warfare. In 2006, former Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
stated, "When we entered Lebanon
Lebanon
… there was no Hezbollah. We were accepted with perfumed rice and flowers by the Shia in the south. It was our presence there that created Hezbollah".[65] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
waged an asymmetric war using suicide attacks against the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces (IDF) and Israeli targets outside of Lebanon.[66] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is reputed to have been among the first Islamic resistance groups in the Middle East to use the tactics of suicide bombing, assassination, and capturing foreign soldiers,[30] as well as murders[67] and hijackings.[68] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
also employed more conventional military tactics and weaponry, notably Katyusha rockets and other missiles.[67][69] At the end of the Lebanese Civil War
Lebanese Civil War
in 1990, despite the Taif Agreement asking for the "disbanding of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias," Syria, which controlled Lebanon at that time, allowed Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to maintain their arsenal and control Shia areas along the border with Israel.[70] After 1990 In the 1990s, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
transformed from a revolutionary group into a political one, in a process which is described as the Lebanonisation of Hezbollah. Unlike its uncompromising revolutionary stance in the 1980s, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
conveyed a lenient stance towards the Lebanese state.[71] In 1992 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
decided to participate in elections, and Ali Khamenei, supreme leader of Iran, endorsed it. Former Hezbollah secretary general, Subhi al-Tufayli, contested this decision, which led to a schism in Hezbollah. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
won all twelve seats which were on its electoral list. At the end of that year, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
began to engage in dialog with Lebanese Christians. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
regards cultural, political, and religious freedoms in Lebanon
Lebanon
as sanctified, although it does not extend these values to groups who have relations with Israel.[72] In 1997 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
formed the multi-confessional Lebanese Brigades to Fighting the Israeli Occupation in an attempt to revive national and secular resistance against Israel, thereby marking the "Lebanonisation" of resistance.[73] The Lebanese Daily Star newspaper reported on 14 April 2014 that three Hezbollah
Hezbollah
members had been arrested in Thailand. The information was obtained from a specialist Thai intelligence website that identified a Thai citizen, Y. Ayyad, described as a Hezbollah
Hezbollah
member working out of a unit in East Asia, while the two Lebanese nationals that were arrested, D. Farhat and B. Bahsoun, were considered "suspects."[74] Islamic Jihad Organization (IJO) Whether the Islamic Jihad Organization (IJO) was a nom de guerre used by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
or a separate organization, is disputed. According to certain sources, IJO was identified as merely a "telephone organization",[75][76] and[77] whose name was "used by those involved to disguise their true identity."[78][79][80][81][82] Hezbollah reportedly also used another name, "Islamic Resistance" (al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya), for attacks against Israel.[83] A 2003 American court decision found IJO was the name used by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
for its attacks in Lebanon, parts of the Middle East and Europe.[84] The US,[85] Israel[86] and Canada[87] consider the names "Islamic Jihad Organization", "Organization of the Oppressed on Earth" and the "Revolutionary Justice Organization" to be synonymous with Hezbollah. Ideology Main article: Ideology of Hezbollah Back in the 1980s, the ideology of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was described as radical. It is presented in the 1985 manifesto. The first objective was fighting against American and Israeli imperialism, freedom of the occupied Southern Lebanon
Lebanon
and all other occupied territories. The second objective was to gather all Muslims in the concept of ummah; then Lebanon
Lebanon
would continue the 1979 Revolution
1979 Revolution
of Iran. It also declared it would protect all Lebanese communities except the ones which collaborated with Israel, and supported all national movements—Muslim or non-Muslim—throughout the world. The Ideology has been changed, and today Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is a left-wing political entity focused on social injustice.[88] The ideology of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has been summarized as[according to whom?] Shi'i
Shi'i
radicalism;[89][90][91] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
follows the Islamic Shi'a theology developed by Iranian leader Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini.[92] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was largely formed with the aid of the Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Khomeini's followers in the early 1980s in order to spread Islamic revolution[93] and follows a distinct version of Islamic Shi'a
Shi'a
ideology (Valiyat al-faqih or Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists) developed by Ayatollah
Ayatollah
Ruhollah Khomeini, leader of the "Islamic Revolution" in Iran.[23][86] Although Hezbollah
Hezbollah
originally aimed to transform Lebanon into a formal Faqihi Islamic republic, this goal has been abandoned in favor of a more inclusive approach.[5] 1985 manifesto On 16 February 1985, Sheik Ibrahim al-Amin issued Hezbollah's manifesto. Translated excerpts from Hezbollah's original 1985 manifesto read:

We are the sons of the umma (Muslim community) ... ... We are an ummah linked to the Muslims of the whole world by the solid doctrinal and religious connection of Islam, whose message God wanted to be fulfilled by the Seal of the Prophets, i.e., Prophet Muhammad. ... As for our culture, it is based on the Holy Quran, the Sunna and the legal rulings of the faqih who is our source of imitation ...[31]

Online Media There are several YouTube channels that support Hezbollah
Hezbollah
such as the Electronic Resistance Attitudes, statements, and actions concerning Israel
Israel
and Zionism See also: Hezbollah
Hezbollah
foreign relations, Islamic Resistance Support Organization, Lebanon
Lebanon
hostage crisis, and Hezbollah
Hezbollah
armed strength From the inception of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to the present,[31][94] the elimination of the State of Israel
Israel
has been one of Hezbollah's primary goals. Some translations of Hezbollah's 1985 Arabic-language manifesto state that "our struggle will end only when this entity [Israel] is obliterated".[31] According to Hezbollah's Deputy-General, Naim Qassem, the struggle against Israel
Israel
is a core belief of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and the central rationale of Hezbollah's existence.[95] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
says that its continued hostilities against Israel
Israel
are justified as reciprocal to Israeli operations against Lebanon
Lebanon
and as retaliation for what they claim is Israel's occupation of Lebanese territory.[96][97][98] Israel
Israel
withdrew from Lebanon
Lebanon
in 2000, and their withdrawal was verified by the United Nations
United Nations
as being in accordance with resolution 425 of 19 March 1978, however Lebanon
Lebanon
considers the Shebaa farms—a 26-km² (10-mi²) piece of land captured by Israel from Syria
Syria
in the 1967 war and considered by the UN to be Syrian territory occupied by Israel—to be Lebanese territory.[99][100] Additionally, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
claims that three Lebanese prisoners are being held in Israel.[101] Finally, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
consider Israel
Israel
to be an illegitimate state. For these reasons, they justify their actions as acts of defensive jihad.[102]

If they go from Shebaa, we won't stop fighting them. ... Our goal is to liberate the 1948 borders of Palestine, ... The Jews who survive this war of liberation can go back to Germany
Germany
or wherever they came from. However, that the Jews who lived in Palestine before 1948 will be 'allowed to live as a minority and they will be cared for by the Muslim majority.'

Hezbollah's spokesperson Hassan Ezzedin, about an Israeli withdrawal from Shebaa Farms[70]

Attitudes and actions concerning Jews and Judaism Main article: Ideology of Hezbollah
Ideology of Hezbollah
§ Attitudes, statements, and actions concerning Jews and Judaism Hezbollah
Hezbollah
officials have said, on rare occasions, that it is only "anti-Zionist" and not anti-Semitic.[103] However, according to scholars, "these words do not hold up upon closer examination". Among other actions, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
actively engages in Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial
and spreads anti-Semitic conspiracy theories.[103] Various anti-Semitic statements have been attributed to Hezbollah officials.[104] Amal Saad-Ghorayeb, a Lebanese political analyst, argues that although Zionism
Zionism
has influenced Hezbollah's anti-Judaism, "it is not contingent upon it "because Hezbollah's hatred of Jews is more religiously motivated than politically motivated.[105] Robert S. Wistrich, a historian specializing in the study of anti-Semitism, described Hezbollah's ideology concerning Jews:

"The anti-Semitism of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
leaders and spokesmen combines the image of seemingly invincible Jewish power ... and cunning with the contempt normally reserved for weak and cowardly enemies. Like the Hamas
Hamas
propaganda for holy war, that of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has relied on the endless vilification of Jews as 'enemies of mankind,' 'conspiratorial, obstinate, and conceited' adversaries full of 'satanic plans' to enslave the Arabs. It fuses traditional Islamic anti-Judaism with Western conspiracy myths, Third Worldist anti-Zionism, and Iranian Shiite contempt for Jews as 'ritually impure' and corrupt infidels. Sheikh
Sheikh
Fadlallah typically insists ... that Jews wish to undermine or obliterate Islam and Arab cultural identity in order to advance their economic and political domination."[106]

Conflicting reports say Al-Manar, the Hezbollah-owned and operated television station, accused either Israel
Israel
or Jews of deliberately spreading HIV and other diseases to Arabs throughout the Middle East.[107][108][109] Al-Manar
Al-Manar
was criticized in the West for airing "anti-Semitic propaganda" in the form of a television drama depicting a Jewish world domination
Jewish world domination
conspiracy.[110][111][112] The group has been accused by American analysts of engaging in Holocaust denial.[113][114][115] In addition, during its 2006 war, it apologized only for killing Israel's Arabs (i.e., non-Jews).[103] In November 2009, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
pressured a private English-language school to drop reading excerpts from The Diary of Anne Frank, a book of the writings from the diary kept by the Jewish child Anne Frank while she was in hiding with her family during the Nazi occupation of the Netherlands.[116] This was after Hezbollah's Al-Manar
Al-Manar
television channel complained, asking how long Lebanon
Lebanon
would "remain an open arena for the Zionist invasion of education?"[117] Organization

Organizational chart of Hezbollah, by Ahmad Nizar Hamzeh

At the beginning many Hezbollah
Hezbollah
leaders have maintained that the movement was "not an organization, for its members carry no cards and bear no specific responsibilities,"[118] and that the movement does not have "a clearly defined organizational structure."[119] Nowadays, as Hezbollah
Hezbollah
scholar Magnus Ranstorp
Magnus Ranstorp
reports, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
does indeed have a formal governing structure, and in keeping with the principle of Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists (velayat-e faqih), it "concentrate[s] ... all authority and powers" in its religious leaders, whose decisions then "flow from the ulama down the entire community."

The supreme decision-making bodies of the Hezbollah
Hezbollah
were divided between the Majlis al-Shura (Consultative Assembly) which was headed by 12 senior clerical members with responsibility for tactical decisions and supervision of overall Hizballah activity throughout Lebanon, and the Majlis al-Shura al-Karar (the Deciding Assembly), headed by Sheikh
Sheikh
Muhammad
Muhammad
Hussein Fadlallah and composed of eleven other clerics with responsibility for all strategic matters. Within the Majlis al-Shura, there existed seven specialized committees dealing with ideological, financial, military and political, judicial, informational and social affairs. In turn, the Majlis al-Shura and these seven committees were replicated in each of Hizballah's three main operational areas (the Beqaa, Beirut, and the South).[120]

Since the Supreme Leader of Iran
Iran
is the ultimate clerical authority, Hezbollah's leaders have appealed to him "for guidance and directives in cases when Hezbollah's collective leadership [was] too divided over issues and fail[ed] to reach a consensus."[120] After the death of Iran's first Supreme Leader, Khomeini, Hezbollah's governing bodies developed a more "independent role" and appealed to Iran
Iran
less often.[120] Since the Second Lebanon
Lebanon
War, however, Iran
Iran
has restructured Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to limit the power of Hassan Nasrallah, and invested billions of dollars "rehabilitating" Hezbollah.[121] Structurally, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
does not distinguish between its political/social activities within Lebanon
Lebanon
and its military/jihad activities against Israel. " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has a single leadership," according to Naim Qassem, Hezbollah's second in command. "All political, social and jihad work is tied to the decisions of this leadership ... The same leadership that directs the parliamentary and government work also leads jihad actions in the struggle against Israel."[122] In 2010, Iran's parliamentary speaker Ali Larijani
Ali Larijani
said, " Iran
Iran
takes pride in Lebanon's Islamic resistance movement for its steadfast Islamic stance. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
nurtures the original ideas of Islamic Jihad." He also instead charged the West with having accused Iran
Iran
with support of terrorism and said, "The real terrorists are those who provide the Zionist regime with military equipment to bomb the people."[123] Funding Main article: Funding of Hezbollah See also: Operation Smokescreen Money comes from Lebanese business groups, private persons, businessmen, the Lebanese diaspora involved in African diamond exploration, other Islamic groups and countries, and the taxes paid by the Shia Lebanese.[124] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
says that the main source of its income comes from its own investment portfolios and donations by Muslims, however, Western sources maintain that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
actually receives most of its financial, training, weapons, explosives, political, diplomatic, and organizational aid from Iran
Iran
and Syria.[70][85][125] Iran
Iran
is said to have given $400 million between 1983 and 1989 through donation. The situation has been changed due to economic problems, but Iran
Iran
still funds humanitarian actions carried on by Hezbollah.[124] According to reports released in February 2010, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
received $400 million from Iran.[126][127][128] The US estimates that Iran
Iran
has been giving Hezbollah
Hezbollah
about US$60–100 million per year in financial assistance.[129] Other estimates are as high as $200 million annually.[citation needed] In 2011 Iran
Iran
earmarked $7 million to Hezbollah’s activities in the region.[130] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has relied also on funding from the Shi'ite Lebanese Diaspora in West Africa, the United States
United States
and, most importantly, the Triple Frontier, or tri-border area, along the junction of Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil.[131] U.S. law enforcement officials have identified an illegal multimillion-dollar cigarette-smuggling fund raising operation[132] and a drug smuggling operation.[133][134][135] However, Nasrallah has repeatedly denied any links between the South American drug trade and Hezbollah, calling such accusations "propaganda" and attempts "to damage the image of Hezbollah".[136][137] Members of the Venezuelan government
Venezuelan government
have been accused of providing financial aid to Hezbollah
Hezbollah
by the United States
United States
Department of the Treasury.[138] According to the testimony of a former Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Roger Noriega, Hugo Chávez's government gave "indispensable support" to Iran
Iran
and Hezbollah
Hezbollah
in the Western Hemisphere.[139] In an article by the conservative think tank the American Enterprise Institute, Noriega explained how two witnesses alleged that Ghazi Atef Nassereddine, a Venezuelan diplomat in Syria, was an operative of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
who used Venezuelan entities to launder money for Hezbollah
Hezbollah
with President Nicolas Maduro's personal approval.[140] Social services Main article: Hezbollah
Hezbollah
social services Hezbollah
Hezbollah
organizes an extensive social development program and runs hospitals, news services, educational facilities, and encouragement of Nikah mut‘ah.[126][141] One of its established institutions, Jihad Al Binna's Reconstruction Campaign, is responsible for numerous economic and infrastructure development projects in Lebanon.[142] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has set up a Martyr's Institute (Al-Shahid Social Association), which guarantees to provide living and education expenses "for the families of fighters who die" in battle.[128] An IRIN news report of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs noted:

Hezbollah
Hezbollah
not only has armed and political wings – it also boasts an extensive social development program. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
currently operates at least four hospitals, twelve clinics, twelve schools and two agricultural centres that provide farmers with technical assistance and training. It also has an environmental department and an extensive social assistance program. Medical care is also cheaper than in most of the country's private hospitals and free for Hezbollah members.[126]

According to CNN, " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
did everything that a government should do, from collecting the garbage to running hospitals and repairing schools."[143] In July 2006, during the war with Israel, when there was no running water in Beirut, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was arranging supplies around the city. Lebanese Shiites "see Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a political movement and a social service provider as much as it is a militia."[143] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
also rewards its guerilla members who have been wounded in battle by taking them to Hezbollah-run amusement parks.[144] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is, therefore, deeply embedded in the Lebanese society.[30] Political activities

Lebanon

This article is part of a series on the politics and government of Lebanon

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List of presidents Incumbent: Michel Aoun

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List of prime minister Incumbent: Saad Hariri

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v t e

Main article: Hezbollah
Hezbollah
political activities

Hezbollah-controlled areas in July 2006, most of Lebanon's majority Shi'a
Shi'a
areas.

10 December 2006 anti-government rally in Beirut

Hezbollah
Hezbollah
along with Amal is one of two major political parties in Lebanon
Lebanon
that represent the Shiite Muslims.[145] Unlike Amal, whose support is predominantly in the South of the country, Hezbollah maintains broad based support in all three areas of Lebanon
Lebanon
with a majority Shia Muslim population: in the South, in Beirut
Beirut
and its surrounding area, and in the northern Beqaa valley and Hirmil region.[146] It holds 14 of the 128 seats in the Parliament of Lebanon and is a member of the Resistance and Development Bloc. According to Daniel L. Byman, it's "the most powerful single political movement in Lebanon."[147] Hezbollah, along with the Amal Movement, represents most of Lebanese Shi'a. However, unlike Amal, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has not disarmed. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
participates in the Parliament of Lebanon. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has been one of the main parties of March 8 Alliance
March 8 Alliance
since March 2005. Although Hezbollah
Hezbollah
had joined the new government in 2005, it remained staunchly opposed to the March 14 Alliance.[148] On 1 December 2006, these groups began the 2006–2008 Lebanese political protests, a series of protests and sit-ins in opposition to the government of Prime Minister Fouad Siniora.[46] On 7 May 2008, Lebanon's 17-month-long political crisis spiraled out of control. The fighting was sparked by a government move to shut down Hezbollah's telecommunication network and remove Beirut
Beirut
Airport's security chief over alleged ties to Hezbollah. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
leader Hassan Nasrallah said the government's decision to declare the group's military telecommunications network illegal was a "declaration of war" on the organization, and demanded that the government revoke it.[149] Hezbollah-led opposition fighters seized control of several West Beirut
Beirut
neighborhoods from Future Movement
Future Movement
militiamen loyal to the backed government, in street battles that left 11 dead and 30 wounded. The opposition-seized areas were then handed over to the Lebanese Army.[47] The army also pledged to resolve the dispute and has reversed the decisions of the government by letting Hezbollah
Hezbollah
preserve its telecoms network and re-instating the airport's security chief.[150] At the end, rival Lebanese leaders reached consensus over Doha Agreement
Doha Agreement
on 21 May 2008, to end the 18-month political feud that exploded into fighting and nearly drove the country to a new civil war.[151] On the basis of this agreement, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and its opposition allies were effectively granted veto power in Lebanon's parliament. At the end of the conflicts, National unity government was formed by Fouad Siniora
Fouad Siniora
on 11 July 2008 and Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has one minister and controls eleven of thirty seats in the cabinet.[24] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
currently[when?] sits in the opposition March 8 alliance. However, they withdrew from the government citing inability to discuss issues over the Special
Special
Tribunal for Lebanon. Media operations Hezbollah
Hezbollah
operates a satellite television station, Al-Manar
Al-Manar
TV ("the Lighthouse"), and a radio station, al-Nour ("the Light").[152] Al-Manar
Al-Manar
broadcasts from Beirut, Lebanon.[152] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
launched the station in 1991[153] with the help of Iranian funds.[154] Al-Manar, the self-proclaimed "Station of the Resistance," (qanat al-muqawama) is a key player in what Hezbollah
Hezbollah
calls its "psychological warfare against the Zionist enemy"[154][155] and an integral part of Hezbollah's plan to spread its message to the entire Arab world.[154] In addition, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has a weekly publication, Al Ahd, which was established in 1984.[156] It is the only media outlet which is openly affiliated with the organization.[156] Hezbollah's television station Al-Manar
Al-Manar
airs programming designed to inspire suicide attacks in Gaza, the West Bank, and Iraq.[70][153][157] Al-Manar's transmission in France
France
is prohibited due to promotion of Holocaust denial, a criminal offense in France.[158] The United States
United States
lists Al-Manar
Al-Manar
television network as a terrorist organization.[159] Al-Manar
Al-Manar
was designated as a "Specially Designated Global Terrorist entity," and banned by the United States in December 2004.[160] It has also been banned by France, Spain and Germany.[161][162] Materials aimed at instilling principles of nationalism and Islam in children are an aspect of Hezbollah's media operations.[163] The Hezbollah
Hezbollah
Central Internet Bureau released a video game in 2003 entitled Special
Special
Force and a sequel in 2007 in which players are rewarded with points and weapons for killing Israelis.[164] In 2012, Al-Manar
Al-Manar
aired a television special praising an 8-year-old boy who raised money for Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and said: "When I grow up, I will be a communist resistance warrior with Hezbollah, fighting the United States
United States
and Israel, I will tear them to pieces and drive them out of Lebanon, the Golan and Palestine, which I love very dearly."[165] Secret services Hezbollah's secret services have been described as "one of the best in the world", and have even infiltrated the Israeli army. Hezbollah's secret services collaborate with the Lebanese intelligence agencies.[124] In the summer of 1982, Hezbollah's Special
Special
Security Apparatus was created by Hussein al-Khalil, now a "top political adviser to Nasrallah";[166] while Hezbollah's counterintelligence was initially managed by Iran's Quds Force,[167]:238 the organization continued to grow during the 1990s. By 2008, scholar Carl Anthony Wege writes, "Hizballah had obtained complete dominance over Lebanon’s official state counterintelligence apparatus, which now constituted a Hizballah asset for counterintelligence purposes."[168]:775 This close connection with Lebanese intelligence helped bolster Hezbollah's financial counterintelligence unit.[168]:772, 775 According to Ahmad Hamzeh, Hezbollah's counterintelligence service is divided into Amn al-Muddad, responsible for "external" or "encounter" security; and Amn al-Hizb, which protects the organization's integrity and its leaders. According to Wege, Amn al-Muddad "may have received specialized intelligence training in Iran
Iran
and possibly North Korea".[168]:773–774 The organization also includes a military security component, as well as an External Security Organization (al-Amn al-Khariji or Unit 910) that operates covertly outside Lebanon.[167]:238 Successful Hezbollah
Hezbollah
counterintelligence operations include thwarting the CIA's attempted kidnapping of foreign operations chief Hassan Ezzeddine in 1994; the 1997 manipulation of a double agent that led to the Ansariya Ambush; and the 2000 kidnapping of alleged Mossad agent Elhanan Tannenbaum.[168]:773 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
also collaborated with the Lebanese government
Lebanese government
in 2006 to detect Adeeb al-Alam, a former colonel, as an Israeli spy.[168]:774 Also, the organization recruited IDF Lieutenant Colonel Omar al-Heib, who was convicted in 2006 of conducting surveillance for Hezbollah.[168]:776 In 2009, Hezbollah apprehended Marwan Faqih, a garage owner who installed tracking devices in Hezbollah-owned vehicles.[168]:774 Hezbollah's counterintelligence apparatus also uses electronic surveillance and intercept technologies. By 2011, Hezbollah counterintelligence began to use software to analyze cellphone data and detect espionage; suspicious callers were then subjected to conventional surveillance. In the mid-1990s, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was able to "download unencrypted video feeds from Israeli drones,"[168]:777 and Israeli SIGINT
SIGINT
efforts intensified after the 2000 withdrawal from Lebanon. With possible help from Iran
Iran
and the Russian FSB, Hezbollah augmented its electronic counterintelligence capabilities, and succeeded by 2008 in detecting Israeli bugs near Mount Sannine and in the organization's fiber optic network.[168]:774, 777–778 Armed strength Main article: Hezbollah
Hezbollah
armed strength Hezbollah
Hezbollah
does not reveal its armed strength. Mustafa Alani, security director at the Dubai-based Gulf Research Centre, estimated that Hezbollah's armed wing comprises 1,000 full-time Hezbollah
Hezbollah
members, along with a further 6,000–10,000 volunteers.[169] According to the Iranian Fars News Agency, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has up to 65,000 fighters.[170] It is often described as more militarily powerful than the Lebanese Army.[171][172][173] Israeli commander Gui Zur called Hezbollah
Hezbollah
"by far the greatest guerrilla group in the world".[174] According to Israeli Minister Naftali Bennett, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has around 130,000 rockets and missiles in place targeting Israel.[175] Israeli Defense Forces Chief of Staff Gadi Eisenkot
Gadi Eisenkot
acknowledged that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
possesses "tens of thousands" of long- and short-range rockets, drones, advanced computer encryption capabilities, as well as advanced defense capabilities like the SA-6
SA-6
anti-aircraft missile system.[176] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
possesses the Katyusha-122 rocket, which has a range of 29 km (18 mi) and carries a 15-kg (33-lb) warhead. Hezbollah also possesses about 100 long-range missiles. They include the Iranian-made Fajr-3
Fajr-3
and Fajr-5, the latter with a range of 75 km (47 mi), enabling it to strike the Israeli port of Haifa, and the Zelzal-1, with an estimated 150 km (93 mi) range, which can reach Tel Aviv. Fajr-3
Fajr-3
missiles have a range of 40 km (25 mi) and a 45-kg (99-lb) warhead, and Fajr-5
Fajr-5
missiles, which extend to 72 km (45 mi), also hold 45-kg (99-lb) warheads.[169] It was reported that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is in possession of Scud missiles that were provided to them by Syria.[177] Syria
Syria
denied the reports.[178] According to various reports, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is armed with anti-tank guided missiles, namely, the Russian-made AT-3 Sagger, AT-4 Spigot, AT-5 Spandrel, AT-13 Saxhorn-2 'Metis-M', АТ-14 Spriggan 'Kornet'; Iranian-made Ra'ad (version of AT-3 Sagger), Towsan (version of AT-5 Spandrel), Toophan
Toophan
(version of BGM-71 TOW); and European-made MILAN
MILAN
missiles. These weapons have been used against IDF soldiers, causing many of the deaths during the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War.[179] A small number of Saeghe-2s (Iranian-made version of M47 Dragon) were also used in the war.[180] For air defense, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has anti-aircraft weapons that include the ZU-23
ZU-23
artillery and the man-portable, shoulder-fired SA-7 and SA-18 surface-to-air missile (SAM).[181] One of the most effective weapons deployed by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has been the C-802
C-802
anti-ship missile.[182] In April 2010, U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates
Robert Gates
claimed that the Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has far more missiles and rockets than the majority of countries, and said that Syria
Syria
and Iran
Iran
are providing weapons to the organization. Israel
Israel
also claims that Syria
Syria
is providing the organization with these weapons. Syria
Syria
has denied supplying these weapons and views these claims as an Israeli excuse for an attack.[citation needed] Leaked cables from American diplomats suggest that the United States
United States
has been trying unsuccessfully to prevent Syria from "supplying arms to Hezbollah
Hezbollah
in Lebanon", and that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has "amassed a huge stockpile (of arms) since its 2006 war with Israel"; the arms were described as "increasingly sophisticated."[183] Gates added that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is possibly armed with chemical or biological weapons, as well as 65-mile (105 km) anti-ship missiles that could threaten U.S. ships.[184] As of 2017[update], the Israeli government believe Hezbollah
Hezbollah
had an arsenal of nearly 150,000 rockets stationed on its border with Lebanon.[185] Some of these missiles are said to be capable of penetrating cities as far away as Eilat.[186] The IDF has accused Hezbollah
Hezbollah
of storing these rockets beneath hospitals, schools, and civilian homes.[186] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has also used drones against Israel, by penetrating air defense systems, in a report verified by Nasrallah, who added, "This is only part of our capabilities".[187][188] Israeli military officials and analysts have also drawn attention to the experience and weaponry the group would have gained from the involvement of thousands of its fighters in the Syrian Civil War. "This kind of experience cannot be bought," said Gabi Siboni, director of the military and strategic affairs program at the Institute for National Security Studies at Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
University. "It is an additional factor that we will have to deal with. There is no replacement for experience, and it is not to be scoffed at."[189] Military activities Main article: Hezbollah
Hezbollah
military activities Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has a military branch known as the Jihad Council,[25] one component of which is Al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya ("The Islamic Resistance"), and is the possible sponsor of a number of lesser-known militant groups, some of which may be little more than fronts for Hezbollah
Hezbollah
itself, including the Organization of the Oppressed, the Revolutionary Justice Organization, the Organization of Right Against Wrong, and Followers of the Prophet Muhammad.[85] United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559
called for the disarmament of militia[190] with the Taif agreement at the end of the Lebanese civil war. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
denounced, and protested against, the resolution.[191] The 2006 military conflict with Israel
Israel
has increased the controversy. Failure to disarm remains a violation of the resolution and agreement as well as subsequent United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 1701.[192] Since then both Israel
Israel
and Hezbollah have asserted that the organization has gained in military strength.[34] A Lebanese public opinion poll taken in August 2006 shows that most of the Shia did not believe that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
should disarm after the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
war, while the majority of Sunni, Druze and Christians believed that they should.[193] The Lebanese cabinet, under president Michel Suleiman
Michel Suleiman
and Prime Minister Fouad Siniora, guidelines state that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
enjoys the right to "liberate occupied lands."[194] In 2009, a Hezbollah
Hezbollah
commander (speaking on condition of anonymity) said, "[W]e have far more rockets and missiles [now] than we did in 2006."[195] Lebanese Resistance Brigades Main article: Lebanese Resistance Brigades

Lebanese Resistance Brigades Saraya al-Moukawama al-Lubnaniyya

سرايا المقاومة اللبنانية Participant in South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict (1985–2000) and Battle of Sidon
Sidon
(2013)

Active 1998–2000 2009–present

Leaders

Mohammed Aknan (Beirut) Mohammad Saleh (Sidon) †

Area of operations Southern Lebanon, mainly Sidon

Part of Hezbollah

Allies March 8 Alliance[196]

Opponents  Israel SLA Al-Nusra Front Fatah
Fatah
al-Islam Jund al-Sham Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

Battles and wars Battle of Sidon
Sidon
(2013)

The Lebanese Resistance Brigades
Lebanese Resistance Brigades
(Arabic: سرايا المقاومة اللبنانية‎ Saraya al-Moukawama al-Lubnaniyya), also known as the Lebanese Brigades to Resist the Israeli Occupation, were formed by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
in 1997 as a multifaith (Christian, Druze, Sunni
Sunni
and Shia) volunteer force to combat the Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon. With the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon
Lebanon
in 2000, the organization was disbanded.[197] In 2009, the Resistance Brigades were reactivated, mainly comprising Sunni
Sunni
supporters from the southern city of Sidon. Its strength was reduced in late 2013 from 500 to 200–250 due to residents complaints about some fighters of the group exacerbating tensions with the local community.[198] Alleged suicide and terror attacks

A smoke cloud rises from the bombed American barracks at Beirut International Airport, where over 200 U.S. marines were killed

Between 1982 and 1986, there were 36 suicide attacks in Lebanon directed against American, French and Israelis forces by 41 individuals, killing 659.[66] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
denies involvement in some of these attacks, though it has been accused of being involved or linked to some or all of these attacks:[199][200]

The 1982–1983 Tyre headquarters bombings The April 1983 U.S. Embassy bombing
April 1983 U.S. Embassy bombing
(by the Islamic Jihad Organization),[201] The 1983 Beirut
Beirut
barracks bombing (by the Islamic Jihad Organization), that killed 241 U.S. marines, 58 French paratroopers and 6 civilians at the US and French barracks in Beirut[202] The 1983 Kuwait bombings in collaboration with the Iraqi Dawa Party.[203] The 1984 United States
United States
embassy annex bombing, killing 24.[204] A spate of attacks on IDF troops and SLA militiamen in southern Lebanon.[66] Hijacking of TWA Flight 847
TWA Flight 847
in 1985,[202] The Lebanon
Lebanon
hostage crisis from 1982 to 1992.[205]

Since 1990, terror acts and attempts of which Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has been blamed include the following bombings and attacks against civilians and diplomats:

The 1992 Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires, killing 29, in Argentina.[202] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
operatives boasted of involvement.[206] The 1994 AMIA bombing
1994 AMIA bombing
of a Jewish cultural centre, killing 85, in Argentina.[202] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
claimed responsibility.[206] The 1994 AC Flight 901 attack, killing 21, in Panama.[207] Hezbollah claimed responsibility.[206] The 1994 London Israeli Embassy attack, injuring 29, in the United Kingdom.[208] The 1996 Khobar Towers bombing, killing 19 US servicemen.[209] In 2002, Singapore
Singapore
accused Hezbollah
Hezbollah
of recruiting Singaporeans in a failed 1990s plot to attack U.S. and Israeli ships in the Singapore Straits.[210] The 15 January 2008, bombing of a U.S. Embassy vehicle in Beirut.[211] In 2009, a Hezbollah
Hezbollah
plot in Egypt
Egypt
was uncovered, where Egyptian authorities arrested 49 men for planning attacks against Israeli and Egyptian targets in the Sinai Peninsula.[212] The 2012 Burgas bus bombing, killing 6, in Bulgaria. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
denied responsibility.[213] Training Shia insurgents against US troops during the Iraq
Iraq
War.[214]

During the Bosnian War Iran
Iran
was one of the first Muslim countries to provide military support to the Bosnian Muslims (Bosniaks) during the 1992–95 conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It supplied two-thirds of the total weapons and ammunition used by Bosnian Muslim forces during the war.[215] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
provided fighters to fight on the Bosnian Muslim side. "The Bosnian Muslim government is a client of the Iranians," wrote Robert Baer, a CIA
CIA
agent stationed in Sarajevo during the war. "If it’s a choice between the CIA
CIA
and the Iranians, they’ll take the Iranians any day." By war’s end, public opinion polls showed some 86 percent Bosnian Muslims had a positive opinion of Iran.[216] Hezbollah initially sent 150 fighters to fight against the Bosnian Serb Army, the Bosnian Muslims' main opponent in the war.[32] All Shia foreign advisors and fighters withdrew from Bosnia at the end of conflict. Conflict with Israel South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict Main article: South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict (1982–2000) Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has been involved in several cases of armed conflict with Israel:

During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. In 1982, the Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestine Liberation Organization
(PLO) was based in Southern Lebanon
Lebanon
and was firing Katyusha rockets into northern Israel from Lebanon. Israel
Israel
invaded Lebanon
Lebanon
to evict the PLO, and Hezbollah became an armed organization to expel the Israelis.[70] Hezbollah's strength was enhanced by the dispatching of one thousand to two thousand members of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards and the financial backing of Iran.[217][218][219] Iranian clerics, most notably Fzlollah Mahallati supervised this activity.[220] It became the main politico-military force among the Shia community in Lebanon
Lebanon
and the main arm of what became known later as the Islamic Resistance in Lebanon. With the collapse of the SLA, and the rapid advance of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
forces, Israel
Israel
withdrew on 24 May 2000 six weeks before the announced 7 July date."[68] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
held a victory parade, and its popularity in Lebanon
Lebanon
rose.[221] Israel
Israel
withdrew in accordance with 1978's United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 425.[99] Hezbollah and many analysts considered this a victory for the movement, and since then its popularity has been boosted in Lebanon.[221] On 25 July 1993, following Hezbollah's killing of seven Israeli soldiers in southern Lebanon, Israel
Israel
launched Operation Accountability (known in Lebanon
Lebanon
as the Seven Day War), during which the IDF carried out their heaviest artillery and air attacks on targets in southern Lebanon
Lebanon
since 1982. The aim of the operation was to eradicate the threat posed by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and to force the civilian population north to Beirut
Beirut
so as to put pressure on the Lebanese Government to restrain Hezbollah.[222] The fighting ended when an unwritten understanding was agreed to by the warring parties. Apparently, the 1993 understanding provided that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
combatants would not fire rockets at northern Israel, while Israel
Israel
would not attack civilians or civilian targets in Lebanon.[223] In April 1996, after continued Hezbollah
Hezbollah
rocket attacks on Israeli civilians,[224] the Israeli armed forces launched Operation Grapes of Wrath, which was intended to wipe out Hezbollah's base in southern Lebanon. Over 100 Lebanese refugees were killed by the shelling of a UN base at Qana, in what the Israeli military said was a mistake.[225] Finally, following several days of negotiations, the two sides signed the Grapes of Wrath Understandings on 26 April 1996. A cease-fire was agreed upon between Israel
Israel
and Hezbollah, which would be effective on 27 April 1996.[226] Both sides agreed that civilians should not be targeted, which meant that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
would be allowed to continue its military activities against IDF forces inside Lebanon.[226]

2000 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
cross-border raid Main article: 2000 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
cross-border raid On 7 October 2000, three Israeli soldiers – Adi Avitan, Staff Sgt. Benyamin Avraham, and Staff Sgt. Omar Sawaidwere – were abducted by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
while patrolling the Israeli side of the Israeli-Lebanese border.[227] The soldiers were killed either during the attack or in its immediate aftermath.[228] Israel
Israel
Defense Minister Shaul Mofaz
Shaul Mofaz
has, however, said that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
abducted the soldiers and then killed them.[229] The bodies of the slain soldiers were exchanged for Lebanese prisoners in 2004.[230] 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War Main article: 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War

Hezbollah
Hezbollah
posters in the aftermath of the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War

The 2006 Lebanon War
2006 Lebanon War
was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon
Lebanon
and northern Israel. The principal parties were Hezbollah
Hezbollah
paramilitary forces and the Israeli military. The conflict was precipitated by a cross-border raid by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
during which they kidnapped and killed Israeli soldiers. The conflict began on 12 July 2006 when Hezbollah militants fired rockets at Israeli border towns as a diversion for an anti-tank missile attack on two armored Humvees patrolling the Israeli side of the border fence, killing three, injuring two, and seizing two Israeli soldiers.[231][232] Israel
Israel
responded with airstrikes and artillery fire on targets in Lebanon
Lebanon
that damaged Lebanese infrastructure, including Beirut's Rafic Hariri International Airport (which Israel
Israel
said that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
used to import weapons and supplies),[233] an air and naval blockade,[234] and a ground invasion of southern Lebanon. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
then launched more rockets into northern Israel
Israel
and engaged the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces (IDF) in guerrilla warfare from hardened positions.[235] The war continued until 14 August 2006. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was responsible for thousands of Katyusha rocket attacks against Israeli civilian towns and cities in northern Israel,[236] which Hezbollah
Hezbollah
said were in retaliation for Israel's killing of civilians and targeting Lebanese infrastructure.[237] The conflict is believed to have killed 1,191–1,300 Lebanese citizens including combatants[238][239][240][241][242] and 165 Israelis including soldiers.[243] 2010 gas field claims In 2010, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
claimed that the Dalit and Tamar gas field, discovered by Noble Energy roughly 50 miles (80 km) west of Haifa in Israeli exclusive economic zone, belong to Lebanon, and warned Israel
Israel
against extracting gas from them. Senior officials from Hezbollah
Hezbollah
warned that they would not hesitate to use weapons to defend Lebanon's natural resources. Figures in the March 14 Forces
March 14 Forces
stated in response that Hezbullah was presenting another excuse to hold on to its arms. Lebanese MP Antoine Zahra said that the issue is another item "in the endless list of excuses" meant to justify the continued existence of Hezbullah's arsenal.[244] 2011 attack in Istanbul In July 2011, Italian newspaper Corierre della Sera reported, based on American and Turkish sources,[245] that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was behind a bombing in Istanbul in May 2011 that wounded eight Turkish civilians. The report said that the attack was an assassination attempt on the Israeli consul to Turkey, Moshe Kimchi. Turkish intelligence sources denied the report and said " Israel
Israel
is in the habit of creating disinformation campaigns using different papers."[245] 2012 planned attack in Cyprus Main article: 2012 Cyprus terrorist plot In July 2012, a Lebanese man was detained by Cyprus police on possible charges relating to terrorism laws for planning attacks against Israeli tourists. According to security officials, the man was planning attacks for Hezbollah
Hezbollah
in Cyprus and admitted this after questioning. The police were alerted about the man due to an urgent message from Israeli intelligence. The Lebanese man was in possession of photographs of Israeli targets and had information on Israeli airlines flying back and forth from Cyprus, and planned to blow up a plane or tour bus.[246] Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu stated that Iran
Iran
assisted the Lebanese man with planning the attacks.[247] 2012 Burgas attack Main article: 2012 Burgas bus bombing Following an investigation into the 2012 Burgas bus bombing
2012 Burgas bus bombing
terrorist attack against Israeli citizens in Bulgaria, the Bulgarian government officially accused the Lebanese-militant movement Hezbollah
Hezbollah
of committing the attack.[248] Five Israeli citizens, the Bulgarian bus driver, and the bomber were killed. The bomb exploded as the Israeli tourists boarded a bus from the airport to their hotel. Tsvetan Tsvetanov, Bulgaria's interior minister, reported that the two suspects responsible were members of the militant wing of Hezbollah; he said the suspected terrorists entered Bulgaria
Bulgaria
on 28 June and remained until 18 July. Israel
Israel
had already previously suspected Hezbollah
Hezbollah
for the attack. Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu called the report "further corroboration of what we have already known, that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and its Iranian patrons are orchestrating a worldwide campaign of terror that is spanning countries and continents."[249] Netanyahu said that the attack in Bulgaria
Bulgaria
was just one of many that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and Iran
Iran
have planned and carried out, including attacks in Thailand, Kenya, Turkey, India, Azerbaijan, Cyprus and Georgia.[248] John Brennan, Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, has said that "Bulgaria's investigation exposes Hezbollah
Hezbollah
for what it is – a terrorist group that is willing to recklessly attack innocent men, women and children, and that poses a real and growing threat not only to Europe, but to the rest of the world."[250] The result of the Bulgarian investigation comes at a time when Israel
Israel
has been petitioning the European Union
European Union
to join the United States
United States
in designating Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist organization.[250] 2015 Shebaa farms
Shebaa farms
incident Main article: January 2015 Shebaa farms
Shebaa farms
incident In response to an attack against a military convoy comprising Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and Iranian officers on 18 January 2015 at Quneitra
Quneitra
in south of Syria, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
launched an ambush on 28 January against an Israeli military convoy in the Israeli-occupied Shebaa Farms
Shebaa Farms
with anti-tank missiles against two Israeli vehicles patrolling the border,[251] killing 2 and wounding 7 Israeli soldiers and officers, as confirmed by Israeli military. Assassination of Rafic Hariri Main article: Assassination of Rafic Hariri On 14 February 2005, former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri
Rafic Hariri
was killed, along with 21 others, when his motorcade was struck by a roadside bomb in Beirut. He had been PM during 1992–1998 and 2000–2004. In 2009, the United Nations
United Nations
special tribunal investigating the murder of Hariri reportedly found evidence linking Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to the murder.[252] In August 2010, in response to notification that the UN tribunal would indict some Hezbollah
Hezbollah
members, Hassan Nasrallah
Hassan Nasrallah
said Israel
Israel
was looking for a way to assassinate Hariri as early as 1993 in order to create political chaos that would force Syria
Syria
to withdraw from Lebanon, and to perpetuate an anti-Syrian atmosphere [in Lebanon] in the wake of the assassination. He went on to say that in 1996 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
apprehended an agent working for Israel
Israel
by the name of Ahmed Nasrallah – no relation to Hassan Nasrallah
Hassan Nasrallah
– who allegedly contacted Hariri's security detail and told them that he had solid proof that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was planning to take his life. Hariri then contacted Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and advised them of the situation.[253] Saad Hariri responded that the UN should investigate these claims.[254] On 30 June 2011, the Special
Special
Tribunal for Lebanon, established to investigate the death of Hariri, issued arrest warrants against four senior members of Hezbollah, including Mustafa Badr Al Din.[255] On 3 July, Hassan Nasrallah
Hassan Nasrallah
rejected the indictment and denounced the tribunal as a plot against the party, vowing that the named persons would not be arrested under any circumstances.[256] Involvement in the Syrian Civil War Further information: Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
spillover in Lebanon
Lebanon
and Hezbollah
Hezbollah
involvement in the Syrian Civil War Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has long been an ally of the Ba'ath government of Syria, led by the Al- Assad
Assad
family. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has helped the Syrian government during the Syrian civil war
Syrian civil war
in its fight against the Syrian opposition, which Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has described as a zionist plot to destroy its alliance with al- Assad
Assad
against Israel.[50] Geneive Abdo
Geneive Abdo
opined that Hezbollah's support for al- Assad
Assad
in the Syrian war has "transformed" it from a group with "support among the Sunni
Sunni
for defeating Israel
Israel
in a battle in 2006" into a "strictly Shia paramilitary force".[257] In August 2012, the United States
United States
sanctioned Hezbollah
Hezbollah
for its alleged role in the war.[258] General Secretary Nasrallah denied Hezbollah
Hezbollah
had been fighting on behalf of the Syrian government, stating in a 12 October 2012, speech that "right from the start the Syrian opposition has been telling the media that Hizbullah sent 3,000 fighters to Syria, which we have denied".[259] However, according to the Lebanese Daily Star newspaper, Nasrallah said in the same speech that Hezbollah fighters helped the Syrian government "retain control of some 23 strategically located villages [in Syria] inhabited by Shiites of Lebanese citizenship". Nasrallah said that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters have died in Syria
Syria
doing their "jihadist duties".[260] In 2012, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters crossed the border from Lebanon
Lebanon
and took over eight villages in the Al-Qusayr District
Al-Qusayr District
of Syria.[261] On 16–17 February 2013, Syrian opposition
Syrian opposition
groups claimed that Hezbollah, backed by the Syrian military, attacked three neighboring Sunni
Sunni
villages controlled by the Free Syrian Army
Free Syrian Army
(FSA). An FSA spokesman said, "Hezbollah's invasion is the first of its kind in terms of organisation, planning and coordination with the Syrian regime's air force". Hezbollah
Hezbollah
said three Lebanese Shiites, "acting in self-defense", were killed in the clashes with the FSA.[261][262] Lebanese security sources said that the three were Hezbollah members.[263] In response, the FSA allegedly attacked two Hezbollah positions on 21 February; one in Syria
Syria
and one in Lebanon. Five days later, it said it destroyed a convoy carrying Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters and Syrian officers to Lebanon, killing all the passengers.[264] In January 2013, a weapons convoy carrying SA-17 anti-aircraft missiles to Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was destroyed allegedly by the Israeli Air Force. A nearby research center for chemical weapons was also damaged. A similar attack on weapons destined for Hezbollah
Hezbollah
occurred in May of the same year. The leaders of the March 14 alliance
March 14 alliance
and other prominent Lebanese figures called on Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to end its involvement in Syria
Syria
and said it is putting Lebanon
Lebanon
at risk.[265] Subhi al-Tufayli, Hezbollah's former leader, said " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
should not be defending the criminal regime that kills its own people and that has never fired a shot in defense of the Palestinians". He said "those Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters who are killing children and terrorizing people and destroying houses in Syria
Syria
will go to hell".[266] The Consultative Gathering, a group of Shia and Sunni
Sunni
leaders in Baalbek-Hermel, also called on Hezbollah
Hezbollah
not to "interfere" in Syria. They said, "Opening a front against the Syrian people and dragging Lebanon
Lebanon
to war with the Syrian people is very dangerous and will have a negative impact on the relations between the two".[263] Walid Jumblatt, leader of the Progressive Socialist Party, also called on Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to end its involvement[265] and claimed that " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is fighting inside Syria
Syria
with orders from Iran".[267] Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi
condemned Hezbollah
Hezbollah
by saying, "We stand against Hezbollah
Hezbollah
in its aggression against the Syrian people. There is no space or place for Hezbollah
Hezbollah
in Syria".[268] Support for Hezbollah
Hezbollah
among the Syrian public has weakened since the involvement of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and Iran
Iran
in propping up the Assad
Assad
regime during the civil war.[269] On 12 May 2013, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
with the Syrian army attempted to retake part of Qusayr.[270] In Lebanon, there has been "a recent increase in the funerals of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters" and "Syrian rebels have shelled Hezbollah-controlled areas."[270] On 25 May 2013, Nasrallah announced that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is fighting in the Syrian Civil War
Syrian Civil War
against Islamic extremists and "pledged that his group will not allow Syrian militants to control areas that border Lebanon".[271] He confirmed that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was fighting in the strategic Syrian town of Al-Qusayr on the same side as Assad's forces.[271] In the televised address, he said, "If Syria
Syria
falls in the hands of America, Israel
Israel
and the takfiris, the people of our region will go into a dark period."[271] On 26 May 2013, two rockets hit a Hezbollah
Hezbollah
area of Beirut
Beirut
injuring five people whilst another two rockets caused property damage to buildings in the al-Hermel district of Beirut. Syrian rebels have been blamed for the attack as they had promised to attack Hezbollah
Hezbollah
targets in Lebanon
Lebanon
in retaliation for their helping the Syrian army particularly in the border town of Al-Qusayr. Syrian rebels have also shelled al-Hermel previously.[272][273] On 28 May 2013, Free Syrian Army
Free Syrian Army
General Salim Idris
Salim Idris
gave Hezbollah "24 hours to withdraw from Syria" or he may order FSA units to attack Hezbollah
Hezbollah
targets in Lebanon.[274] In early June 2013 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has now committed fighters to the battle in Aleppo, some 2,000, reportedly putting strain on the organisation. This has resulted in Hezbollah
Hezbollah
introducing a change to its rotation policy for its fighters from 7 days fighting followed by 7 days leave, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has increased it to 20 days fighting and followed by 7 days leave for its fighters.[275] According to Israeli military sources up to 2000 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters were killed in Syria
Syria
and 5000 wounded.[276] On 19 August 2017 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
joined with the Syrian army and in coordination with the Lebanese army to launch an offensive against an Islamic State enclave on the northeast border with Syria.[277] Under a ceasefire agreement, ISIS forces were allowed to transfer on 29 August to an ISIS-controlled area in eastern Syria, with a Hezbollah escort.[278] Involvement in Iranian-led intervention in Iraq Beginning in July 2014, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
sent an undisclosed number of technical advisers and intelligence analysts to Baghdad in support of the Iranian intervention in Iraq
Iraq
(2014–present). Shortly thereafter, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
commander Ibrahim al-Hajj was reported killed in action near Mosul.[279] Other In 2010, Ahbash
Ahbash
and Hezbollah
Hezbollah
members were involved in a street battle which was perceived to be over parking issues, both groups later met to form a joint compensation fund for the victims of the conflict.[280] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was accused of infiltrating South America and having ties with Latin American drug cartels.[281] Attacks on Hezbollah
Hezbollah
leaders Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has also been the target of bomb attacks and kidnappings. These include:

In the 1985 Beirut
Beirut
car bombing, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
leader Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah was targeted, but the assassination attempt failed. On 28 July 1989, Israeli commandos kidnapped Sheikh
Sheikh
Abdul Karim Obeid, the leader of Hezbollah.[282] This action led to the adoption of UN Security Council resolution 638, which condemned all hostage takings by all sides. In 1992, Israeli helicopters attacked a motorcade in southern Lebanon, killing the Hezbollah
Hezbollah
leader Abbas al-Musawi, his wife, son, and four others.[68] On 12 February 2008, Imad Mughnieh
Imad Mughnieh
was killed by a car bomb in Damascus, Syria.[283] On 3 December 2013, senior military commander Hassan al-Laqis was shot outside his home, two miles (three kilometers) southwest of Beirut. He died a few hours later on 4 December.[284] On 18 January 2015, a group of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters was targeted in Quneitra, with the Al-Nusra Front
Al-Nusra Front
claiming responsibility. In this attack, for which Israel
Israel
was also accused, Jihad Moghnieh, son of Imad Mughnieh, five other members of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and an Iranian general of Quds Force, Mohammad Ali Allahdadi, were killed.[285][286][287] On 10 May 2016, an explosion near Damascus
Damascus
International Airport killed top military commander Mustafa Badreddine. Lebanese media sources attributed the attack to an Israeli airstrike. Hezbollah attributed the attack to Syrian opposition.[288][289][290]

Targeting policy After the September 11, 2001 attacks, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
condemned al-Qaeda for targeting civilians in World Trade Center,[291][292] but remained silent on the attack on The Pentagon.[30][293] Hezbollah
Hezbollah
also denounced the massacres in Algeria
Algeria
by Armed Islamic Group, Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya attacks on tourists in Egypt,[294] the murder of Nick Berg,[295] and ISIL
ISIL
attacks in Paris.[296] Although Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has denounced certain attacks on civilians, some people accuse the organization of the bombing of an Argentine synagogue in 1994. Argentine prosecutor Alberto Nisman, Marcelo Martinez Burgos, and their "staff of some 45 people"[297] said that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and their contacts in Iran
Iran
were responsible for the 1994 bombing of a Jewish cultural center in Argentina, in which "[e]ighty-five people were killed and more than 200 others injured."[298] In June 2002, shortly after the Israeli government launched Operation Defensive Shield, Nasrallah gave a speech in which he defended and praised suicide bombings of Israeli targets by members of Palestinian groups for "creating a deterrence and equalizing fear." Nasrallah stated that "in occupied Palestine, there is no difference between a soldier and a civilian, for they are all invaders, occupiers and usurpers of the land."[30] In August 2012, the United States
United States
State Department's counter-terrorism coordinator Daniel Benjamin
Daniel Benjamin
warned that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
may attack Europe at any time without any warning. Benjamin said, " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
maintains a presence in Europe and its recent activities demonstrate that it is not constrained by concerns about collateral damage or political fallout that could result from conducting operations there ... We assess that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
could attack in Europe or elsewhere at any time with little or no warning" and that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has "stepped up terrorist campaigns around the world."[299][300][301] Foreign relations Main article: Hezbollah
Hezbollah
foreign relations Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has close relations with Iran.[302] It also has ties with the leadership in Syria, specifically President Hafez al- Assad
Assad
(until his death in 2000) supported it.[303] It's also a close Assad
Assad
ally, and its leader pledged support to the embattled Syrian leader.[304][305] Although Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and Hamas
Hamas
are not organizationally linked, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
provides military training as well as financial and moral support to the Sunni
Sunni
Palestinian group.[306] Furthermore, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is a strong supporter of the ongoing Al-Aqsa Intifada.[30] American and Israeli counter-terrorism officials claim that Hezbollah has (or had) links to Al Qaeda, although Hezbollah's leaders deny these allegations.[307][308] Also, some al-Qaeda leaders, like Abu Musab al-Zarqawi[309] and Wahhabi
Wahhabi
clerics, consider Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to be apostate.[310] But United States
United States
intelligence officials speculate that there has been contact between Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and low-level al-Qaeda figures who fled Afghanistan
Afghanistan
for Lebanon.[311] However, Michel Samaha, Lebanon's minister of information, has said that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has been an important ally of the government in the war against terrorist groups, and described the "American attempt to link Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to al-Qaeda" to be "astonishing".[30] Public opinion According to Michel Samaha, Lebanon's minister of information, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is seen as a legitimate resistance organization that has defended its land against an Israeli occupying force and has consistently stood up to the Israeli army.[30] According to a survey released by the " Beirut
Beirut
Center for Research and Information" on 26 July during the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War, 87 percent of Lebanese support Hezbollah's "retaliatory attacks on northern Israel",[312] a rise of 29 percentage points from a similar poll conducted in February. More striking, however, was the level of support for Hezbollah's resistance from non-Shiite communities. Eighty percent of Christians polled supported Hezbollah, along with 80 percent of Druze
Druze
and 89 percent of Sunnis.[313] In a poll of Lebanese adults taken in 2004, 6% of respondents gave unqualified support to the statement " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
should be disarmed". 41% reported unqualified disagreement. A poll of Gaza Strip
Gaza Strip
and West Bank residents indicated that 79.6% had "a very good view" of Hezbollah, and most of the remainder had a "good view". Polls of Jordanian adults in December 2005 and June 2006 showed that 63.9% and 63.3%, respectively, considered Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to be a legitimate resistance organization.In the December 2005 poll, only 6% of Jordanian adults considered Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to be terrorist.[314] A July 2006 USA Today/ Gallup poll
Gallup poll
found that 83% of the 1,005 Americans polled blamed Hezbollah, at least in part, for the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War, compared to 66% who blamed Israel
Israel
to some degree. Additionally, 76% disapproved of the military action Hezbollah
Hezbollah
took in Israel, compared to 38% who disapproved of Israel's military action in Lebanon.[315] A poll in August 2006 by ABC News
ABC News
and the Washington Post found that 68% of the 1,002 Americans polled blamed Hezbollah, at least in part, for the civilian casualties in Lebanon
Lebanon
during the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War, compared to 31% who blamed Israel
Israel
to some degree.[315] Another August 2006 poll by CNN
CNN
showed that 69% of the 1,047 Americans polled believed that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is unfriendly towards, or an enemy of, the United States.[315] In 2010, a survey of Muslims in Lebanon
Lebanon
showed that 94% of Lebanese Shia supported Hezbollah, while 84% of the Sunni
Sunni
Muslims held an unfavorable opinion of the group.[316] Some public opinion has started to turn against Hezbollah
Hezbollah
for their support of Syrian President Assad's attacks on the opposition movement in Syria.[317] Crowds in Cairo shouted out against Iran
Iran
and Hezbollah, at a public speech by Hamas
Hamas
President Ismail Haniya in February 2012, when Hamas
Hamas
changed its support to the Syrian opposition.[318] Designation as a terrorist organization or resistance movement See also: List of designated terrorist groups Hezbollah's status as a legitimate political party, a terrorist group, a resistance movement, or some combination thereof is a contentious issue.[319] There is a "wide difference" between American and Arab perception of Hezbollah.[30] Several Western countries officially classify Hezbollah or its external security wing as a terrorist organization, and some of their violent acts have been described as terrorist attacks. However, throughout most of the Arab and Muslim worlds, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is referred to as a resistance movement, engaged in national defense.[23][320][321] Even within Lebanon, sometimes Hezbollah's status as either a "militia" or "national resistance" has been contentious. In Lebanon, although not universally well-liked, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is widely seen as a legitimate national resistance organization defending Lebanon, and actually described by Lebanese information minister as an important ally in fighting terrorist groups.[30][322] In Arab world, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is generally seen either as a destabilizing force that functions as Iran's pawn by rentier states like Egypt
Egypt
and Saudi Arabia, or as a popular sociopolitical guerilla movement that exemplifies strong leadership, meaningful political action, and a commitment to social justice. The United Nations
United Nations
Security Council never listed Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist organization under its sanctions list although its members listed it on an individual basis: The United States[323] and France listed the entire group as a terrorist organization although the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
listed Hezbollah's military wing as well.[14] Russia has considered Hezbollah
Hezbollah
a legitimate sociopolitical organization.[324] and the People's Republic of China
China
remains neutral, and maintains contacts with Hezbollah.[325] In May 2013, France
France
and Germany
Germany
released statements that they will join other European countries in calling for a EU-blacklisting of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terror group.[326] The following entities have listed Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terror group:

 Arab League The entire organization Hezbollah [327]

 Australia Hezbollah's External Security Organization [328][12]

 Bahrain The entire organization Hezbollah [10]

 Canada The entire organization Hezbollah [11]

 European Union Hezbollah's military wing [329][330]

 France The entire organization Hezbollah [15]

 Gulf Cooperation Council The entire organization Hezbollah [27]

 Israel The entire organization Hezbollah [9]

 Japan The entire organization Hezbollah [18]

 Netherlands The entire organization Hezbollah [331][16]

 New Zealand Hezbollah's military wing Al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya, since 2010. [13]

 United Kingdom Hezbollah's military wing [14]

 United States The entire organization Hezbollah [8]

The following countries that do not consider Hezbollah
Hezbollah
a terror organization:

 China The People's Republic of China
China
remains neutral, and maintains contacts with Hezbollah. [325]

 Cuba Hezbollah
Hezbollah
operates a base in Cuba.[332] [325]

 Iran

[333]

 Iraq

[334]

 North Korea Supports Hezbollah. [335]

 Russia Considers Hezbollah
Hezbollah
a legitimate sociopolitical organization. [324]

 Syria

[336]

 Venezuela

[337]

In the Western world The United States
United States
Department of State has designated Hezbollah
Hezbollah
a terrorist organization since 1995. The group remains on Foreign Terrorist Organization and Specially Designated Terrorist lists. According to the Congressional Research Service, "The U.S. government holds Hezbollah
Hezbollah
responsible for a number of attacks and hostage takings targeting Americans in Lebanon
Lebanon
during the 1980s, including the bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Beirut
Beirut
in April 1983 and the bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in October 1983, which together killed 258 Americans. Hezbollah’s operations outside of Lebanon, including its participation in bombings of Israeli and Jewish targets in Argentina during the 1990s and more recent training and liaison activities with Shiite insurgents in Iraq, have cemented the organization’s reputation among U.S. policy makers as a capable and deadly adversary with potential global reach."[338] The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was the first government to attempt to make a distinction between Hezbollah's political and military wings, declaring the latter a terrorist group in July 2008 after Hezbollah confirmed its association with Imad Mughniyeh.[339] In 2012, British "Foreign Minister William Hague urged the European Union
European Union
to place Hezbollah's military wing on its list of terrorist organizations."[340] The United States
United States
also urged the EU to classify Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist organization.[citation needed] In light of findings implicating Hezbollah
Hezbollah
in the bus bombing in Burgas, Bulgaria in 2012, there was renewed discussion within the European Union
European Union
to label Hezbollah's military wing as a terrorist group.[341] On 22 July 2013, the European Union
European Union
agreed to blacklist Hezbollah's military wing over concerns about its growing role in the Syrian conflict.[342] In the midst of the 2006 conflict between Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and Israel, Russia's government declined to include Hezbollah
Hezbollah
in a newly released list of terrorist organizations, with Yuri Sapunov, the head of anti-terrorism for the Federal Security Service
Federal Security Service
of the Russian Federation, saying that they list only organizations which represent "the greatest threat to the security of our country".[343] Prior to the release of the list, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov
Sergei Ivanov
called "on Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to stop resorting to any terrorist methods, including attacking neighboring states."[344] The Quartet's fourth member, the United Nations, does not maintain such a list,[345] however, the United Nations
United Nations
has made repeated calls for Hezbollah
Hezbollah
to disarm and accused the group of destabilizing the region and causing harm to Lebanese civilians.[346][347][348] Human rights organizations Amnesty International
Amnesty International
and Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch
have accused Hezbollah
Hezbollah
of committing war crimes against Israeli civilians.[349][350][351][352] Argentine prosecutors hold Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and their financial supporters in Iran
Iran
responsible for the 1994 AMIA Bombing
AMIA Bombing
of a Jewish cultural center, described by the Associated Press
Associated Press
as "the worst terrorist attack on Argentine soil," in which "[e]ighty-five people were killed and more than 200 others injured."[298][353] During the Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon, French Prime Minister Lionel Jospin condemned attacks by Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters on Israeli forces in south Lebanon, saying they were "terrorism" and not acts of resistance. " France
France
condemns Hezbollah's attacks, and all types of terrorist attacks which may be carried out against soldiers, or possibly Israel's civilian population."[354] Italian Foreign Minister Massimo D'Alema differentiated the wings of Hezbollah: "Apart from their well-known terrorist activities, they also have political standing and are socially engaged."[355] Germany
Germany
does not maintain its own list of terrorist organizations, having chosen to adopt the common EU list. However, German officials have indicated they would likely support designating Hezbollah
Hezbollah
a terrorist organization.[356] The Netherlands regards Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as terrorist discussing it as such in official reports of their general intelligence and security service[357] and in official answers by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.[358] On 22 July 2013, the European Union
European Union
declared the military wings of Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist organization; effectively blacklisting the entity.[359] The United States,[323] France,[15] the Gulf Cooperation Council,[27] Canada,[11] the Netherlands,[16] and Israel[9] have classified Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist organization. In early 2015, the US Director of National Intelligence removed Hezbollah
Hezbollah
from the list of "active terrorist threats" against the United States
United States
while Hezbollah
Hezbollah
remained designated as terrorist by the US,[360] and by mid 2015 several Hezbollah
Hezbollah
officials were sanctioned by the US for their role in facilitating military activity in the ongoing Syrian Civil War.[361] The European Union, New Zealand, the United Kingdom,[14] and Australia[12] have proscribed Hezbollah's military wing, but do not list Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a whole as a terrorist organization.[330][13] In the Arab and Muslim world In 2006, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
was regarded as a legitimate resistance movement throughout most of the Arab and Muslim world.[23] Furthermore, most of the Sunni
Sunni
Arab world
Arab world
sees Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as an agent of Iranian influence, and therefore, would like to see their power in Lebanon diminished.[362] Egypt, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
have condemned Hezbollah's actions, saying that "the Arabs and Muslims can't afford to allow an irresponsible and adventurous organization like Hezbollah to drag the region to war" and calling it "dangerous adventurism",[363] After an alleged 2009 Hezbollah
Hezbollah
plot in Egypt, the Egyptian regime of Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak
officially classified Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist group.[364] Following the 2012 Presidential elections the new government recognized Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a "real political and military force" in Lebanon. The Egyptian ambassador to Lebanon, Ashraf Hamdy, stated that "Resistance in the sense of defending Lebanese territory ... That's their primary role. We ... think that as a resistance movement they have done a good job to keep on defending Lebanese territory and trying to regain land occupied by Israel
Israel
is legal and legitimate."[365][366] During the Bahraini uprising, Bahrain
Bahrain
foreign minister Khalid ibn Ahmad Al Khalifah labeled Hezbollah
Hezbollah
a terrorist group and accused them of supporting the protesters.[367][368] On 10 April 2013, Bahrain blacklisted Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist group, being the first Arab state in this regard.[369] During the 2011 Syrian uprising
2011 Syrian uprising
Hezbollah's has voiced support for Syrian President Bashar Assad's government, which has prompted criticism from anti-government Syrians. As Hezbollah
Hezbollah
supported other movements in the context of the Arab Spring, anti-government Syrians have stated that they feel "betrayed" by a double standard allegedly applied by the movement. Following Hezbollah's aid in Assad government's victory in Qusair, anti- Hezbollah
Hezbollah
editorials began regularly appearing in the Arabic media and anti- Hezbollah
Hezbollah
graffiti has been seen in southern Lebanon.[370] In March 2016, Gulf Cooperation Council
Gulf Cooperation Council
designated Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist organization due to its alleged attempts to undermine GCC states, and Arab League
Arab League
followed the move, with reservation by Iraq and Lebanon. In the summit, Lebanese Foreign Minister Gebran Bassil said that " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
enjoys wide representation and is an integral faction of the Lebanese community", while Iraqi Foreign Minister Ibrahim al-Jaafari
Ibrahim al-Jaafari
said PMF and Hezbollah
Hezbollah
"have preserved Arab dignity" and those who accuse them of being terrorists are terrorists themselves.[371] Saudi delegation walked out of the meeting.[372] Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
called the step "important and even amazing".[373][374] A day before the move by the Arab League, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
leader Nsarallah said that " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
is angry with Hezbollah
Hezbollah
since it is daring to say what only a few others dare to say against its royal family".[375] In Lebanon In an interview during the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
War, then-President Emile Lahoud stated " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
enjoys utmost prestige in Lebanon, because it freed our country ... even though it is very small, it stands up to Israel."[376] Following the 2006 War, other Lebanese including members of the government were resentful of the large damage sustained by the country and saw Hezbollah's actions as unjustified "dangerous adventurism" rather than legitimate resistance. They accused Hezbollah of acting on behalf of Iran
Iran
and Syria.[377] An official of the Future Movement, part of the March 14 Alliance, warned that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
"has all the characteristics of a terrorist party", and that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is moving Lebanon
Lebanon
toward the Iranian Islamic system of government.[378] In August 2008, Lebanon's cabinet completed a policy statement which recognized "the right of Lebanon's people, army, and resistance to liberate the Israeli-occupied Shebaa Farms, Kafar Shuba Hills, and the Lebanese section of Ghajar village, and defend the country using all legal and possible means."[48] Gebran Tueni, a late conservative Orthodox Christian editor of an-Nahar, referred to Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as an "Iranian import" and said "they have nothing to do with Arab civilization." Tuení believed that Hezbollah's evolution is cosmetic, concealing a sinister long-term strategy to Islamicize Lebanon
Lebanon
and lead it into a ruinous war with Israel.[30] While Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has supported popular uprisings in Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain
Bahrain
and Tunisia, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
publicly sided with Iran
Iran
and Syria
Syria
in their own violent repressions of dissent. In August 2010, 800 people demonstrated in Beirut
Beirut
against Syrian President Bashar Assad, and police were called in to contain the smaller pro-Syrian rallies that followed. Demonstrators were shouting, " Syria
Syria
wants freedom," "Anyone who kills his people is a murderer and a coward," and "the people want an end to the regime."[379] Scholarly views Academics specializing in a wide variety of the social sciences believe that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is an example of an Islamic terrorist organization. Such scholars and research institutes include the following:

Walid Phares, Lebanese-born terrorism scholar.[380] Mark LeVine, historian[381] Avraham Sela, Israeli historian[382] Robert S. Wistrich, Israeli historian[383] Eyal Zisser, Israeli historian[384] Siamak Khatami, Iranian scholar[385] Rohan Gunaratna, Singaporean scholar[307] Neeru Gaba, Australian scholar[386] Tore Bjørgo, Norwegian scholar[387] Magnus Norell, of the European Foundation for Democracy[388] Anthony Cordesman, of the Center for Strategic and International Studies[389] Daniel Byman, of the Brookings Institution[390] Center for American Progress[391] United States
United States
Institute of Peace[392]

Views of foreign legislators J. Gresham Barrett
J. Gresham Barrett
brought up legislation in the U.S. House of Representatives which, among other things, referred to Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist organization. Congress members Tom Lantos, Jim Saxton, Thad McCotter, Chris Shays, Charles Boustany, Alcee Hastings, and Robert Wexler referred to Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist organization in their speeches supporting the legislation.[393] Shortly before a speech by Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, U.S. Congressman Dennis Hastert said, "He [Maliki] denounces terrorism, and I have to take him at his word. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is a terrorist organization."[394] In 2011, a bipartisan group of members of Congress introduced the Hezbollah
Hezbollah
Anti-Terrorism Act. The act ensures that no American aid to Lebanon
Lebanon
will enter the hands of Hezbollah. On the day of the act's introduction, Congressman Darrell Issa
Darrell Issa
said, " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is a terrorist group and a cancer on Lebanon. The Hezbollah
Hezbollah
Anti-Terrorism Act surgically targets this cancer and will strengthen the position of Lebanese who oppose Hezbollah."[395] In a Sky News
Sky News
interview during the 2006 Lebanon
Lebanon
war, British MP George Galloway said that Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is: "not a terrorist organization".[396] Former Swiss member of parliament, Jean Ziegler, said in 2006: "I refuse to describe Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a terrorist group. It is a national movement of resistance."[397] See also

Book: Islamic terrorism Book: Islamic terrorist groups

2008 conflict in Lebanon Blue Game Matrix Foreign relations of Lebanon Hezbollah
Hezbollah
Al-Hejaz History of Lebanon History of terrorism Israeli-Lebanese conflict January 2015 Mazraat Amal incident Jihad Construction List of armed groups in the Syrian Civil War Military equipment of Hezbollah Politics of Lebanon Mleeta museum

References

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Islamist
Politics in the Middle East: Movements and Change. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN 0-415-78361-5.  Husseinia, Rola El (2010). " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and the Axis of Refusal: Hamas, Iran
Iran
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and Its Regional Effects (PDF) (Report). The Washington Institute for Near East Studies. pp. 7–8. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ Levitt, Matthew (2013). Hezbollah: The Global Footprint of Lebanon's Party of God. p. 356. Hezbollah's anti-Western militancy began with attacks against Western targets in Lebanon, then expanded to attacks abroad intended to exact revenge for actions threatening its or Iran's interests, or to press foreign governments to release captured operatives.  An International History of Terrorism: Western and Non-Western Experiences. p. 267. Based upon these beliefs, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
became vehemently anti-West and anti-Israel.  Criminology: Theories, Patterns & Typology. p. 396. Hezbollah is anti-West and anti- Israel
Israel
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– JPost.com.  ^ "Letter that was sent from Neturei Karta to His Excellency Sayyed Hasan Nasrallah:". nkusa.org. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 24 February 2017.  ^ a b "Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)". United States Department of State. 11 October 2005. Archived from the original on 12 July 2006. Retrieved 16 July 2006.  "Current List of Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations ... 14. Hizballah (Party of God)". ^ a b c " Hezbollah
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Hezbollah
cutting costs as Iranian aid dries up". The Daily Star. Retrieved 1 June 2014. ... Hezbollah's military wing … Known as the "Jihad Council"  ^ " Arab League
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labels Hezbollah
Hezbollah
a terrorist organization". Reuters. 11 March 2016.  ^ a b c "GCC: Hezbollah
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terror group". Arab News. 3 June 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.  ^ " Hezbollah
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labelled a terrorist organization by Gulf Arab states". CBC. Retrieved 2 March 2016.  ^ "A Proxy for Iran". www.washingtoninstitute.org. Retrieved 9 June 2017.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Adam Shatz (29 April 2004). "In Search of Hezbollah". The New York Review of Books. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2006.  ^ a b c d Itamar Rabinovich. Israel
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in the Middle East. UPNE. Retrieved 18 November 2010.  ^ a b Fisk, Robert (7 September 2014). "After the atrocities committed against Muslims in Bosnia, it is no wonder today's jihadis have set out on the path to war in Syria". The Independent. Retrieved 25 March 2016.  ^ "UN: Hezbollah
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has increased military strength since 2006 war". Haaretz. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2013.  ^ a b Frykberg, Mel (29 August 2008). "Mideast Powers, Proxies and Paymasters Bluster and Rearm". Middle East Times. Retrieved 31 May 2011. And if there is one thing that ideologically and diametrically opposed Hezbollah
Hezbollah
and Israel
Israel
agree on, it is Hezbollah's growing military strength.  ^ Barnard, Anne (20 May 2013). "Hezbollah's Role in Syria
Syria
War Shakes the Lebanese". New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2013. Hezbollah, stronger than the Lebanese Army, has the power to drag the country into war without a government decision, as in 2006, when it set off the war by capturing two Israeli soldiers  ^ Morris, Loveday (12 June 2013). "For Lebanon's Sunnis, growing rage at Hezbollah
Hezbollah
over role in Syria". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013. ... Hezbollah, which has a fighting force generally considered more powerful than the Lebanese army.  ^ "Iran- Syria
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Sunni
population who once embraced Hezbollah
Hezbollah
as a liberation force... Never before have Hezbollah
Hezbollah
guerrillas fought alongside a formal army, waged war outside Lebanon
Lebanon
or initiated broad offensives aimed at seizing territory.  ^ Deeb, Lara (31 July 2006). "Hizballah: A Primer". Middle East Report. Retrieved 31 May 2011.  ^ Goldman, Adam (28 May 2014). " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
operative wanted by FBI dies in fighting in Syria". Washington Post. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... Hasan Nasrallah has called the deployment of his fighters to Syria
Syria
a 'new phase' for the movement, and it marks the first time the group has sent significant numbers of men outside Lebanon's borders.  ^ "Huge Beirut
Beirut
protest backs Syria". BBC News. 8 March 2005. Retrieved 7 February 2007.  ^ "Hariri: Sunnis 'refuse' to join Hezbollah-Al Qaida war". AFP, 25 January 2014. ^ The Christian Science Monitor. "Why Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has openly joined the Syrian fight". The Christian Science Monitor.  ^ Zirulnick, Ariel (21 December 2012). "In Hezbollah
Hezbollah
stronghold, Lebanese Christians find respect, stability". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 10 June 2017.  ^ Filkins, Dexter (30 September 2013). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Retrieved 4 October 2013. From 2000 to 2006, Iran
Iran
contributed a hundred million dollars a year to Hezbollah. Its fighters are attractive proxies: unlike the Iranians, they speak Arabic, making them better equipped to operate in Syria
Syria
and elsewhere in the Arab world.  ^ a b Ghattas, Kim (1 December 2006). "Political ferment in Lebanon". BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2008.  ^ a b Stern, Yoav; Issacharoff, Avi (10 May 2008). " Hezbollah
Hezbollah
fighters retreat from Beirut
Beirut
after 37 die in clashes". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 20 October 2012.  ^ a b Nafez Qawas (6 August 2008). "Berri summons Parliament to vote on policy statement". The Daily Star. Retrieved 6 August 2008.  ^ Barnard, Anne (3 January 2014). "Mystery in Hezbollah
Hezbollah
Operatives Life and Death". The New York Times.  ^ a b Barnard, Anne (9 July 2013). "Car Bombing Injures Dozens in Hezbollah
Hezbollah
Section of Beirut". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 August 2013. Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has portrayed the Syrian uprising as an Israeli-backed plot to destroy its alliance with Mr. Assad
Assad
against Israel.  ^ Liz Sly and Suzan Haidamous 'Lebanon’s Hezbollah
Hezbollah
acknowledges battling the Islamic State in Iraq,' Washington Post
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16 February 2015. ^ Ali Hashem, arrives in Iraq. Al Monitor 25 November 2014 ^ "Hezbollah's Syrian Quagmires" (PDF). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Retrieved 17 September 2014. By siding with the Assad
Assad
regime, the regime's Alawite supporters, and Iran, and taking up arms against Sunni
Sunni
rebels, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
has placed itself at the epicenter of a sectarian conflict that has nothing to do with the group's purported raison d’être: 'resistance' to Israeli occupation.  ^ Kershner, Isabel (10 March 2014). " Israel
Israel
Watches Warily as Hezbollah
Hezbollah
Gains Battle Skills in Syria". New York Times. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... the Lebanese group's image at home and in the broader Arab world
Arab world
has been severely damaged because it is fighting Sunni
Sunni
rebels in Syria
Syria
while its legitimacy rested on its role in fighting Israel.  ^ Pike, John. "Hizballah (Party of God)".  ^ " Hezbollah
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(a.k.a. Hizbollah, Hizbu'llah)". Archived from the original on 27 September 2006.  ^ Morley, Jefferson (17 July 2006). "What Is Hezbollah?" – via washingtonpost.com.  ^ "BBC NEWS - Middle East - Who are Hezbollah?".  ^ Diaz & Newman, 2005, p. 55 ^ Helena Cobban, Boston Review Hizbullah’s New Face Accessed 14 August 2006 ^ U.S Department of State (October 1, 1999). "Background Information on Foreign Terrorist Organizations". Archived from the original on August 15, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2006.  ^ Israel
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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (11 April 1996). "Hizbullah". Retrieved 25 July 2006.  ^ "SOR/2003-53: Criminal Code; Regulations Amending the Regulations Establishing a List of Entities" (PDF). Canada
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Gazette Part II. 137 (1 extra): 1. 12 February 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 January 2012.  ^ Avi Shlaim (2001) The Iron Wall: Israel
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and the Arab World W.W. Norton, ISBN 0-393-32112-6 Chapter 10; "The Lebanese Quagmire 1981–1984". pp 384–423 ^ Norton, Augustus (2009). Hezbollah: A Short History. Princeton University Press. p. 33. ISBN 0-691-13124-4.  ^ a b c Pape, Robert (2005). Dying to win: the strategic logic of suicide terrorism. New York: Random House. ISBN 1-4000-6317-5.  Specifically: "Suicide Terrorist Campaigns, 1980–2003", Appendix 1. (Page 253 of Australian paperback edition, published by Scribe Publications) ^ a b H. CON. RES. 190, 1st session, 101st congress (4 August 1989). "Expressing the sense of the Congress over the reported murder of Lieutenant Colonel William Higgins and Hezbollah-sponsored terrorism". The Library of Congress. Retrieved 8 August 2006. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ a b c " Lebanon
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preparing for a larger war? by Jeffrey Goldberg". The New Yorker. 14 October 2002. Retrieved 3 March 2007.  ^ "The strategy and tactics of Hizballah's current 'Lebanonization process". Mediterranean Politics, Volume 3, Issue 1 Summer 1998, pages 103–134.  ^ Alagha (2006), pp. 41–44 ^ Alagha (2006), p. 47 ^ " Hezbollah
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District Court for the District of Columbia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 December 2005. Retrieved 21 September 2006.  ^ a b c US Department of State (8 October 1999). "Background Information on Foreign Terrorist Organizations". Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2012.  ^ a b Israel
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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (11 April 1996). "Hizbullah". Retrieved 17 August 2006.  ^ "SOR/2003-53: Criminal Code; Regulations Amending the Regulations Establishing a List of Entities" (PDF). Canada
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Gazette Part II. 137 (1 extra): 1. 12 February 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 January 2012.  ^ Engeland, Dr Anisseh Van; Rudolph, Ms Rachael M (2013). From Terrorism to Politics. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4094-9870-4.  ^ Barak, Oren. "Hizballah." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. p. 350. ^ Rosenthal, Donna. The Israelis: Ordinary People in an Extraordinary Land. New York: Free Press, 2003. p. 15. ^ Collier, Robert. "Everyone casting suspicious eye on Iraq's Hezbollah." San Francisco Chronicle. 29 December 2003. 14 March 2008. ^ Adam Shatz, New York Review of Books, 29 April 2004 In Search of Hezbollah
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Archived 22 August 2006 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 15 August 2006. ^ Wright, Robin (13 July 2006). "Options for U.S. Limited As Mideast Crises Spread". Washington Post. p. A19.  ^ United Nations
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Document A/54/723 S/2000/55, citing Al Hayyat, 30 October 1999"Letter dated January 25, 2000 from the Permanent Representative of Israel
Israel
to the United Nations
United Nations
addressed to the Secretary-General". Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 17 August 2006.  . Retrieved 17 August 2006. ^ "The Shifts in Hizbullah's Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology, and Political Program"By Joseph Elie Alagha, Published by Amsterdam University Press, 2006,ISBN 90-5356-910-3, ISBN 978-90-5356-910-8,380. ^ Joshua Mitnick. Behind the dispute over Shebaa Farms, Christian Science Monitor, 22 August 2006. ^ Whitaker, Brian (10 May 2006). "Flashpoint farmland". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 September 2013.  ^ "Central to this issue is Hizballah's claim, which was also espoused by Lebanon's former pro-Syrian government, that the disputed Shebaa Farms are Lebanese rather than Syrian territories and are occupied by Israel. Therefore, Hizballah maintains that it is a legitimate resistance movement fighting for the liberation of Lebanese territory. Under this pretext, Hizballah, supported by some Lebanese parties, could argue that it is not a militia and thus it is outside the jurisdiction of Resolution 1559." Robert Rabil. Reinforcing Lebanon's Sovereignty, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 8 November 2005. ^ a b "Security council endorses secretary-general's conclusion on Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon
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Hezbollah
Hezbollah
is more than just anti-Zionist; it also exhibits a rabid streak of anti-Semitism, replete with Nazi-like salutes and goose-step marches. In addition, like most other Islamist
Islamist
extremist and terrorist organizations, Hezbollah
Hezbollah
engages in pure Holocaust denial. … Hezbollah's anti-Semitism, however, pervades the organization much more extensively than just Holocaust denial
Holocaust denial
and conspiracy theories. Despite the rare occasions where Hezbollah
Hezbollah
officials have stated they are anti-Zionist and not anti-Semitic, these words do not hold up upon closer examination. … Notably, during the 2006 war between Israel and Hezbollah, the Islamist
Islamist
group apologized only for killing Israeli Arabs, who are not Jewish.

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"Quoting Washington sources, the paper said the attack was meant to avenge the death of Iranian nuclear scientist Masoud Ali Mohammadi who was killed last year. ... Turkish intelligence first attributed the Istanbul attack ... to the Kurdish resistance, but later concluded that Hezbollah, working on behalf of Iran, had organized it. According to the report, three Hezbollah
Hezbollah
operatives arrived in Istanbul from Beirut
Beirut
to assassinate Kimchi."

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Further reading

Books

Joseph Alagha (2006). The Shifts in Hizbullah's Ideology: Religious Ideology, Political Ideology. Amsterdam University Press. ISBN 90-5356-910-3.  Tom Diaz, Barbara Newman (2005). Lightning Out of Lebanon: Hezbollah Terrorists on American Soil. Presidio Press. ISBN 0-345-47568-2. [dead link] Ahmad Nizar Hamzeh (2004). In The Path Of Hizbullah. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-3053-0.  Judith Palmer Harik (2006). Hezbollah: The Changing Face of Terrorism. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 1-84511-024-2.  Hala Jaber (1997). Hezbollah. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-10834-6.  Avi Jorisch (2004). Beacon of Hatred: Inside Hizballahs Al-Manar Television. Washington Institute for Near East Policy. ISBN 0-944029-88-4.  Augustus Richard Norton (2000). Hizballah of Lebanon: Extremist Ideals vs. Mundane Politics. Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 20 July 2006.  Augustus Richard Norton (2007). Hezbollah: A Short History. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13124-5. Archived from the original on June 9, 2007.  Qassem, Naim (2005). Hizbullah: The Story from Within. Saqi Books. ISBN 978-0-86356-517-5.  Magnus Ranstorp
Magnus Ranstorp
(1996). Hizb' Allah
Allah
in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-16491-2.  Amal Saad-Ghorayeb (2001). Hizbullah: Politics and Religion. Pluto Press. ISBN 0-7453-1793-6.  Jamal Sankari (2005). Fadlallah: The Making of a Radical Shi'ite Leader. Saqi Books. ISBN 0-86356-596-4. 

Articles

Natalia Antelava (2 June 2006). "Inside Lebanese Hezbollah
Hezbollah
militia". British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 July 2009. 

External links

Find more aboutHezbollahat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource

UN resolutions regarding Hezbollah

UN Press Release SC/8181 UN, 2 September 2004 Lebanon: Close Security Council vote backs free elections, urges foreign troop pullout UN, 2 September 2004

Other links

Is Hezbollah
Hezbollah
Confronting a Crisis of Popular Legitimacy? Dr. Eric Lob, Crown Center for Middle East Studies, March 2014 Hezbollah: Financing Terror through Criminal Enterprise, Testimony of Matthew Levitt, Hearing of the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, United States
United States
Senate Hizbullah's two republics by Mohammed Ben Jelloun, Al-Ahram, 15–21 February 2007 Inside Hezbollah, short documentary and extensive information from Frontline/World on PBS. Hizbullah – the 'Party of God' – fact file at Ynetnews

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Army

Other countries

Algeria China Cuba France Iran Kuwait Libya Morocco North Korea Norway Pakistan Russia Sudan Tunisia Turkey Uganda United Arab Emirates United Kingdom United States Venezuela Yemen

Transnational

European Union United Nations

Former states

Mandatory Palestine Soviet Union United Arab Republic

v t e

Armed engagements

Background

1920 Battle of Tel Hai 1936–39 Arab revolt 1944 Operation ATLAS 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine

1948–1950s

1948–49 Arab–Israeli War 1950s Palestinian Fedayeen attacks (Reprisal operations) 1956 Suez Crisis

1960s

1966 Operation Shredder 1967 Six-Day War 1967–70 War of Attrition

1968 Battle of Karameh

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

1968 Operation Gift

1970s–1980

1973 Yom Kippur War

Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon

1972 Operation Isotope / Lod Airport massacre / Munich Olympics massacre 1972–79  Operation Wrath of God (Airstrike, Spring of Youth) 1973 Libyan Arab Airlines Flight 114 1974 Ma'alot massacre 1975 Savoy Operation 1976 Operation Entebbe 1978 Coastal Road massacre / Operation Litani 1980 Misgav Am hostage crisis

1980s

1981 Operation Opera 1982  Lebanon
Lebanon
War 1982–2000 South Lebanon
Lebanon
conflict 1984 Bus 300 affair 1985 Operation Wooden Leg 1987–93 First Intifada

1988 Mothers' Bus rescue / Tunis raid

1990s

1992 Operation Bramble Bush 1993–2008 Palestinian suicide attacks 1993 Operation Accountability 1996 Operation Grapes of Wrath

2000s

2000–05 Al-Aqsa Intifada (Second Intifada) 2000–06  Shebaa Farms
Shebaa Farms
conflict 2001–present Rocket and mortar attacks on southern Israel 2003 Ain es Saheb airstrike 2006 Operation Bringing Home the Goods / Operation Summer Rains / Operation Autumn Clouds / Lebanon
Lebanon
War 2006–present Gaza– Israel
Israel
conflict

2007–08 Operation Hot Winter 2008–09 Gaza War

2007–present Lebanese rocket attacks

2010s

2010 Adaisseh skirmish / Palestinian militancy campaign Gaza– Israel
Israel
conflict

2011 Southern Israel
Israel
cross-border attacks 2012 Operation Returning Echo / Operation Pillar of Defense 2014 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict 2015 Israeli–Palestinian conflict (2015–2016)

v t e

Diplomacy and peace proposals

To 1948

1914  Damascus
Damascus
Protocol 1915 McMahon–Hussein Correspondence 1916 Sykes–Picot Agreement 1917 Balfour Declaration 1918 Declaration to the Seven / Anglo-French Declaration 1919 Faisal–Weizmann Agreement 1920 San Remo conference 1922 Churchill White Paper 1937 Peel Commission 1939 White Paper 1947 UN Partition Plan 1948 American trusteeship proposal

1948–91

1948 UN General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution 194 1949 Armistice agreements / Lausanne Conference 1950  Tripartite Declaration 1964 Palestinian National Covenant 1967 Khartoum Resolution / UN Security Council (UNSC) Resolution 242 1973 UNSC Resolution 338 / UNSC Resolution 339 1974 Israel– Syria
Syria
disengagement agreement / UNSC Resolution 350 1978 UNSC Resolution 425 / Camp David Accords 1979 UNSC Resolution 446 / Egypt– Israel
Israel
Peace Treaty / UNSC Resolution 452 1980 UNSC Resolution 478 1981 UNSC Resolution 497 1983 Israel– Lebanon
Lebanon
agreement

1991–present

1991 Madrid Conference 1993 Oslo Accords 1994 Gaza–Jericho Agreement / Israel– Jordan
Jordan
peace treaty 1995 Beilin-Abu Mazen agreement 1998 Wye River Memorandum 1999 Sharm el- Sheikh
Sheikh
Memorandum 2000 Camp David Summit / Clinton Parameters 2001 Taba Summit 2002  Beirut
Beirut
Summit and peace initiative / Road map 2003 Geneva Initiative 2004 UNSC Resolution 1559 / UNSC Resolution 1566 2005 UNSC Resolution 1583 / Sharm el- Sheikh
Sheikh
Summit / Israeli disengagement from Gaza / Agreement on Movement and Access 2006 UNSC Resolution 1701 2007 Annapolis Conference 2010 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks 2013 Israeli–Palestinian peace talks

v t e

Political parties in Lebanon

Ministers (24)

March 8 Alliance
March 8 Alliance
(8)

Amal Movement
Amal Movement
(2) Hezbollah
Hezbollah
(2) Free Patriotic Movement
Free Patriotic Movement
(2) Marada Movement
Marada Movement
(1) Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Tashnag) (1)

March 14 Alliance
March 14 Alliance
(8)

Future Movement
Future Movement
(3) Kataeb Party
Kataeb Party
(3) Independents (2)

Others (8)

Progressive Socialist Party
Progressive Socialist Party
(2) Independents (6)

National Assembly (128)

Future Movement
Future Movement
(26) Free Patriotic Movement
Free Patriotic Movement
(19) Amal Movement
Amal Movement
(13) Hezbollah
Hezbollah
(12) Lebanese Forces
Lebanese Forces
(9) Progressive Socialist Party
Progressive Socialist Party
(7) Kataeb Party
Kataeb Party
(5) Lebanese Democratic Party
Lebanese Democratic Party
(4) Marada Movement
Marada Movement
(3) Ba'ath Party (2) Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Tashnag, 2) Glory Movement (2) Social Democrat Hunchakian Party
Social Democrat Hunchakian Party
(2) Syrian Social Nationalist Party
Syrian Social Nationalist Party
(2) Armenian Democratic Liberal Party
Armenian Democratic Liberal Party
(Ramgavar, 1) Democratic Left (1) Islamic Group (1) National Liberal Party (1) Solidarity Party (1) Others (14)

Politics of Lebanon

v t e

Syrian Civil War

Part of the Arab Spring
Arab Spring
and Arab Winter

Background Timeline

Background

1963 coup d'état 1966 coup d'état 1970 "Corrective Revolution" 1979–82 Islamic uprising 1999 Latakia protests 2000–01 Damascus
Damascus
Spring 2004 Qamishli riots Syrian occupation of Lebanon 2005 Damascus
Damascus
Declaration Human rights in Syria

2011 (Jan–Apr • May–Aug • Sep–Dec)

Death of Hamza Ali Al-Khateeb Siege of Daraa Siege of Baniyas Talkalakh siege Siege of Rastan and Talbiseh Jisr ash-Shugur operation Siege of Hama Siege of Homs Jabal al-Zawiya operation Siege of Latakia Deir ez-Zor Clashes Rif Dimashq clashes

Battle of Zabadani Battle of Douma

Daraa Governorate clashes First Battle of Rastan Shayrat and Tiyas airbase ambush Idlib Governorate clashes Jabal al-Zawiya massacres

2012 (Jan–Apr • May–Aug • Sep–Dec)

al-Midan bombing Second Battle of Rastan First Idlib operation First Battle of Idlib First Battle of al-Qusayr Second Idlib operation

Battle of Taftanaz

Third Battle of Rastan Houla massacre Battle of al-Haffah Al-Qubeir massacre Battle of Tremseh Battle of Damascus

Damascus
Damascus
bombing

Battle of Aleppo

Battle of Anadan Siege of Base 46

Al-Hasakah Governorate campaign (2012–13) First Rif Dimashq offensive

Darayya massacre

Battle of Khirbet al-Joz Battle of Maarrat al-Nu'man (2012) First Siege of Wadi Deif Battle of Harem Second Rif Dimashq offensive

Battle of Darayya

Aqrab massacre First Hama offensive

Halfaya massacre

Battle of Darayya Quneitra
Quneitra
Governorate clashes Talbiseh bakery massacre

2013 (Jan–Apr • May–Dec)

Battle of Safira Battle of Shadadeh Damascus
Damascus
offensive Raqqa campaign (2012–13)
Raqqa campaign (2012–13)
(Battle of Raqqa (March 2013)) Daraa offensive Third Rif Dimashq offensive

Battle of Jdaidet al-Fadl

Ghouta chemical attack Al-Qusayr offensive

Second Battle of al-Qusayr

Bayda and Baniyas massacres Second Hama offensive Hatla massacre Khan al-Assal chemical attack Khan al-Assal massacre Adra massacre Battle of Ras al-Ayn Battle of Tell Abyad Fourth Rif Dimashq offensive Aleppo offensive

2014 (Jan–Jul • Aug–Dec)

First Inter-Rebel Conflict

Battle of Markada First Deir ez-Zor Offensive

Battle of Mork 2nd Daraa Offensive Maan massacre Al-Otaiba ambush 4th Idlib Offensive Battle of Hosn 2nd Latakia Offensive Battle of Al-Malihah Kafr Zita chemical attack Second Siege of Wadi Deif 2nd Qalamoun Offensive

Battle of Arsal

First Battle of the Shaer gas field Eastern Syria
Syria
Offensive

Battle for Tabqa Air base

Northern Aleppo offensive (February–July 2014) 3rd Hama Offensive Quneitra
Quneitra
Offensive 6th Rif Dimashq offensive Siege of Kobanî 3rd Daraa offensive 2nd Al-Safira offensive Idlib Raid Second Inter-Rebel Conflict Second Battle of the Shaer gas field Battle of Al-Shaykh Maskin 2nd Deir ez-Zor offensive

2015 (Jan–Jul • Aug–Dec)

An-26 crash 4th Daraa Offensive Southern Syria
Syria
Offensive Eastern al-Hasakah offensive 1st Battle of Sarrin 2nd Battle of Sarrin Battle of Bosra 5th Idlib Offensive Second Battle of Idlib Battle of Nasib Border Crossing 2nd Battle of Yarmouk Camp Western al-Hasakah offensive Palmyra offensive (May 2015) 2015 Qamishli bombings Tell Abyad offensive Kobanî massacre Quneitra
Quneitra
offensive Palmyra offensive (July–August 2015) 7th Rif Dimashq offensive Northwestern Syria
Syria
offensive 2015 Aleppo offensive 2015 Al-Hawl offensive Homs offensive (November–December 2015) East Aleppo offensive (2015–16) Latakia offensive (2015–2016) Tishrin Dam offensive 2015 Russian Sukhoi Su-24 shootdown

2016 (Jan–Apr • May–Aug • Sep–Dec)

Second Battle of Al-Shaykh Maskin 3rd Deir ez-Zor offensive Sayyidah Zaynab bombings Northern Aleppo offensive (February 2016) Ithriyah-Raqqa offensive (February–March 2016) Al-Shaddadi offensive (2016) February Homs bombings February Sayyidah Zaynab bombings 2016 Khanasir offensive Battle of Tel Abyad Battle of Maarrat al-Nu'man (2016) Battle of Qamishli (April 2016) Northern Aleppo offensive (March–June 2016) Palmyra offensive (March 2016) East Ghouta inter-rebel conflict (April–May 2016) 8th Rif Dimashq offensive Northern Raqqa offensive (May 2016) May 2016 Jableh and Tartous bombings Ithriyah-Raqqa offensive (June 2016) 9th Rif Dimashq offensive Manbij offensive

Tokhar

2016 Southern Aleppo campaign Battle of al-Rai (August 2016) 2016 Aleppo summer campaign Western al-Bab offensive (September 2016) 5 September 2016 Syria
Syria
bombings September 2016 Deir ez-Zor air raid September 2016 Urum al-Kubra Aid Convoy attack September Aleppo offensive 2016 Dabiq offensive Western al-Bab offensive (October–November 2016) Aleppo offensive (September–October 2016) Khan al-Shih offensive (October–November 2016) Raqqa campaign (2016–present) Battle of al-Bab Aleppo offensive (November–December 2016) Palmyra offensive (December 2016)

2017 (Jan–Apr • May–Aug • Sep–Dec)

Wadi Barada offensive (2016–17) January 2017 Azaz bombing Syrian Desert campaign (December 2016–April 2017) Idlib Governorate clashes (2017) Deir ez-Zor offensive (January–February 2017) Daraa offensive (February–June 2017) Southwestern Daraa offensive (February 2017) Qaboun offensive (2017) Palmyra offensive (2017) East Aleppo offensive (January–April 2017) March 2017 Damascus
Damascus
bombings 2017 al-Jinah airstrike Hama offensive (March–April 2017) Battle of Tabqa (2017) Khan Shaykhun chemical attack 2017 Shayrat missile strike 2017 Aleppo suicide car bombing April 2017 Turkish airstrikes in Syria
Syria
and Iraq East Ghouta inter-rebel conflict (April–May 2017) Syrian Desert campaign (May–July 2017) Maskanah Plains offensive East Hama offensive Battle of Raqqa (2017) 9th Daraa Southern Raqqa offensive (June 2017) 2017 Jobar offensive Quneitra
Quneitra
offensive (June 2017) Idlib Governorate clashes (July 2017) Central Syria
Syria
campaign (2017) 4nd Qalamoun Deir ez-Zor offensive (September 2017–March 2018) Hama offensive (September 2017) Northwestern Syria
Syria
campaign (October 2017–February 2018) Turkish military operation in Idlib Governorate Battle of Harasta (2017–18) Eastern Syria
Syria
campaign (September–December 2017)

2017 Euphrates Crossing offensive 2017 Mayadin offensive Battle of Deir ez-Zor (September–November 2017) 2017 Abu Kamal offensive

Beit Jinn offensive

2018 (Jan–Apr • May–Aug • Sep–Dec)

Turkish military operation in Afrin Battle of Khasham Tenth Rif Dimashq offensive Southern Damascus
Damascus
offensive (January–February 2018) Syrian Liberation Front– Tahrir al-Sham
Tahrir al-Sham
conflict Southern Damascus
Damascus
offensive (March 2018) Eastern Syria
Syria
campaign (March 2018–present)

Spillover

Spillover into Lebanon

Lebanese–Syrian border clashes Battle of Sidon Iranian Embassy Bombing Northern Lebanon
Lebanon
Clashes 3nd Qalamoun

Syrian-Turkish border clashes

December 2011 Syrian–Turkish border clash Turkish aircraft shootdown October 2012 Syrian-Turkish border clashes Reyhanlı bombings January 2014 Turkish airstrike in Syria

Israeli–Syrian ceasefire line incidents

March 2017 incident February 2018 incident

Jordanian-Syrian border clashes

April 2014 Jordanian–Syrian border airstrike

Spillover into Iraq

Akashat ambush Operation al-Shabah April 2014 Iraqi–Syrian border airstrike

Assassination of Andrei Karlov Turkish military intervention in Syria
Syria
(August 2016–March 2017) 2017 Russian Air Force Al-Bab incident 2017 Deir ez-Zor missile strike

Involved parties

Syria

Ba'ath Government

Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria
Syria
Region Syrian Social Nationalist Party Arab Socialist Movement Syrian Communist Party

Military & Militias

Syrian Armed Forces Syrian Resistance PFLP-GC al-Quds Brigade Palestine Liberation Army Smaller groups

Support for the government

Hezbollah
Hezbollah
involvement Iranian involvement

Liwa Fatemiyoun

Russia's involvement

medical facility targeting military intervention Wagner Group

Russia–Syria–Iran– Iraq
Iraq
coalition Popular Mobilization Forces
Popular Mobilization Forces
(Iraq)

Syrian opposition, Al-Qaeda affiliates and allies

NCSR Government

National Coalition

Local Co-ordination Committees

Syrian National Council Supreme Council of the Syrian Revolution National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change Syrian Revolution General Commission Syrian Support Group Adopt a Revolution Syrian Patriotic Group

Opposition militias

SNA Syrian Liberation Front Army of Free Men Abu Amara Battalions Covert Special
Special
Tasks Force Army of Glory Elite Army 2nd Army Army of Victory Martyrs of Islam Brigade National Liberation Movement Central Division 1st Coastal Division Free Idlib Army 23rd Division Army of Islam al-Rahman Legion 1st Brigade of Damascus Southern Front Army of Free Tribes Criterion Brigades National Front for the Liberation of Syria Unified Syrian Army Company of the People of the Levant Authenticity and Development Front Al-Qaratayn Martyrs Brigade Revolutionary Commando Army Elite Division Smaller groups

al-Qaeda affiliates and allies

Tahrir al-Sham Turkistan Islamic Party in Syria Caucasus Emirate Ajnad al-Kavkaz Junud al-Makhdi Malhama Tactical Ansar al-Islam
Ansar al-Islam
splinter faction Smaller groups

Allied groups (to the Opposition militias)

Muslim Brotherhood
Muslim Brotherhood
of Syria Grey Wolves Smaller groups

Support for the Opposition

American-led intervention

American rescue mission

Jordanian intervention Qatar Saudi Arabia Turkey

Rojava
Rojava
(SDF)

Rojava
Rojava
government

Democratic Union Party Kurdish National Council Smaller political parties

SDF groups

People's Protection Units Women's Protection Units Anti-Terror Units Al-Sanadid Forces Army of Revolutionaries Elite Forces SDF Military Councils Syriac Military Council
Syriac Military Council
(Bethnahrain Women's Protection Forces Jabhat Thuwar al-Raqqa Raqqa Hawks Brigade Northern Democratic Brigade Free Officers Union Liberation Brigade faction Shahba Forces Liwa Owais al-Qorani
Liwa Owais al-Qorani
remnants Martyr Amara Arab Women's Battalion Battalion of Karachok Martyrs Revolutionary Forces Khabour Guards Nattoreh Smaller groups

Allied groups

Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Kurdistan Workers' Party International Freedom Battalion International Anti-Fascist Battalion Sinjar Resistance Units Êzîdxan Women's Units Smaller groups

ISIL

Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant

Military of ISIL Dokumacılar Khalid ibn al-Walid Army Liwa al-Aqsa Group of the One and Only Liwa Dawud

People

Ammar Abdulhamid Ali al-Abdallah Adnan al-Aroor al- Assad
Assad
family

Bashar Maher Rifaat Rami Makhlouf Hafez Makhlouf

Riad al-Asaad Anwar al-Bunni Fahd Jassem al-Freij Haitham al-Maleh Moaz al-Khatib Kamal al-Labwani Hamza al-Khateeb Tal al-Mallohi Fida al-Sayed Riad al-Turk Khaled Khoja Ammar al-Qurabi Suheir Atassi Ali Sadreddine Al-Bayanouni Aref Dalila Farid Ghadry Burhan Ghalioun Razan Ghazzawi Ghassan Hitto Salim Idris Randa Kassis Abdul Halim Khaddam Michel Kilo Bassma Kodmani Ali Habib Mahmud Ali Mahmoud Othman Ibrahim Qashoush Dawoud Rajiha Yassin al-Haj Saleh Bouthaina Shaaban Adib Shishakly Abdulbaset Sieda Riad Seif Fadwa Soliman Mohamad Anas Haitham Soueid Yaser Tabbara Razan Zaitouneh Rami Jarrah Abdurrahman Mustafa

Issues Peace process Related topics Elections

Issues

Casualties Chemical weapons Cities and towns Damaged heritage sites Foreign involvement Human rights violations Humanitarian aid International reactions International demonstrations and protests Massacres Refugees (European migrant crisis) Sectarianism and minorities Spillover into Lebanon Syrian reactions

Peace process

Arab League
Arab League
monitors Friends of Syria
Syria
Group Kofi Annan peace plan

UN Supervision Mission

Lakhdar Brahimi peace plan U.S.– Russia
Russia
peace proposals on Syria 39th G8 summit UN Security Council Resolution 2118 Geneva II Conference 2015 Zabadani cease-fire agreement 2015 Vienna talks 2016 Geneva talks

Related topics

2014 Syrian detainee report Exclusive mandate Fourth Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit Conference International recognition of the Syrian National Council Syria
Syria
Files Syrian media coverage The Return to Homs Silvered Water, Syria
Syria
Self-Portrait Sunnistan Syrian presidential election, 2014

Elections and referendums held during the civil war

Syrian local elections, 2011 Syrian constitutional referendum, 2012 Syrian presidential election, 2014 Rojava
Rojava
local elections, 2015 Syrian parliamentary election, 2016 Northern Syria
Syria
local elections, 2017

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 139513420 LCCN: n88191600 ISNI: 0000 0001 1882 1876 GN

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