Hesse (/ˈhɛsə/) or Hessia (German: Hessen [ˈhɛsn̩], Hessian
Hesse [ˈhɛzə]) is a federal state (Land) of the Federal
Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state
capital is Wiesbaden; the largest city is
Frankfurt am Main. Until the
unification of Germany, the territory of
Hesse was occupied by the
Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt
and the Electorate of Hesse, known also as Hesse-Cassel. Due to
divisions after World War II, the modern federal state does not cover
the entire cultural region of Hesse, which includes both the State of
Hesse and the area known as
Rhenish Hesse (Rheinhessen) in the
neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The English name "Hesse" originates in the Hessian dialects. The
variant "Hessia" comes from medieval Latin Hassia. The German term
Hessen is used by the European Commission because their policy is to
leave regional names untranslated (paragraphs 1.31 and 1.35). The
term "Hesse" ultimately derives from a Germanic tribe called the
Chatti. An inhabitant of
Hesse is called a "Hessian" (German: Hesse
(masculine) or Hessin (feminine)). The synthetic element hassium,
number 108 on the periodic table, is named after the state of Hesse.
1.1 19th century
1.2 20th century
3 Administration of the State of Hesse
3.2 Rhenish Hesse
4 State symbols and politics
4.1 Head of state
4.2 Most recent state election
4.3 Foreign affairs
4.4 Flag and anthem
6.3 Fine arts
7 TV and radio stations
9 Traffic and public transportation
9.1 Road transport
9.2 Railway transport
9.3 Air transport
11 External links
Main article: History of Hesse
As early as the Paleolithic period, the Central Hessian region was
inhabited. Due to the favorable climate of the location, people lived
there about 50,000 years ago during the last glacial period, as burial
sites show from this era. Finds of paleolitical tools in southern
Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest the presence of Pleistocene hunters
about 13,000 years BP. A fossil hominid skull that was found
in northern Hesse, just outside the village of Rhünda, has been dated
at 12,000 ± 80 years BP. The Züschen tomb
(German: Steinkammergrab von Züschen, sometimes also Lohne-Züschen)
is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen,
near Fritzlar, Hesse, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a
Hessian-Westphalian stone cist (hessisch-westfälische Steinkiste), it
is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe.
Dating to the late fourth millennium BC (and possibly remaining in use
until the early third), it belongs to the Late
An early Celtic presence in what is now
Hesse is indicated by a
mid-fifth-century BC La Tène-style burial uncovered at Glauberg. The
region was later settled by the Germanic
Chatti tribe around the first
century BC, and the name
Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name.
The ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, and in Waldgirmes
directly on the eastern outskirts of
Wetzlar was a civil settlement
under construction. Presumably, the provincial government for the
occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this
location. The governor of Germania, at least temporarily, likely had
resided here. The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the
Romans after the devastating
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest
Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in
the year 9 AD. The
Chatti were also involved in the Revolt of the
Batavi in 69 AD.
Hessia, from the early seventh century on, served as a buffer between
areas dominated by the Saxons (to the north) and the Franks, who
brought the area to the south under their control in the early sixth
century and occupied
Thuringia (to the east) in 531. Hessia
occupies the northwestern part of the modern German state of Hesse;
its borders were not clearly delineated. Its geographic center is
Fritzlar; it extends in the southeast to
Hersfeld on the
in the north to past
Kassel and up to the rivers Diemel and Weser. To
the west, it occupies the valleys of the Rivers
latter until it turns south). It measured roughly 90 kilometers
north-south, and 80 north-west.
The area around
Fritzlar shows evidence of significant pagan belief
from the first century on. Geismar was a particular focus of such
activity; it was continuously occupied from the Roman period on, with
a settlement from the Roman period, which itself had a predecessor
from the fifth century BC. Excavations have produced a horse burial
and bronze artifacts. A possible religious cult may have centered on a
natural spring in Geismar, called Heilgenbron; the name "Geismar"
(possibly "energetic pool") itself may be derived from that spring.
The village of Maden, Gudensberg (de), now a part of Gudensberg
Fritzlar and less than ten miles from Geismar, was likely an
ancient religious center; the basaltic outcrop of
Gudensberg is named
after Wodan, and a two-meter tall quartzite megalith called the
Wotanstein is at the center of the village.
By 650, the Franks had establish themselves as overlords, which is
suggested by archeological evidence of burials, and they built
fortifications in various places, including Christenberg. By 690,
they took direct control over Hessia, apparently to counteract
expansion by the Saxons, who built fortifications in Gaulskopf and
Eresburg across the River Diemel, the northern boundary of Hessia. The
Büraburg (which already had a Frankish settlement in the sixth
century) was one of the places the Franks fortified to resist the
Saxon pressure, and according to John-Henry Clay, the
"probably the largest man-made construction seen in Hessia for at
least seven hundred years". Walls and trenches totaling one kilometer
in length were made, and they enclosed "8 hectares of a spur that
offered a commanding view over
Fritzlar and the densely-populated
heart of Hessia".
Following Saxon incursions into Chattish territory in the seventh
century, two gaue had been established; a Frankish one, comprising an
Fritzlar and Kassel, and a Saxonian one. In the 9th
century, the Saxon
Hessengau also came under the rule of the
Franconians. In the 12th century, it was passed to Thuringia.
War of the Thuringian Succession (1247–1264),
independence and became a Landgraviate within the Holy Roman Empire.
It shortly rose to primary importance under Landgrave Philip the
Magnanimous, who was one of the leaders of German Protestantism. After
Philip's death in 1567, the territory was divided among his four sons
from his first marriage (Philip was a bigamist) into four lines:
Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel), Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Rheinfels, and
the also previously existing Hesse-Marburg. As the latter two lines
died out quite soon (1583 and 1605, respectively), Hesse-
Hesse-Darmstadt were the two core states within the Hessian lands.
Several collateral lines split off during the centuries, such as in
Hesse-Homburg split off from Hesse-Darmstadt. In the late
Kassel adopted Calvinism, while
Lutheran and subsequently the two lines often found themselves on
different sides of a conflict, most notably in the disputes over
Hesse-Marburg and in the Thirty Years' War, when
Darmstadt fought on
the side of the Emperor, while
Kassel sided with
Sweden and France.
The Landgrave Frederick II (1720–1785) ruled as a benevolent despot,
from 1760 to 1785. He combined Enlightenment ideas with Christian
values, cameralist plans for central control of the economy, and a
militaristic approach toward diplomacy. He funded the depleted
treasury of the poor nation by loaning 19,000 soldiers in complete
military formations to
Great Britain to fight in North America during
the American Revolutionary War, 1776–1783. These soldiers, commonly
known as Hessians, fought under the British flag. The British used the
Hessians in several conflicts, including in the Irish Rebellion of
1798. For further revenue, the soldiers were loaned to other places as
well. Most were conscripted, with their pay going to the Landgrave.
Arms of Hesse-
The ruler of Hesse-
Kassel was elevated to the status of Prince-Elector
in 1803, but this remained without effect, as the Holy Roman Empire
was disbanded in 1806. The territory was annexed by Napoleon to the
Westphalia in 1806, but restored to the Elector in 1813.
While other Electors had gained other titles, becoming either Kings or
Grand Dukes, the Elector of Hesse-
Kassel alone retained the
anachronistic title. The name survived in the term Kurhessen, denoting
the region around Kassel. In 1866, it was annexed by Prussia, together
with the Free City of Frankfurt, the small Landgraviate of
Hesse-Homburg, and the Duchy of Nassau, which were then combined into
the province of Hesse-Nassau.
Arms of Grand Duchy of Hesse
Hesse-Darmstadt was elevated by Napoleon to the status of a Grand
Duchy in 1806, becoming the Grand Duchy of Hesse. In the War of 1866,
it fought on the side of
Austria against Prussia, but retained its
autonomy in defeat because a greater part of the country was situated
south of the
Main River and
Prussia did not dare to expand beyond the
Main line, as this might have provoked France. However, the parts of
Hesse-Darmstadt north of the Main (the region around the town of
Gießen, commonly called Oberhessen) were incorporated in the
Norddeutscher Bund, a tight federation of German states, established
Prussia in 1867. In 1871, after France's defeat in the
Franco-Prussian War, the rest of the Grand Duchy joined the German
Empire. Around the turn of the 20th century,
Darmstadt was one of the
centres of the Jugendstil. Until 1907, the
Grand Duchy of Hesse
Grand Duchy of Hesse used
the Hessian red and white lion as its coat-of-arms.
The revolution of 1918 transformed
Hesse-Darmstadt from a monarchy to
a republic, which officially renamed itself "Volksstaat Hessen"
(People's State of Hesse). The parts of
Hesse-Darmstadt on the western
banks of the
Rhine (province Rheinhessen) were occupied by French
troops until 1930 under the terms of the Versailles peace treaty that
officially ended World War I in 1919.
After World War II, the Hessian territory west of the
Rhine was again
occupied by France, whereas the rest of the region was part of the US
occupation zone. The French separated their part of
Hesse from the
rest of the region and incorporated it into the newly founded state of
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz). The United States, on the
other side, proclaimed the state of
Greater Hesse (Groß-Hessen) on 19
September 1945, out of
Hesse-Darmstadt and most of the former Prussian
province of Hesse-Nassau. On 4 December 1946 Groß-Hessen was
officially renamed Hessen.
List of places in Hesse and List of mountains of Hesse
The most important rivers, mountains, and cities of Hesse
Situated in west-central Germany,
Hesse state borders the German
states of (starting in the north and proceeding clockwise) Lower
Saxony, Thuringia, Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate,
and North Rhine-Westphalia.
Most of the population of
Hesse is in the southern part in the Rhine
Main Area. The principal cities of the area include
Frankfurt am Main,
Wiesbaden, Darmstadt, Offenbach, Hanau, Gießen, Wetzlar, and Limburg.
Other major towns in
Fulda in the east, and
Marburg an der Lahn
Marburg an der Lahn in the north. The densely populated Rhine-Main
region is much better developed than the rural areas in the middle and
northern parts of Hesse.
The most important rivers in
Hesse are the
Eder Rivers in
the north, the
Lahn in the central part of Hesse, and the Main and
Rhine in the south. The countryside is hilly and the numerous mountain
ranges include the Rhön, the Westerwald, the Taunus, the Vogelsberg,
Knüll and the Spessart.
Hesse on the southwest without running through the
state, only one old arm – the so-called Alt-Rhein – runs through
Hesse. The mountain range between the Main and the Neckar Rivers is
called the Odenwald. The plain between the rivers Main, Rhine, and
Neckar, and the
Odenwald Mountains is called the Ried.
Hesse is the greenest state in Germany, as forest covers 42% of the
Administration of the State of Hesse
Hesse is a unitary state governed directly by the Hessian government
in the capital city Wiesbaden, partially through regional vicarious
authorities called Regierungspräsidien. Municipal parliaments are,
however, elected independently from the state government by the
Hessian people. Local municipalities enjoy a considerable degree of
The state is divided into three administrative provinces
Kassel in the north and east,
Gießen in the
Darmstadt in the south, the latter being the most populous
region with the
Frankfurt Rhine-Main agglomeration in its central
area. The administrative regions have no legislature of their own, but
are executive agencies of the state government.
State chancellery building in the capital city Wiesbaden
Frankfurt am Main
Offenbach am Main
Hesse is divided into 21 districts (Kreise) and five independent
cities, each with their own local governments. They are, shown with
abbreviations as used on vehicle number plates:
Bergstraße (Heppenheim) (HP)
Darmstadt-Dieburg (Darmstadt) (DA, DI)
Groß-Gerau (Groß-Gerau) (GG)
Hochtaunuskreis (Bad Homburg) (HG, USI)
Main-Kinzig-Kreis (Gelnhausen) (MKK, GN, HU, SLÜ)
Main-Taunus-Kreis (Hofheim am Taunus) (MTK)
Odenwaldkreis (Erbach) (ERB)
Offenbach (Dietzenbach) (OF)
Rheingau-Taunus-Kreis (Bad Schwalbach) (RÜD, SWA)
Wetteraukreis (Friedberg) (FB, BÜD)
Gießen (Gießen) (GI)
Lahn-Dill-Kreis (Wetzlar) (LDK)
Limburg-Weilburg (Limburg) (LM, WEL)
Marburg-Biedenkopf (Marburg) (MR, BID)
Vogelsbergkreis (Lauterbach) (VB)
Fulda (Fulda) (FD)
Hersfeld-Rotenburg (Bad Hersfeld) (HEF, ROF)
Kassel (Kassel) (KS, HOG, WOH)
Schwalm-Eder-Kreis (Homberg (Efze)) (HR, ZIG, FZ)
Werra-Meißner-Kreis (Eschwege) (ESW, WIZ)
Waldeck-Frankenberg (Korbach) (KB, FKB, WA)
Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main (F)
Offenbach am Main
Offenbach am Main (OF)
The term "Rhenish Hesse" (German: Rheinhessen) refers to the part of
the former Grand Duchy of
Hesse-Darmstadt located west of the Rhine.
It has not been part of the State of Hessen since 1946 due to
divisions in the aftermath of World War II. This province is now part
of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate. It is a hilly countryside
largely devoted to vineyards; therefore, it is also called the "land
of the thousand hills". Its larger towns include Mainz, Worms, Bingen,
Alzey, Nieder-Olm, and Ingelheim. Many inhabitants commute to work in
Mainz, Wiesbaden, or Frankfurt.
State symbols and politics
Main article: Politics of Hesse
Hessen has been a parliamentary republic since 1918, interrupted by a
12-year episode from 1933 until 1945 during the Nazi dictatorship. The
German federal system has elements of exclusive federal competences,
shared competences, and exclusive competences of the federal states.
Hessen is famous for having a rather brisk style in its politics with
the ruling parties being either the center-right Christian Democratic
Union (CDU) or the center-left Social Democratic Party of Germany
(SPD). However, due to the Hessian electoral laws, the biggest party
normally needs a smaller coalition partner.
Head of state
Hesse is a federal state, its constitution combines the offices of
the head of state and head of government in one office called the
"Minister President" (German: Ministerpräsident) which is comparable
to the office of a prime minister. In the framework of the German
federation, the President of
Germany is de facto Hesse's head of
Most recent state election
Although the government under
Volker Bouffier (CDU)
lost some votes in the 2014 state elections, he could form a
government with the Green Party as the conservative CDU's coalition
Hesse is the first German state with a coalition government
formed by the conservative CDU and the leftist Green party. In the
current Hessian parliament (Hessischer Landtag) the conservative CDU
holds a 47 seats, the centre-left SPD 37 seats, the leftist Green
party 14 seats and the liberal FDP as well as the socialist party "Die
Linke" each six seats.
The Hessian parliament according to the 2014 elections
As a member state of the German federation,
Hesse does not have a
diplomatic service of its own. However, Hessen operates representation
offices in foreign countries such as the USA, China, Hungary, Cuba,
Russia, Poland, and Iran. These offices are mostly used to represent
Hessian interests in cultural and economic affairs.
Hesse has also
permanent representation offices in
Berlin at the federal government
Germany and in
Brussels at the European Union.
Flag and anthem
The flag colors of
Hesse are red and white; its coat of arms shows a
standing lion. These symbols are in line with the state symbols of the
former Grand Duchy of Hesse. The official anthem of
Hesse is called
"Hessenlied" ("Song of Hesse") and was written by Albrecht Brede
(music) and Carl Preser (lyrics).
Significant foreign born populations
The southern parts of
Hesse were[when?] deeply influenced by the fact
that they belonged to the Grand Duchy of Hessen, an independent state
until 1871, while the northern region of what is today the State of
Hessen came under strong Prussian influence.
Darmstadt which was the capital city of Hessen until 1945, the city
from which the Grand Dukes of
Hesse ruled the country, was influenced
by British and Russian imperial architecture due to close family ties
of the Grand Duke's family to the reigning dynasties in
The Hessian people speak a variety of German, a
dialect known as Hessisch.
Religious affiliation in
Percentage of Hessian population
Don't know/refused answer
View of the Stadtpfarrkirche St. Blasius in Fulda
Christianity was the most widespread religion in the state
(67%). 40% of the Hessians belonged to the Protestant Church in
Hesse and Nassau or Evangelical Church of
(members of the Evangelical Church in Germany), 25% adhered to the
Roman Catholic Church, while other Christians constituted some 2%. The
remaining one third of the Hessian population were
Muslims or belonged
to other faiths, or were unaffiliated. Acknowledged as a legal entity
under public law in Hesse, the
Ahmadiyya is the first Islamic
community in all of
Germany to be recognized as such. The
Baha'i House of Worship for Europe is located in the
village of Langenhain in the town of Hofheim near Frankfurt.
The former state capital, Darmstadt, has been a centre of art nouveau
and modern architecture since 1914,
Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main is cultural
centre of international magnitude and the northern
Hesse city of
Kassel is home of the five-yearly documenta, a modern art exhibition.
Hesse has four major opera houses, the most important being the
Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main Opera House. Through its Cultural Investment
Hesse supports the renovation and promotion of historical
sites and it promotes the documenta, a world-wide art exhibition held
every five years in Kassel. The Hessian Ministry of the Arts supports
numerous independent cultural initiatives, organisations, and
associations as well as artists from many fields including music,
literature, theatre and dance, cinema and the new media, graphic art,
and exhibitions. International cultural projects aim to further
relations with European partners.
Frankfurt hosts the following professional sports teams or clubs:
1. FFC Frankfurt, football (women)
Eintracht Frankfurt, football (men)
FSV Frankfurt, football (men)
Rot-Weiss Frankfurt, football
Frankfurter FC Germania 1894, football
Skyliners Frankfurt, basketball
Frankfurt Galaxy (1991–2007), American football
Frankfurt Universe (2007–present), American football
Frankfurter Löwen (1979–1984), American football
Frankfurt Sarsfields GAA, Gaelic football
Frankfurt Lions (until 2010), ice hockey
Löwen Frankfurt (since 2010), ice hockey
SC 1880 Frankfurt, rugby union
Frankfurt is host to the classic cycle race Eschborn-
Loop (known as Rund um den Henninger-Turm from 1961 to 2008). The city
hosts also the annual
Frankfurt Marathon and the Ironman Germany.
Outside Frankfurt, notable professional sports teams include SV
MT Melsungen and VfB
TV and radio stations
The Hessian state broadcasting corporation is called HR (Hessischer
Rundfunk). HR is a member of the federal ARD broadcasting association.
HR provides a statewide TV channel as well as a range of regional
radio stations (HR 1, HR 2, HR 3, HR 4,
you fm and HR info). Besides the state run HR, privately run
TV stations exist and are an important line of commerce. Among the
commercial radio stations that are active in
Hesse Hit Radio FFH,
Planet Radio, Harmony FM, Radio BOB and Main FM are the most popular.
With Hesse's largest city
Frankfurt am Main
Frankfurt am Main being home of the European
Central Bank (ECB), the German
Bundesbank and the
Hesse is home to the financial capital of mainland Europe.
Hesse has always been one of the largest and healthiest
economies in Germany. Its
GDP in 2013 exceeded 236 billion Euros
(about 316 bn US$). This makes
Hesse itself one of the largest
economies in Europe and the 38th largest in the world. According
to GDP-per-capita figures,
Hesse is the wealthiest State (after the
Hamburg and Bremen) in
Germany with approx. $52.500 US.
The Rhine-Main Region has the second largest industrial density in
Germany after the Ruhr area. The main economic fields of importance
are the chemical and pharmaceutical industries with Sanofi, Merck,
Messer Griesheim and Degussa. In the mechanical and
automotive engineering field
Opel in Rüsselsheim is worth mentioning.
Frankfurt is crucial as a financial center, with both the European
Central Bank and the Deutsche Bundesbank's headquarters located there.
Numerous smaller banks and Deutsche Bank, DZ Bank,
Commerzbank are also headquartered in Frankfurt, with the offices of
several international banks also being housed there.
Frankfurt is also
the location of the most important German stock exchange, the
Frankfurt Stock Exchange.
Insurance companies have settled mostly in
Wiesbaden. The city's largest private employer is the R+V
Versicherung, with about 3,900 employees, other major employers are
DBV-Winterthur, the SV SparkassenVersicherung and the Delta Lloyd
Group. The leather industry is predominantly settled in Offenbach.
Frankfurt Airport is the largest employer in
Germany with more than
70.000 employees. Companies with an international reputation are
located outside the Rhine-Main region in Wetzlar. There the center of
the optical, electrical and precision engineering industries Leitz,
Leica, Minox, Hensoldt (Zeiss) and Buderus and
Brita with several
plants in central Hesse. In the east
Fulda there is the rubber plant
Fulda Reifen). In northern Hesse, in Baunatal,
Volkswagen AG has a
large factory that manufactures spare parts. Bombardier has a large
plant that manufactures Locomotives in Kassel.
In August 2008 there were 199,573 people unemployed in Hesse. The
unemployment rate is thus 6.4% (August 2007: 7.6%). With 3.8% the
Hochtaunuskreis has the lowest rate, while the independent city of
Kassel has the highest rate nationally with 12.1%.
Traffic and public transportation
Hesse has one of the best transportation networks in Europe. Many
trans-European and German motorways, high-speed train, and waterways
lines cross Hesse.
Frankfurt International Airport
Frankfurt International Airport is Germany's
largest and Europe's third-largest airport (after
London Heathrow and
Paris-Charles de Gaulle).
Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof
Frankfurt (Main) Hauptbahnhof is Germany's
second-busiest railway station by passengers but the busiest in terms
of traffic.
Hesse has a dense highway network with a total of 24 motorways. The
internationally important motorway routes through
Hesse are the A3,
A5, and A7. Close to the airport of
Frankfurt is the Frankfurter
Kreuz, Germany's busiest and one of Europe's busiest motorway
junctions, where the motorways A3
(Arnhem-Cologne-Frankfurt-Nuremberg-Passau) and A5
(Hattenbach-Frankfurt-Karlsruhe-Basel) intersect. The A5 becomes as
wide as four lanes in each direction near the city of
Main. During the rush-hour, it is possible to use the emergency lanes
on the A3 and A5 motorway in the Rhine-Main Region. The effect is that
the motorways have four lanes in each direction. Other major leading
Hesse highways are the A4, the A44, the A45, the Federal Highway A66
and the A67. There are also a number of smaller motorways and major
trunk roads, some of which are dual carriageways.
Hesse has access to many major rail lines, including the high-speed
Frankfurt and Hanover–Würzburg. Besides, other
north-south connections traverse major east-west routes from Wiesbaden
Frankfurt and from
Hanau and Aschaffenburg to
Frankfurt Central Station is the most important hub for
German trains.
The region around
Frankfurt has the
S-Bahn Rhein-Main with an
S-Bahn network, which is complemented many regional train
connections. In the rest of the country, the rail network is less
extensive. In the northern part of
Hesse exists since 2007 the
RegioTram, a tram-train-concept similar to the Karlsruhe model.
Frankfurt Airport is by far the largest airport in
Germany with more
than 57 million passengers each year and among the world's ten
largest. Not far from the Airport towards the south is the Frankfurt
Egelsbach Airport which is frequented by general aviation planes. The
DFS (German air traffic control) has its headquarters in Langen.
Situated in Northern
Kassel Calden Airport, whose expansion is
planned, has however only regional importance. There are also a number
of sports airfields. Low-cost airlines, especially Ryanair, use
Frankfurt-Hahn Airport as a major base. The airport is actually
located about 100 km from
Frankfurt in the neighbor state of
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Official government portal (English version)
Hesse in Hessian language
"Hesse". Catholic Encyclopedia.
Geographic data related to
Hesse at OpenStreetMap
States of the Federal Republic of Germany
Baden-Württemberg (since 1952)
Bavaria (since 1949)
Brandenburg (since 1990)
Hesse (since 1949)
Lower Saxony (since 1949)
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (since 1990)
Westphalia (since 1949)
Rhineland-Palatinate (since 1949)
Saarland (since 1957)
Saxony (since 1990)
Saxony-Anhalt (since 1990)
Schleswig-Holstein (since 1949)
Thuringia (since 1990)
Berlin (since 1990)
Bremen (since 1949)
Hamburg (since 1949)
South Baden (1949–1952)
Urban and rural districts in the state of