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HERMANN SCHAPER (born 12 August 1911 – date of death unknown), was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era . He was a Holocaust perpetrator responsible for atrocities committed by the Einsatzgruppen in German-occupied Poland
Poland
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and was convicted after the war of numerous war crimes .

SS CAREER

See also: The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland
Poland

Schaper joined the SS and was promoted to the rank of SS-Untersturmführer
SS-Untersturmführer
on 20 April 1935. He achieved the rank of SS-Obersturmführer on 20 April 1937. Before the 1939 invasion of Poland
Poland
, Schaper worked at the SD principal offices of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. During the German occupation of Poland
Poland
Schaper served as commander of Kommando SS Zichenau-Schröttersburg – a Nazi Einsatzgruppe, one of five such formations created in eastern Poland
Poland
and composed of 500–1000 functionaries of the SS and Gestapo
Gestapo
. Schaper operated in the Płock (renamed Schröttersburg) district administered by Count von der Groeben. His superior was a Gestapo
Gestapo
chief based in Ciechanów (renamed Zichenau).

Schaper's death squad was deployed in the newly formed Bezirk Bialystok district soon after the German invasion of the Soviet Union . Himmler
Himmler
himself visited Białystok on 30 June 1941 and pronounced that more forces were needed in the area, because the massive chase after the fleeing Red Army left behind a security vacuum. On 3 July additional formation of Schutzpolizei arrived in the city from the General Government, led by SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
, veteran of Einsatzgruppe IV from the Polish Campaign
Polish Campaign
. The relief unit, called kommando Bialystok, was sent in by SS-Obersturmbannfuhrer Eberhard Schöngarth on orders from the Reich Main Security Office , due to reports of Soviet guerrilla activity in the area with Jews being of course immediately suspected of helping them out. On 10 July 1941 Schaper's Einsatzgruppe was subdivided into dozens of smaller commandos (Einsatzkommandos ) numbering from several to several scores of people whose mission was to kill Jews , alleged communists and the Soviet NKVD
NKVD
collaborators in the captured territories often far behind the advancing German front. The entire Einsatzgruppe employed the same, systematic method of mass killing across many Polish villages and towns in the vicinity of Białystok. Schaper's murderous rampage south-east of East Prussia
East Prussia
is fairly well documented, and included Wizna (end of June), Wąsosz (5 July), Radziłów (7 July), Jedwabne (10 July), Łomża
Łomża
(early August), Tykocin (22–25 August), Rutki (4 September), Piątnica , Zambrów as well as other locations.

POSTWAR TRIALS

Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
as postwar civilian

At the beginning of the 1960s, the war crimes committed by Schaper were investigated by the German Judicial Centre for Prosecuting Nazi Crimes in Ludwigsburg . The prosecutors had called a key witness, the German Kreiskommissar in Łomża
Łomża
, who named the Gestapo
Gestapo
paramilitary Einsatzgruppe B under SS-Obersturmführer Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
in the course of Birkner's investigation. Schaper was charged in 1964 with personally directing the Einsatzkommando
Einsatzkommando
responsible for the mass killing of Jews in the city. Two witnesses from Israel
Israel
– Chaja Finkelstein from Radziłów and Izchak Feler from Tykocin – recognized Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
from photographs as the one responsible also for the pogrom in Radziłów on 7 July 1941, as well as the pogrom in Tykocin of 25 August 1941. The methods used by Schaper's death squad in these massacres were identical to those employed in Jedwabne (a few kilometers distance) only three days later. Schaper denied the charges, and the Germans found the evidence insufficient to prosecute him at that time. He lied to interrogators that in 1941 he had been a truck driver and used false names. Legal proceedings against him were terminated on 2 September 1965 despite his positive identification by the courts.

During the subsequent investigation, Count von der Groeben confirmed that it was indeed Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
who conducted mass executions of Jews in his district. Schaper's case was reopened in 1974. In 1976, a German court in Giessen ( Hessen ) pronounced Schaper guilty of executions of Poles and Jews by the Kommando SS Zichenau-Schroettersburg. Schaper was sentenced to six years' imprisonment, but was soon released for medical reasons. He died of old age in his nineties. According to statement received by the Polish IPN from German prosecution, the documentation of his trial is no longer available and was most likely destroyed after the case was terminated.

NOTES AND REFERENCES

* ^ A B C Thomas Urban, "Poszukiwany Hermann Schaper" (A Wanted Man), Rzeczpospolita , 01.09.01 Nr 204. (in Polish) * ^ Tomasz Szarota (December 2–3, 2000). "Do we now know everything for certain? (translation)". Gazeta Wyborcza . Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2011. * ^ A B Thomas Urban, reporter of the Süddeutsche Zeitung; Polish text in Rzeczpospolita, 1–2 September 2001 * ^ A B Alexander B. Rossino , historian at the United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. (2003). "Polish "Neighbors" and German Invaders: Contextualizing Anti-Jewish Violence in the Białystok District during the Opening Weeks of Operation Barbarossa". Polin: Studies in Polish Jewry, Volume 16. Archived from the original (Internet Archive) on February 22, 2014. Retrieved May 12, 2011. Cited by Bogdan Musiał in: "Konterrevolutionäre Elemente sind zu erschiessen": Die Brutalisierung des deutsch-sowjetischen Krieges im Sommer 1941, (Berlin: Propyläen, 2000), pp. 32, 62. Also, cited in German archives of Birkner's postwar investigation at: Auswertung der Ereignismeldungen zu den Judenerschiessungen in Białystok im Juli 1941 in ZStL, 5 AR-Z 56/1960, pp. 4ff. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ "Śledztwa zawieszone (Suspended investigations)". Instytut Pamięci Narodowej ( Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
), Warsaw
Warsaw
. 9 November 2010. Retrieved May 17, 2011.

* Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Hermann Schaper
Hermann Schaper
- dowódca speckomanda SS Ciechanów- Płock Fotogaleria miasta Płocka * Lessons and Legacies VII: The Holocaust
Holocaust
in International Perspective By Dagmar Herzog * (in Polish) Artykuły, Polemiki, Listy Czytelników; 2000-2002, Rzeczpospolita

* v * t * e

Einsatzgruppen and Einsatzkommandos

PEOPLE

DIRECTOR

* Reinhard Heydrich
Reinhard Heydrich
* Ernst Kaltenbrunner
Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

* Humbert Achamer-Pifrader * Walther Bierkamp * Horst Böhme * Erich Ehrlinger
Erich Ehrlinger
* Wilhelm Fuchs
Wilhelm Fuchs
* Heinz Jost * Erich Naumann * Arthur Nebe * Otto Ohlendorf * Friedrich Panzinger * Otto Rasch * Heinrich Seetzen * Franz Walter Stahlecker * Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

* Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski * Rudolf Batz * Ernst Biberstein * Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Helmut Bischoff * Paul Blobel
Paul Blobel
* Walter Blume * Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock * Otto Bradfisch * Werner Braune * Friedrich Buchardt * Fritz Dietrich * Karl Jäger * Friedrich Jeckeln * Waldemar Klingelhöfer * Wolfgang Kügler * Walter Kutschmann * Rudolf Lange * Gustav Adolf Nosske * Hans-Adolf Prützmann * Walter Rauff * Martin Sandberger * Hermann Schaper * Karl Eberhard Schöngarth * Erwin Schulz * Franz Six * Eugen Steimle * Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch
* Martin Weiss * Udo von Woyrsch

OTHER MEMBERS

* August Becker * Lothar Fendler * Joachim Hamann * Emil Haussmann
Emil Haussmann
* Felix Landau * Albert Widmann

COLLABORATORS

* Viktors Arājs * Herberts Cukurs * Antanas Impulevičius * Konrāds Kalējs * Algirdas Klimaitis

GROUPS

GERMAN

* SS * RSHA * SD * Orpo * 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer * Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz * Sonderdienst

NON-GERMAN

* Schutzmannschaft (Belarusian , Estonian , Latvian , Lithuanian , Ukrainian ) * Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Lithuanian Security Police * Rollkommando Hamann * TDA * Ypatingasis būrys

CRIMES

BELARUS

* Łachwa Ghetto * Minsk Ghetto
Minsk Ghetto
* Slutsk Affair

ESTONIA

* Kalevi-Liiva
Kalevi-Liiva

LATVIA

* Burning of the Riga synagogues * Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja (Šķēde)

LITHUANIA

* Ninth Fort * Kaunas June 1941 * Kaunas 29 October 1941 * Ninth Fort November 1941 * Ponary

POLAND

* Operation Tannenberg * Intelligenzaktion
Intelligenzaktion
* AB-Aktion * Operation Reinhard

RUSSIA

* Gully of Petrushino
Gully of Petrushino
* Zmievskaya Balka * Lokot Autonomy

UKRAINE

* Babi Yar * Drobytsky Yar * Drohobycz * Kamianets-Podilskyi * Lviv pogroms * Mizocz Ghetto
Mizocz Ghetto
* Odessa

RECORDS

* The Black Book * Commissar Order
Commissar Order
* Einsatzgruppen trial * Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report * Korherr Report * Special
Special
Prosecution Book- Poland
Poland
(Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen)

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland
Poland

Main article The Holocaust
Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

* v * t * e

Camps, ghettos and operations

CAMPS

EXTERMINATION

* Auschwitz-Birkenau * Chełmno * Majdanek

* Operation Reinhard death camps

* Bełżec * Sobibór * Treblinka

CONCENTRATION

* Kraków-Płaszów * Potulice * Soldau * Stutthof * Szebnie * Trawniki * Warsaw
Warsaw

MASS SHOOTINGS

* AB Action * Bronna Góra * Erntefest * Jedwabne * Kielce cemetery * Aktion Krakau * Lviv pogroms * Lwów professors * Palmiry * Sonderaktion Krakau * Tannenberg * Tykocin * Bydgoszcz * Wąsosz * Bloody Sunday

GHETTOS

* List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Poland
(1939–1942)

* Będzin * Białystok * Brest * Częstochowa * Grodno * Kielce * Kraków * Lwów * Łódź * Lubartów * Lublin * Międzyrzec Podlaski * Mizocz * Nowy Sącz * Pińsk * Radom * Siedlce * Sambor * Słonim * Sosnowiec * Stanisławów * Tarnopol * Wilno * Warsaw
Warsaw

OTHER ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Grossaktion Warsaw
Warsaw
* Human medical experimentation

* v * t * e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

ORGANIZERS

* Josef Bühler * Eichmann * Eicke * Ludwig Fischer * Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Globocnik * Glücks * Greiser * Himmler
Himmler
* Hermann Höfle
Hermann Höfle
* Fritz Katzmann * Wilhelm Koppe * Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger * Kutschera * Erwin Lambert
Erwin Lambert
* Ernst Lerch
Ernst Lerch
* Oswald Pohl
Oswald Pohl
* Reinefarth * Scherner * Seyss-Inquart * Sporrenberg * Streckenbach * Thomalla * Otto Wächter
Otto Wächter
* Wisliceny

CAMP COMMAND

* Aumeier * Baer * Boger * Braunsteiner * Eberl * Eupen * Kurt Franz * Karl Frenzel * Karl Fritzsch * Göth * Grabner * Hartjenstein * Hering * Höss * Hössler * Josef Kramer * Liebehenschel * Mandel * Matthes * Michel * Möckel * Mulka * Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
* Oberhauser * Reichleitner * Heinrich Schwarz * Stangl * Gustav Wagner * Christian Wirth

GAS CHAMBER EXECUTIONERS

* Erich Bauer * Bolender * Hackenholt * Klehr * Hans Koch * Herbert Lange
Herbert Lange
* Theuer

PHYSICIANS

* von Bodmann * Clauberg * Gebhardt * Fritz Klein * Mengele * Horst Schumann
Horst Schumann
* Trzebinski * Eduard Wirths

GHETTO COMMAND

* Auerswald * Biebow * Blösche * Bürkl * Konrad * Palfinger * von Sammern-Frankenegg * Stroop

EINSATZGRUPPEN

* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Blobel * Felix Landau * Schaper * Schöngarth * von Woyrsch

PERSONNEL

CAMP GUARDS

* Juana Bormann * Danz * Demjanjuk * Margot Dreschel * Kurt Gerstein * Grese * Höcker * Kaduk * Kollmer * Muhsfeldt * Orlowski * Volkenrath

BY CAMP

* Sobibór * Treblinka

ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * General Government * Hotel Polski * WVHA * RKFDV * VoMi

COLLABORATORS

JEWISH

* Group 13 * Kapo * Żagiew

Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian

* Schutzmannschaft

OTHER NATIONALITIES

* Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Ukrainian collaboration * Lithuanian Security Police * Trawniki * Ypatingasis būrys * Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten

* v * t * e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

ORGANIZATIONS

* AK * AOB * Bund * GL * PKB * ŻOB * ŻZA

UPRISINGS

* Ghetto uprisings * Białystok * Częstochowa * Sobibór * Treblinka * Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising

LEADERS

* Mordechai Anielewicz * Icchak Cukierman * Mordechai Tenenbaum * Marek Edelman * Leon Feldhendler
Leon Feldhendler
* Paweł Frenkiel * Henryk Iwański * Itzhak Katzenelson * Michał Klepfisz * Miles Lerman * Alexander Pechersky * Witold Pilecki * Frumka Płotnicka * Roza Robota * Szmul Zygielbojm

JUDENRAT

* Jewish Ghetto Police * Adam Czerniaków * Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

VICTIM LISTS

GHETTOS

* Kraków * Łódź * Lvov (Lwów) * Warsaw
Warsaw

CAMPS

* Auschwitz * Bełżec * Gross-Rosen * Izbica * Majdanek * Sobibór * Soldau * Stutthof * Trawniki * Treblinka

DOCUMENTATION

NAZI SOURCES

* Auschwitz Album * Frank Memorandum * Höcker Album * Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram
* Katzmann Report * Korherr Report * Nisko Plan * Posen speeches * Special
Special
Prosecution Book- Poland
Poland
* Stroop Report
Stroop Report
* Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference

WITNESS ACCOUNTS

* Graebe affidavit * Gerstein Report * Vrba–Wetzler report * Witold\'s Report * Sonderkommando photographs

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

TECHNICAL AND LOGISTICS

* Identification in camps * Gas chamber * Gas van * Holocaust
Holocaust
train * Human medical experimentation * Zyklon B
Zyklon B

* v * t * e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

AFTERMATH

* Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors * Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
* Bricha
Bricha
* Kielce pogrom * Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 * Ministry of Public Security

TRIALS

WEST GERMAN TRIALS

* Frankfurt Auschwitz trials * Treblinka trials

POLISH, EAST GERMAN, AND SOVIET TRIALS

* Auschwitz trial (Poland) * Stutthof trials
Stutthof trials
* Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

MEMORIALS

* Museum of the History of Polish Jews * Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum * Majdanek State Museum * Sobibór Museum * International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz * March of the Living

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Polish Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
* Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
Holocaust
* Garden of the

.