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Herberts Cukurs
Herberts Cukurs
(17 May 1900 in Liepāja, Russian Empire
Russian Empire
– 23 February 1965 in Shangrilá, Uruguay) was a Latvian aviator.[1] He was a member of the Arajs Kommando, which was involved in the mass murder of Latvian Jews as part of the Holocaust. He never stood trial, however, though there are eyewitness accounts linking Cukurs to war crimes.[2] He was assassinated by operatives of the Israeli intelligence service (Mossad) in 1965.[3] The Mossad
Mossad
agent "Künzle", who killed Cukurs, and the journalist Gad Shimron wrote a book, The Execution of the Hangman of Riga
Riga
in which they called Cukurs the "Butcher of Riga", and the term was later picked up by several sources.[4][5][6][7][8]

Contents

1 Aviation pioneer 2 Participation in the Holocaust 3 Postwar flight and assassination 4 Attempts at rehabilitation 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Aviation pioneer[edit]

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Cukurs in Gambia, 1933

As a pioneering long-distance pilot, he won national acclaim for his international solo flights in the 1930s (Latvia- Gambia
Gambia
and Riga-Tokyo). He was awarded the Harmon Trophy
Harmon Trophy
for Latvia in 1933, and was considered a national hero, comparable to Charles Lindbergh.[9] Cukurs built at least three aircraft of his own design. In 1937 he made a 45,000-kilometre (24,000 nmi; 28,000 mi) tour visiting Japan, China, Indochina, India
India
and the Soviet Union, flying the C 6 wooden monoplane "Trīs zvaigznes" (registration YL-ABA) of his own creation. The aircraft was powered by a de Havilland Gipsy engine. He also designed the Cukurs C-6bis
Cukurs C-6bis
prototype dive bomber in 1940.[10] Participation in the Holocaust[edit] See also: Burning of the Riga
Riga
synagogues and Rumbula massacre During the occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany in the summer of 1941, Cukurs became a member of the notorious Arajs Kommando, which was responsible for many of the crimes against humanity under the direction of the SD, the Nazi security and intelligence service. In his book The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia, 1941-1945, Latvian historian Andrew Ezergailis writes that Cukurs played a leading role in the atrocities that were committed in the Riga
Riga
ghetto in conjunction with the Rumbula massacre
Rumbula massacre
on 30 November 1941.[11] After the war, surviving witnesses reported that Cukurs had been present during the ghetto clearance and fired into the mass of Jewish civilians. According to eyewitness sources, Cukurs was the most recognizable Latvian SD man at the scene of the Rumbula massacre. Ezergailis states that "although Arājs' men were not the only ones on the ghetto end of the operation, to the degree they participated in the atrocities there, the chief responsibility rests on Herberts Cukurs' shoulders."[12] Cukurs was described as follows:

The Latvian murderer Cukurs got out of a car wearing a pistol (Nagant) in a leather holster at his side. He went to the Latvian guards to give them various instructions. He had certainly been informed in detail about the great catastrophe that awaited us.[2]

Later, Ezergailis retracted these interpretations, saying that in light of new documents, it would be wrong to claim that Cukurs had participated in the Rumbula shooting or the burning of the Riga synagogue.[13] During interviews with the press, Ezergailis stated that there is no evidence that Cukurs had been at the pits at Rumbula, and that it has not been proven that Cukurs was "the most eager shooter of Jews in Latvia".[14] According to another account, Cukurs also participated in the Burning of the Riga
Riga
synagogues. According to Bernard Press in his book The Murder of the Jews in Latvia, Cukurs burned the synagogue on Stabu Street, but only after dragging Jews out of the neighboring houses and locking them inside

Eyewitnesses heard the people who were locked inside screaming for help and saw them breaking the synagogue's windows from inside and trying, like living torches, to get outside. Cukurs shot them with his revolver.[15]

Time magazine reported at the time of his death in 1965 that his crimes included the Riga
Riga
synagogue fire, the drowning of 1,200 Jews in a lake; and his participation in the 30 November 1941 murder of 10,600 people in a forest near Riga.[16] Postwar flight and assassination[edit] Cukurs retreated to Germany with German forces.[16] After the war, Cukurs emigrated to Brazil
Brazil
via France. The Brazilian Consulate in Marseilles
Marseilles
issued the visa for permanent residency on 18 December 1945. The visa did not list his wife's name, but it identified three minor children, Gunars, Antinea and Herberts.[17] There, he established a business in São Paulo, flying Republic RC-7 Seabees on scenic flights. While living in South America, he neither hid nor tried to hide his identity. He is now known to have been assassinated by Mossad
Mossad
agents, who persuaded him to travel to Uruguay
Uruguay
under the pretense of starting an aviation business,[18] after it was found out that he would not stand trial for his participation in the Holocaust. An acquaintance named "Anton Künzle” in reality the disguised Mossad
Mossad
agent Yaakov Meidad (he), cabled Cukurs from Montevideo. He was invited to a house in a remote suburb of the city that had just been rented by a man from Vienna. He was shot in the head twice with a suppressed automatic pistol after a short but violent struggle that was not heard by neighbours.[16] His body, found in a trunk on 6 March, had several gunshot wounds elsewhere, and his skull was shattered. Next to his body, several documents were left pertaining to his involvement in the murder of Jews in the Riga
Riga
Ghetto.[1] Media outlets in South America and Germany received a note stating:

Taking into consideration the gravity of the charge leveled against the accused, namely that he personally supervised the killing of more than 30,000 men, women and children, and considering the extreme display of cruelty which the subject showed when carrying out his tasks, the accused Herberts Cukurs
Herberts Cukurs
is hereby sentenced to death. Accused was executed by those who can never forget, on the 23rd of February, 1965. His body can be found at Casa Cubertini Calle Colombia, Séptima Sección del Departamento de Canelones, Montevideo, Uruguay.[16]

The note was initially dismissed as a prank, but then police were notified and the body was discovered.[16] Attempts at rehabilitation[edit] Since the fall of Communism, there have been efforts in Latvia to rehabilitate Cukurs. For example, an exhibition was held in Riga
Riga
in honour of the "national hero" Herberts Cukurs, in which his work in the Arajs Kommando
Arajs Kommando
was portrayed as having been harmless.[citation needed] The Latvian Foreign Minister Artis Pabriks
Artis Pabriks
condemned the issuance of postal envelopes dedicated to Cukurs in 2004. In a statement, Pabriks said that "those who produced such envelopes in Latvia evidently do not understand the tragic history of World War II in Latvia or in Europe". The foreign ministry stated that Cukurs was "guilty of war crimes", and that he "took part in the activities of the notorious Arajs Kommando, which participated in the Holocaust and was responsible for the killing of innocent civilians. The General Prosecutor's Office of Latvia has twice rejected the exoneration of Herberts Cukurs".[19] Notes[edit]

^ a b MONTERO, MIGUEL ÁLVAREZ. "Medio siglo de dos historias de sangre que conmovieron al país". El País. El País. Retrieved 1 November 2015.  ^ a b Kaufmann, The Destruction of the Latvian Jews, at 81 ^ Aderet, Ofer (1 July 2012). " Mossad
Mossad
agent who helped abduct Eichmann dies at 93". Haaretz. Retrieved 2 December 2012.  (registration required) ^ Press, The Murder of the Jews of Latvia, at pages 69 to 70. ^ Künzle and Shimron, The Execution of the Hangman of Riga, at page 127. ^ Lumans, Latvia in World War II, at page 240. ^ Eksteins, Walking Since Daybreak, at page 150. ^ Michelson, Max, City of Life, City of Death, at 103. ^ Operation Last Chance: One Man's Quest to Bring Nazi Criminals to Justice, by Efraim Zuroff, Macmillan, Nov 10, 2009 p. 117 ^ "Cukurs C-6bis". Airwar.ru. Retrieved 2012-04-28.  ^ Ezergailis, Andrievs (1999). Holokausts vācu okupētajā Latvijā 1941–1944 (in Latvian). Riga: Latvijas vēstures institūta apgāds. pp. 222, 230. ISBN 9984-601-02-1. OCLC 44502624.  Also available in English as: Andrew Ezergailis, The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia, 1941–1944: The Missing Center (1996), ISBN 9984-9054-3-8. ^ Ezergailis, The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia, at pages 192 and 267, n.55 ^ Ezergails, Andrievs. Jāmeklē patiesība par Herbertu Cukuru. NRA, 10.17.2014 http://nra.lv/latvija/127179-jamekle-patiesiba-par-herbertu-cukuru.htm ^ Jerusalem Post: The Mass Murderer As Hero ^ The Murder of the Jews in Latvia, at page 46 ^ a b c d e "Uruguay: Man in the Icebox". Time. March 19, 1965. Retrieved 3 December 2010.  (subscription required) ^ Visa number 42575 issued by Brazilian Consulate in Marseilles
Marseilles
France on 18 December 1945. ^ Kuenzle, Anton; Shimron, Gad (2004). The Execution of the Hangman of Riga: The Only Execution of a Nazi War Criminal by the Mossad. London: Vallentine Mitchell. ISBN 0-85303-525-3. OCLC 53389986. Retrieved 2016-03-18.  ^ "Latvia's Minister of Foreign Affairs condemns the issuance of postal envelopes dedicated to Herberts Cukurs". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia: [CL] Nr. 576, 28 September - 5 October 2004. 2004. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 

References[edit]

Angrick, Angrej, and Klein, Peter, The "Final Solution" in Riga: Exploitation and Annihilation, 1941-1944, Berghahn Books, 2009 ISBN 978-1-84545-608-5; originally published as (in German) Die „Endlösung“ in Riga., Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-19149-8 Ezergailis, Andrew, The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia 1941-1944—The Missing Center, Historical Institute of Latvia (in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum) Riga
Riga
1996 ISBN 9984-9054-3-8 Goñi, Uki. The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón's Argentina, Granta, New York 2002 ISBN 1-86207-581-6 Kaufmann, Max, Die Vernichtung des Judens Lettlands (The Destruction of the Jews of Latvia), Munich, 1947, English translation by Laimdota Mazzarins available on-line as Churbn Lettland -- The Destruction of the Jews of Latvia (all references in this article are to page numbers in the on-line edition) Künzle, Anton, Shimron, Gad, and Massad, Uriel, The Execution of the Hangman of Riga: the Only Execution of a Nazi War by the Mossad, Mitchell, Valentine & Co., 2004 ISBN 0-85303-525-3 Michelson, Max, City of Life, City of Death: Memories of Riga, University Press of Colorado (2001) ISBN 978-0-87081-642-0 Press, Bernard, The Murder of the Jews in Latvia, Northwestern University Press, 2000 ISBN 0-8101-1729-0

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia.

Herbert Cukurs' flight to Gambia, 1933-1934, historical information and images. Herbert Cukurs' flight to Tokyo, 1936-1937, historical information and images. Herberts Cukurs
Herberts Cukurs
and his airplanes in Brazil Collection of photos related to Herberts Cukurs Kidon. Los Verdugos del Mossad
Mossad
related to killing of Herberts Cukurs Nazi Hunters

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Latvia

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine

Crimes

Burning of the Riga
Riga
synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja
Liepāja
(Šķēde)

Victims

Jewish people of Latvia Gypsies Joseph Carlebach Simon Dubnow Else Hirsch

Perpetrators

Alois Brunner Rudolf Batz Fritz Dietrich Otto-Heinrich Drechsler Erich Ehrlinger Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Heinz Jost Konrāds Kalējs Ernst Kaltenbrunner Wolfgang Kügler Rudolf Lange Hinrich Lohse Friedrich Panzinger Hans-Adolf Prützmann Eduard Roschmann Alfred Rosenberg Martin Sandberger Albert Sauer Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker Eduard Strauch

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Reichskommissariat Ostland Rollkommando Hamann

Collaborators

Individuals Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Kārlis Lobe

Organizations Arajs Kommando Latvian Auxiliary Police Schutzmannschaft

Ghettos and camps

Daugavpils Ghetto Jungfernhof concentration camp Kaiserwald concentration camp Riga
Riga
Ghetto Salaspils concentration camp

Documentation

Generalplan Ost Jäger Report

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

War crimes investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Jānis Lipke Roberts Sedols

Memorials

Bikernieki Memorial

Related articles

The Holocaust Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany

v t e

Post-war flight of Axis fugitives

Fugitives

German / Austrian

Ludolf von Alvensleben Klaus Barbie Hermine Braunsteiner Alois Brunner Adolf Eichmann Aribert Heim Walter Kutschmann Johann von Leers Josef Mengele Hermann Michel Erich Priebke Walter Rauff Eduard Roschmann Walter Schreiber Horst Schumann Josef Schwammberger Franz Stangl Gustav Wagner

Croatian

Milivoj Ašner Andrija Artuković Anton Geiser Ante Pavelić Dinko Šakić Vjekoslav Vrančić

Belgian

Pierre Daye Léon Degrelle René Lagrou

Ukrainian

John Demjanjuk Feodor Fedorenko Mykola Lebed

Danish

Søren Kam Carl Værnet

Estonian

Aleksander Laak Karl Linnas

Latvian

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs

Other nationalities

Tscherim Soobzokov (Circassian)

Assistance

Organizations

Ratlines

State involvement

Colonia Dignidad (Chile) Franco (Spain) Perón (Argentina) Videla (Argentina) Operation Paperclip
Operation Paperclip
(USA) Robert Leiber
Robert Leiber
(Holy See) Banzer (Bolivia) Stroessner (Paraguay)

Other persons

Rodolfo Freude Alois Hudal Charles Lescat Hans-Ulrich Rudel Otto Skorzeny

Hunters

Serge and Beate Klarsfeld Eli Rosenbaum Simon Wiesenthal Efraim Zuroff

Disputed / dubious

Krunoslav Draganović ODESSA Stille Hilfe

See also

List of Most Wanted Nazi War Criminals

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 864615 LCCN: nr97045417 ISNI: 0000 0000 8191 0225 GND: 12125072

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