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HERMANN JULIUS HöFLE pron. also HANS (or) HERMANN HOEFLE (19 June 1911 – 21 August 1962) was an Austrian -born SS -Sturmbannführer (major). He was deputy to Odilo Globocnik in the Aktion Reinhard program, serving as his main deportation and extermination expert. As such he was heavily involved in crimes against humanity during the Holocaust . Photocopy of personal documents of Hermann Höfle, from his personal file, Berlin Document Center

CONTENTS

* 1 Background

* 1.1 Crimes against humanity

* 2 Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram
* 3 After the war * 4 References * 5 Literature

BACKGROUND

Born in Salzburg
Salzburg
, Austria
Austria
, Höfle joined the NSDAP
NSDAP
on 1 August 1933, with party number 307,469. He joined the SS at the same time. Before the war, he worked as an auto mechanic .

CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY

After the conquest of Poland , Höfle served in Nowy Sącz , in Southern Poland. In November 1940 he served as an overseer of a Jewish labour camp southeast of Lublin
Lublin
. Up to December 1941 Höfle was in Mogilev , Russia
Russia
. He was involved in deportations to the camps of Belzec
Belzec
, Sobibor , and Treblinka
Treblinka
. He lived and worked from the Aktion Reinhard headquarters with the Julius Schreck Barracks, Ostland Strasse, in Lublin.

Höfle was "Coordinator" of Operation Reinhard and deputy to Odilo Globocnik (effectively making Höfle second-in-command within the program), serving as his main deportation and extermination expert. Höfle had chief authority of Operation Reinhard beside Globocnik. At the beginning of the operation, he held the rank of Hauptsturmführer (Captain). SS members, including those from Action T4 who were assigned to the operation, reported to the headquarters in Lublin
Lublin
and were instructed to their duties by Höfle. For an example of the limited paperwork, every member of Operation Reinhard signed the following declaration of secrecy:

I have been thoroughly informed and instructed by SS Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
Höfle, as Commander of the main department of Einsatz Reinhard of the SS and Police Leader in the District of Lublin:

1. that I may not under any circumstances pass on any form of information, verbally or in writing, on the progress, procedure or incidents in the evacuation of Jews
Jews
to any person outside the circle of Einsatz Reinhard staff; 2. that the process of the evacuation of Jews
Jews
is a subject that comes under "Secret Reich Document," in accordance with censorship regulation Vershl V. a;... 4. that there is an absolute prohibition on photography in the camps of Einsatz Reinhard;... I am familiar with the above regulations and laws and am aware of the responsibilities imposed upon me by the task with which I have been entrusted. I promise to observe them to the best of my knowledge and conscience. I am aware that the obligation to maintain secrecy continues even after I have left the Service. — From: Yitzhak Arad , Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka.

As head of the "Main Department" (German : Hauptabteilung), Höfle was in charge of the organization and manpower of Operation Reinhard. He coordinated the deportations of Jews
Jews
from all areas of the General Government and directed them to one of the extermination camps. The deportation orders were coordinated and channeled through SS authorities from Höfle's office for the Lublin
Lublin
reservation , through the district SS and Police Leaders , down to the localities where the expulsions were to take place.

Around May 1942 in the General Government , a substitution policy developed for a short time in which Polish workers who were sent to the German Reich were gradually replaced with Jewish
Jewish
laborers. It became standard procedure to stop deportation trains from the Reich and Slovakia in Lublin
Lublin
in order to select able-bodied Jews
Jews
for work in the General Government, the others being sent on to their deaths in Belzec
Belzec
. In this way, many Jews
Jews
were temporarily spared death and instead relegated to forced labor. Hermann Höfle
Hermann Höfle
was one of the chief supporters and implementers of this policy.

Höfle personally oversaw the deportation of the Warsaw Ghetto , the so-called Großaktion Warschau . The operation was preceded on 20 and 21 July 1942 by a spree of randomly killing actions along the streets of the Ghetto and by the arrest and brutal imprisonment of many others taken as hostages among counselors, department managers and those connected in a way or another to the Judenrat . All this was to intimidate and soften the Judenrat to the new upcoming measures. The day after, in the morning of 22 July, Sturmbannführer Höfle, accompanied by an entourage of SS and government officials, arrived at the Judenrat in the Warsaw Ghetto and announced to the chairman, Adam Czerniaków , that the Jews, regardless of sex or age and with but a few exceptions, were to be evacuated to the East. The exceptions were workers in German factories who had valid work permits, Judenrat employees, the Jewish
Jewish
Order Service, hospital patients and employees, and the families of the exempt. The deportees were allowed to carry with them 15 kg of baggage, food for three days, money, gold, and other valuables. The order also called for 6,000 Jews
Jews
to report to the Umschlagplatz every day by 4 p.m. to board the trains for deportation.

Adam Czerniaków wrote in his diary on 22 July 1941 (he committed suicide the next day):

Sturmbannführer Höfle (who is in charge of the evacuation) asked me into his office and informed me that for the time being my wife was free, but if the deportation were impeded in any way, she would be the first one to be shot as a hostage. — From: Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka
Treblinka

Höfle also played a key role in the Harvest Festival massacre of Jewish
Jewish
inmates of the various labour camps in the Lublin
Lublin
district in early November 1943. Approximately 43,000 Jews
Jews
were murdered during this operation which was the single largest German massacre of Jews
Jews
in the entire war.

Höfle rejoined Globocnik in Trieste
Trieste
, after various missions in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Belgium
Belgium
.

HöFLE TELEGRAM

Telegram from Hermann Höfle
Hermann Höfle
listing the number of deaths in the extermination camps during a 14-day period in 1942 and for the whole year 1942 (1,274,166). (L) stands for Lublin/Majdanek , (B) for Bełżec, (S) for Sobibor and (T) for Treblinka
Treblinka
extermination camp. Main article: Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram

On 11 January 1943, Höfle sent a radiogram from Lublin
Lublin
to SS-Obersturmbannführer Franz Heim in Kraków, who was at the time the deputy commander of the Security Police and SD in the General Government , and to SS-Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann
Adolf Eichmann
in Berlin. The message documented the total deportations of Jews
Jews
to the four Operation Reinhard camps through 31 of December 1942. Today this document is called the Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram
.

AFTER THE WAR

On 31 May 1945 Höfle was found hiding in Möslacher Alm near the Weissensee Lake in Carinthia (Southern Austria) by the British, along with SS storm troopers Ernst Lerch
Ernst Lerch
and Georg Michalsen. After two years in the British interrogation center Wolfsberg (Carinthia), he was released to the Austrian judicial system. On 30 October 1947, under oath, he was released to continue his earlier occupation as an auto mechanic in his birthplace, Salzburg. Höfle following his arrest in 1961 in Austria.

After an extradition request on 9 July 1948 by the Polish government, he fled to Italy, where he lived under a false name until 1951. Later he returned to Austria, and then emigrated to the Federal Republic of Germany. There he was employed briefly as an informant for U.S. Army Counterintelligence .

Höfle returned to Salzburg, where he lived as a free man until 2 January 1961, when he was arrested by the Austrian authority and sent to prison in Vienna
Vienna
, where in 1962 he hanged himself before his trial could begin.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Klee 2003 . * ^ A B Arad 1987 , pp. 18-9. * ^ Friedländer 2008 , p. 347. * ^ Browning 2000 , p. 74. * ^ Reich-Ranicki 2001 , p. 235-8. * ^ Arad 1987 , p. 61. * ^ Reich-Ranicki 2001 , p. 242.

LITERATURE

* Arad, Yitzhak (1987). Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka: The Operation Reinhard Death Camps. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253113696 . 1999 edition in Google book. * Browning, Christopher R. (2000). "Chapter 3 - Jewish
Jewish
Workers in Poland: Self-Maintenance, Exploitation, Destruction". Nazi Policy, Jewish
Jewish
Workers, German Killers. Cambridge University Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0521774901 . Retrieved 31 May 2016. * Friedländer, Saul (2008). The Years of Extermination: Nazi Germany and the Jews, 1939-1945 (Reprinted ed.). New York City: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0060930486 . * Klee, Ernst (2003). Das Personenlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945 (in German) (Second updated ed.). Frankfurt
Frankfurt
: S. Fischer. ISBN 978-3100393098 . * Reich-Ranicki, Marcel (January 2001). Mein Leben (in German) (2nd ed.). München (Germany): Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag. pp. 235–42. ISBN 3-423-12830-5 . * Peter Witte, Stephen Tyas: A New Document on the Deportation and Murder of Jews
Jews
during "Einsatz Reinhardt" 1942. In: Holocaust Genocide Studies 15 (2001), S. 468-486 * Josef Wulf: Das Dritte Reich und seine Vollstrecker. K. G. Saur Verlag KG, München 1978, ISBN 3-598-04603-0 , S. 275-287

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Belgium
Belgium
Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia
Russia
Ukraine

* v * t * e

Camps, ghettos and operations

CAMPS

EXTERMINATION

* Auschwitz-Birkenau * Chełmno * Majdanek

* Operation Reinhard death camps

* Bełżec * Sobibór * Treblinka
Treblinka

CONCENTRATION

* Kraków-Płaszów * Potulice * Soldau * Stutthof * Szebnie * Trawniki * Warsaw

MASS SHOOTINGS

* AB Action * Bronna Góra * Erntefest * Jedwabne * Kielce cemetery * Aktion Krakau * Lviv pogroms * Lwów professors * Palmiry * Sonderaktion Krakau * Tannenberg * Tykocin * Bydgoszcz * Wąsosz * Bloody Sunday

GHETTOS

* List of 277 Jewish
Jewish
ghettos in German-occupied Poland (1939–1942)

* Będzin * Białystok * Brest * Częstochowa * Grodno * Kielce * Kraków * Lwów * Łódź * Lubartów * Lublin
Lublin
* Międzyrzec Podlaski * Mizocz * Nowy Sącz * Pińsk * Radom * Siedlce * Sambor * Słonim * Sosnowiec * Stanisławów * Tarnopol * Wilno * Warsaw

OTHER ATROCITIES

* Action T4 * Grossaktion Warsaw * Human medical experimentation

* v * t * e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

ORGANIZERS

* Josef Bühler * Eichmann * Eicke * Ludwig Fischer * Hans Frank
Hans Frank
* Globocnik * Glücks * Greiser * Himmler * Hermann Höfle * Fritz Katzmann * Wilhelm Koppe * Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger * Kutschera * Erwin Lambert
Erwin Lambert
* Ernst Lerch
Ernst Lerch
* Oswald Pohl * Reinefarth * Scherner * Seyss-Inquart * Sporrenberg * Streckenbach * Thomalla * Otto Wächter
Otto Wächter
* Wisliceny

CAMP COMMAND

* Aumeier * Baer * Boger * Braunsteiner * Eberl * Eupen * Kurt Franz * Karl Frenzel * Karl Fritzsch * Göth * Grabner * Hartjenstein * Hering * Höss * Hössler * Josef Kramer * Liebehenschel * Mandel * Matthes * Michel * Möckel * Mulka * Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
* Oberhauser * Reichleitner * Heinrich Schwarz * Stangl * Gustav Wagner * Christian Wirth

GAS CHAMBER EXECUTIONERS

* Erich Bauer * Bolender * Hackenholt * Klehr * Hans Koch * Herbert Lange
Herbert Lange
* Theuer

PHYSICIANS

* von Bodmann * Clauberg * Gebhardt * Fritz Klein * Mengele * Horst Schumann
Horst Schumann
* Trzebinski * Eduard Wirths

GHETTO COMMAND

* Auerswald * Biebow * Blösche * Bürkl * Konrad * Palfinger * von Sammern-Frankenegg * Stroop

EINSATZGRUPPEN

* Wolfgang Birkner
Wolfgang Birkner
* Blobel * Felix Landau * Schaper * Schöngarth * von Woyrsch

PERSONNEL

CAMP GUARDS

* Juana Bormann * Danz * Demjanjuk * Margot Dreschel * Kurt Gerstein * Grese * Höcker * Kaduk * Kollmer * Muhsfeldt * Orlowski * Volkenrath

BY CAMP

* Sobibór * Treblinka
Treblinka

ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * General Government * Hotel Polski * WVHA * RKFDV * VoMi

COLLABORATORS

JEWISH

* Group 13 * Kapo * Żagiew

Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian

* Schutzmannschaft

OTHER NATIONALITIES

* Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
* Ukrainian Auxiliary Police * Ukrainian collaboration * Lithuanian Security Police * Trawniki * Ypatingasis būrys * Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten

* v * t * e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

ORGANIZATIONS

* AK * AOB * Bund * GL * PKB * ŻOB * ŻZA

UPRISINGS

* Ghetto uprisings * Białystok * Częstochowa * Sobibór * Treblinka
Treblinka
* Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

LEADERS

* Mordechai Anielewicz * Icchak Cukierman * Mordechai Tenenbaum * Marek Edelman * Leon Feldhendler * Paweł Frenkiel * Henryk Iwański * Itzhak Katzenelson * Michał Klepfisz * Miles Lerman * Alexander Pechersky * Witold Pilecki * Frumka Płotnicka * Roza Robota * Szmul Zygielbojm

JUDENRAT

* Jewish
Jewish
Ghetto Police * Adam Czerniaków * Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

VICTIM LISTS

GHETTOS

* Kraków * Łódź * Lvov (Lwów) * Warsaw

CAMPS

* Auschwitz * Bełżec * Gross-Rosen * Izbica * Majdanek * Sobibór * Soldau * Stutthof * Trawniki * Treblinka
Treblinka

DOCUMENTATION

NAZI SOURCES

* Auschwitz Album * Frank Memorandum * Höcker Album * Höfle Telegram
Höfle Telegram
* Katzmann Report * Korherr Report * Nisko Plan * Posen speeches * Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland * Stroop Report
Stroop Report
* Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference

WITNESS ACCOUNTS

* Graebe affidavit * Gerstein Report * Vrba–Wetzler report * Witold\'s Report * Sonderkommando photographs

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

TECHNICAL AND LOGISTICS

* Identification in camps * Gas chamber * Gas van * Holocaust train * Human medical experimentation * Zyklon B
Zyklon B

* v * t * e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

AFTERMATH

* Holocaust survivors * Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
Polish population transfers (1944–1946)
* Bricha
Bricha
* Kielce pogrom * Anti- Jewish
Jewish
violence, 1944–46 * Ministry of Public Security

TRIALS

WEST GERMAN TRIALS

* Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Auschwitz trials * Treblinka
Treblinka
trials

POLISH, EAST GERMAN, AND SOVIET TRIALS

* Auschwitz trial (Poland) * Stutthof trials
Stutthof trials
* Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

MEMORIALS

* Museum of the History of Polish Jews
Jews
* Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum * Majdanek State Museum * Sobibór Museum * International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz * March of the Living

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Polish Righteous Among the Nations
Righteous Among the Nations
* Rescue of Jews
Jews
by Poles
Poles
during the Holocaust * Garden of the Righteous

* v * t * e

Treblinka
Treblinka
extermination camp

Timeline and List of individuals responsible

CAMP ORGANIZERS

* Odilo Lotario Globocnik * Hermann Julius Höfle * Erwin Hermann Lambert * Richard Wolfgang Thomalla * Christian Wirth

COMMANDANT

* Irmfried Eberl

* 11 July to 26 August 1942

* Franz Paul Stangl

* 1 September 1942 to August 1943

* Kurt Hubert Franz

* August to November 1943

DEPUTIES

* Theodor van Eupen * Heinrich Arthur Matthes * Karl Pötzinger
Karl Pötzinger

Gas chamber executioners

* Gustav Münzberger * Fritz Schmidt

OTHER OFFICERS

* Max Biala * Paul Bredow * Herbert Floss * Erich Fritz Erhard Fuchs * Lorenz Hackenholt
Lorenz Hackenholt
* Hans Hingst
Hans Hingst
* Josef Hirtreiter
Josef Hirtreiter
* Otto Richard Horn * Kurt Küttner * Karl Emil Ludwig * Willy Mätzig * Willi Mentz * August Wilhelm Miete * Max Möller * Willi Post * Albert Franz Rum * Karl Schiffer * Otto Stadie * Ernst Stengelin * Franz Suchomel

GUARDS

* "Ivan the Terrible " * John Demjanjuk a * Feodor Fedorenko * Nikolay Yegorovich Shalayev * " Trawnikis
Trawnikis
" a

PROMINENT VICTIMS

* Ernst Arndt * Yitzchok Breiter * Amalia Carneri * Julian Chorążycki * Samuel Finkelstein * Artur Gold * Ludwik Holcman * Janusz Korczak
Janusz Korczak
* Berek Lajcher * Henryka Łazowertówna * Yechiel Lerer * Yitzchak Lowy * Simon Pullman * Natan Spigel * Symche Trachter * Zygmunt Zalcwasser * Lidia Zamenhof

* Resistance * Survivors

* Richard Glazar * Chil Rajchman * Sol Rosenberg * Kalman Taigman * Jankiel Wiernik * Samuel Willenberg * Franciszek Ząbecki

NAZI ORGANIZATIONS

* General Government * SS-Totenkopfverbände
SS-Totenkopfverbände

* Aftermath * Memorials

* Treblinka
Treblinka
trials

* a Alleged * b Numbering 90 to 120

* Death camps: Auschwitz-Birkenau * Bełżec * Chełmno * Jasenovac * Majdanek * Maly Trostenets * Sajmište * Sobibór * TREBLINKA

* v * t * e

Sobibór extermination camp
Sobibór extermination camp

CAMP ORGANIZERS

* Odilo Lotario Globocnik * Hermann Julius Höfle * Richard Wolfgang Thomalla * Erwin Hermann Lambert * Karl Steubl * Christian Wirth

COMMANDANT

* Franz Paul Stangl a * Franz Karl Reichleitner b

DEPUTIES

* Karl August Wilhelm Frenzel * Hermann Michel * Johann Niemann
Johann Niemann
* Gustav Franz Wagner

Gas chamber executioners

* Hermann Erich Bauer * Heinz Kurt Bolender

OTHER OFFICERS

* Rudolf Beckmann * Paul Bredow * Herbert Floss * Erich Fritz Erhard Fuchs * Siegfried Graetschus * Lorenz Hackenholt
Lorenz Hackenholt
* Josef "Sepp" Hirtreiter * Jakob Alfred Ittner * Erich Gustav Willie Lachmann * Willi Mentz * Paul Rost * Ernst Stengelin * Ernst Zierke * Heinrich Barbl

GUARDS

UKRAINIANS

* Ivan Demjanjuk * " Trawnikis
Trawnikis
" c * Volksdeutsche

PROMINENT VICTIMS

* Helga Deen * Anna Dresden-Polak * Emanuel Lodewijk Elte * Else Feldmann * Isidore Goudeket * Jakob van Hoddis * Han Hollander * Gerrit Kleerekoper * Pati Kremer *