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HERBERTS CUKURS (17 May 1900 in Liepāja
Liepāja
, Courland Governorate
Courland Governorate
, Russian Empire
Russian Empire
– 23 February 1965 in Shangrilá , Uruguay
Uruguay
) was a Latvian aviator . He was a member of the Arajs Kommando which was involved in the mass murder of Latvian Jews as part of the Holocaust but he never stood trial, though there are eyewitness accounts linking Cukurs to war crimes. He was assassinated by operatives of the Israeli intelligence service ( Mossad ) in 1965. The Mossad agent Künzle, who killed Cukurs, and the journalist Gad Shimron wrote a book The Death of the Executioner of Riga
Riga
in which they called Cukurs the "Butcher of Riga", and the term was later picked up by several sources.

CONTENTS

* 1 Aviation pioneer * 2 Participation in the Nazi Holocaust * 3 Postwar flight and assassination * 4 Attempts at rehabilitation * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links

AVIATION PIONEER

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As a pioneering long-distance pilot, he won national acclaim for his international solo flights in the 1930s (Latvia- Gambia
Gambia
and Riga
Riga
-Tokyo ). He was awarded the Harmon Trophy for Latvia in 1933, and was considered a national hero, comparable to Charles Lindbergh .

Cukurs built at least three aircraft of his own design. In 1937 he made a 45,000-kilometre (24,000 nmi ; 28,000 mi ) tour visiting Japan , China
China
, Indochina , India
India
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, flying the C 6 wooden monoplane "Trīs zvaigznes" (registration YL-ABA) of his own creation. The aircraft was powered by a de Havilland Gipsy engine.

He also designed the Cukurs C-6bis prototype dive bomber in 1940.

PARTICIPATION IN THE NAZI HOLOCAUST

See also: Burning of the Riga
Riga
synagogues and Rumbula massacre

During the occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany
Germany
in the summer of 1941, Cukurs became a member of the notorious Arajs Kommando , which was responsible for many of the crimes that were committed during the Holocaust in Latvia.

In his book The Holocaust in Latvia, 1941-1945, Latvian historian Andrew Ezergailis writes that Cukurs played a leading role in the atrocities that were committed in the Riga
Riga
ghetto in conjunction with the Rumbula massacre on 30 November 1941. After the war, surviving witnesses reported that Cukurs had been present during the ghetto clearance and fired into the mass of Jewish civilians.

According to eyewitness sources, Cukurs was the most recognizable Latvian SD man at the scene of the Rumbula massacre. Ezergailis states that "although Arājs' men were not the only ones on the ghetto end of the operation, to the degree they participated in the atrocities there, the chief responsibility rests on Herberts Cukurs' shoulders." Cukurs was described as follows:

The Latvian murderer Cukurs got out of a car wearing a pistol (Nagant) in a leather holster at his side. He went to the Latvian guards to give them various instructions. He had certainly been informed in detail about the great catastrophe that awaited us.

Later Ezergailis retracted these interpretations, saying that in light of new documents, it would be wrong to claim that Cukurs indeed had participated in the Rumbula shooting or the burning of the Riga synagogue. During interviews with the press, Ezergailis stated that there is no evidence that Cukurs had been at the pits at Rumbula, and that it has not been proven that Cukurs was "the most eager shooter of Jews in Latvia".

According to another account, Cukurs also participated in the Burning of the Riga
Riga
synagogues . According to Bernard Press in his book The Murder of the Jews in Latvia, Cukurs burned the synagogue on Stabu Street, but only after dragging Jews out of the neighboring houses and locking them inside

Eyewitnesses heard the people who were locked inside screaming for help and saw them breaking the synagogue's windows from inside and trying, like living torches, to get outside. Cukurs shot them with his revolver.

Time magazine reported at the time of his death in 1965 that his crimes included the Riga
Riga
synagogue fire; the drowning of 1,200 Jews in a lake; and his participation in the November 30, 1941 murder of 10,600 people in a forest near Riga.

POSTWAR FLIGHT AND ASSASSINATION

Cukurs had retreated to Germany
Germany
with German forces.

After the war, Cukurs emigrated to Brazil
Brazil
via France
France
. The Brazilian Consulate in Marseilles issued the visa for permanent residency on December 18, 1945. The visa did not list his wife's name, but it identified three minor children, Gunars, Antinea and Herberts.

There, he established a business in São Paulo , flying Republic RC-7 Seabees on scenic flights. While living in South America
South America
, he neither hid nor tried to hide his identity.

He is now known to have been assassinated by Mossad agents, who persuaded him to travel to Uruguay
Uruguay
under the pretense of starting an aviation business, after it was found out that he would not stand trial for his participation in the Holocaust. An acquaintance named "Anton Künzle"—in reality, disguised Mossad agent Yaakov Meidad—cabled Cukurs from Montevideo. He was invited to a house in a remote suburb of the city that had just been rented by a man from Vienna. He was shot in the head twice with a suppressed automatic pistol after a short but violent struggle that was not heard by neighbors. His body, found in a trunk on 6 March, presented several gunshot wounds elsewhere, and his skull was shattered. Next to his body, several documents were left pertaining to his involvement in the murder of Jews in the Riga
Riga
Ghetto .

Media outlets in South America
South America
and Germany
Germany
received a note stating:

Taking into consideration the gravity of the charge leveled against the accused, namely that he personally supervised the killing of more than 30,000 men, women and children, and considering the extreme display of cruelty which the subject showed when carrying out his tasks, the accused Herberts Cukurs
Herberts Cukurs
is hereby sentenced to death. Accused was executed by those who can never forget, on the 23rd of February, 1965. His body can be found at Casa Cubertini Calle Colombia, Séptima Sección del Departamento de Canelones , Montevideo, Uruguay.

The note was initially dismissed as a prank, but then police were notified and the body was discovered.

ATTEMPTS AT REHABILITATION

Since the fall of Communism, there have been efforts in Latvia to rehabilitate Cukurs. For example, an exhibition was held in Riga
Riga
in honour of the "national hero" Herberts Cukurs, in which his work in the Arajs Kommando was portrayed as having been harmless.

The Latvian Foreign Minister Artis Pabriks condemned the issuance of postal envelopes dedicated to Cukurs in 2004. In a statement, Pabriks said that "those who produced such envelopes in Latvia evidently do not understand the tragic history of World War II in Latvia or in Europe". The foreign ministry stated that Cukurs was "guilty of war crimes", and that he "took part in the activities of the notorious Arajs Kommando, which participated in the Holocaust and was responsible for the killing of innocent civilians. The General Prosecutor's Office of Latvia has twice rejected the exoneration of Herberts Cukurs".

NOTES

* ^ A B MONTERO, MIGUEL ÁLVAREZ. "Medio siglo de dos historias de sangre que conmovieron al país". El País. El País. Retrieved 1 November 2015. * ^ A B Kaufmann, The Destruction of the Latvian Jews, at 81 * ^ Aderet, Ofer (1 July 2012). " Mossad agent who helped abduct Eichmann dies at 93". Haaretz. Retrieved 2 December 2012. (registration required ) * ^ Press, The Murder of the Jews of Latvia, at pages 69 to 70. * ^ Künzle and Shimron, The Execution of the Hangman of Riga, at page 127. * ^ Lumans, Latvia in World War II, at page 240. * ^ Eksteins, Walking Since Daybreak, at page 150. * ^ Michelson, Max, City of Life, City of Death, at 103. * ^ Operation Last Chance: One Man's Quest to Bring Nazi Criminals to Justice, by Efraim Zuroff, Macmillan, Nov 10, 2009 p. 117 * ^ "Cukurs C-6bis". Airwar.ru. Retrieved 2012-04-28. * ^ Ezergailis, Andrievs (1999). Holokausts vācu okupētajā Latvijā 1941–1944 (in Latvian). Riga: Latvijas vēstures institūta apgāds. pp. 222, 230. ISBN 9984-601-02-1 . OCLC 44502624 . Also available in English as: Andrew Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia, 1941–1944: The Missing Center (1996), ISBN 9984-9054-3-8 . * ^ Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia, at pages 192 and 267, n.55 * ^ Ezergails, Andrievs. Jāmeklē patiesība par Herbertu Cukuru. NRA, 10.17.2014 http://nra.lv/latvija/127179-jamekle-patiesiba-par-herbertu-cukuru.htm * ^ Jerusalem Post: The Mass Murderer As Hero * ^ The Murder of the Jews in Latvia, at page 46 * ^ A B C D E "Uruguay: Man in the Icebox". Time . March 19, 1965. Retrieved 3 December 2010. (subscription required) * ^ Visa number 42575 issued by Brazilian Consulate in Marseilles France
France
on December 18, 1945. * ^ Kuenzle, Anton; Shimron, Gad (2004). The Execution of the Hangman of Riga: The Only Execution of a Nazi War Criminal by the Mossad. London: Vallentine Mitchell. ISBN 0-85303-525-3 . OCLC 53389986 . Retrieved 2016-03-18. * ^ "Latvia\'s Minister of Foreign Affairs condemns the issuance of postal envelopes dedicated to Herberts Cukurs". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia: Nr. 576, 28 September - 5 October 2004. 2004. Retrieved 4 December 2010.

REFERENCES

* Angrick, Angrej, and Klein, Peter, The "Final Solution" in Riga: Exploitation and Annihilation, 1941-1944, Berghahn Books, 2009 ISBN 978-1-84545-608-5 ; originally published as (in German) Die „Endlösung“ in Riga., Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-19149-8 * Ezergailis, Andrew , The Holocaust in Latvia 1941-1944—The Missing Center, Historical Institute of Latvia (in association with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum) Riga
Riga
1996 ISBN 9984-9054-3-8 * Goñi, Uki . The Real Odessa: Smuggling the Nazis to Perón's Argentina, Granta, New York 2002 ISBN 1-86207-581-6 * Kaufmann, Max, Die Vernichtung des Judens Lettlands (The Destruction of the Jews of Latvia), Munich, 1947, English translation by Laimdota Mazzarins available on-line as Churbn Lettland -- The Destruction of the Jews of Latvia (all references in this article are to page numbers in the on-line edition) * Künzle, Anton, Shimron, Gad, and Massad, Uriel, The Execution of the Hangman of Riga: the Only Execution of a Nazi War by the Mossad, Mitchell, Valentine ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

The Holocaust in Latvia

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia Ukraine

CRIMES

* Burning of the Riga
Riga
synagogues * Dünamünde Action * Jelgava * Pogulianski * Rumbula * Liepāja
Liepāja
(Šķēde)

VICTIMS

* Jewish people of Latvia * Gypsies * Joseph Carlebach * Simon Dubnow
Simon Dubnow
* Else Hirsch

PERPETRATORS

* Alois Brunner * Rudolf Batz * Fritz Dietrich * Otto-Heinrich Drechsler
Otto-Heinrich Drechsler
* Erich Ehrlinger * Karl Jäger
Karl Jäger
* Friedrich Jeckeln
Friedrich Jeckeln
* Heinz Jost
Heinz Jost
* Konrāds Kalējs * Ernst Kaltenbrunner * Wolfgang Kügler * Rudolf Lange * Hinrich Lohse
Hinrich Lohse
* Friedrich Panzinger * Hans-Adolf Prützmann
Hans-Adolf Prützmann
* Eduard Roschmann
Eduard Roschmann
* Alfred Rosenberg
Alfred Rosenberg
* Martin Sandberger
Martin Sandberger
* Albert Sauer
Albert Sauer
* Rudolf Joachim Seck * Franz Walter Stahlecker
Franz Walter Stahlecker
* Eduard Strauch
Eduard Strauch

NAZI OCCUPATION AND ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * Reichskommissariat Ostland * Rollkommando Hamann

COLLABORATORS Individuals Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs
Herberts Cukurs
Kārlis Lobe
Kārlis Lobe
Organizations Arajs Kommando Latvian Auxiliary Police Schutzmannschaft

GHETTOS AND CAMPS

* Daugavpils Ghetto
Daugavpils Ghetto
* Jungfernhof concentration camp * Kaiserwald concentration camp * Riga
Riga
Ghetto * Salaspils concentration camp
Salaspils concentration camp

DOCUMENTATION

* Generalplan Ost * Jäger Report
Jäger Report

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATIONS AND TRIALS

* Einsatzgruppen trial * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Jānis Lipke * Roberts Sedols

MEMORIALS

* Bikernieki Memorial

RELATED ARTICLES

* The Holocaust * Occupation of Latvia by Nazi Germany

* v * t * e

Post-war flight of Axis fugitives

FUGITIVES

GERMAN / AUSTRIAN

* Ludolf von Alvensleben
Ludolf von Alvensleben
* Klaus Barbie
Klaus Barbie
* Hermine Braunsteiner
Hermine Braunsteiner
* Alois Brunner * Adolf Eichmann * Aribert Heim * Walter Kutschmann * Johann von Leers * Josef Mengele * Hermann Michel
Hermann Michel
* Erich Priebke
Erich Priebke
* Walter Rauff
Walter Rauff
* Eduard Roschmann
Eduard Roschmann
* Walter Schreiber * Horst Schumann
Horst Schumann
* Josef Schwammberger * Franz Stangl
Franz Stangl
* Gustav Wagner

CROATIAN

* Milivoj Ašner * Andrija Artuković * Anton Geiser
Anton Geiser
* Ante Pavelić * Dinko Šakić * Vjekoslav Vrančić

BELGIAN

* Pierre Daye * Léon Degrelle * René Lagrou

UKRAINIAN

* John Demjanjuk * Feodor Fedorenko * Mykola Lebed

DANISH

* Søren Kam * Carl Værnet

ESTONIAN

* Aleksander Laak * Karl Linnas

LATVIAN

* Viktors Arājs * Herberts Cukurs

OTHER NATIONALITIES

* Tscherim Soobzokov (Circassian)

ASSISTANCE

ORGANIZATIONS

* Ratlines

STATE INVOLVEMENT

* Colonia Dignidad (Chile) * Franco (Spain) * Perón (Argentina) * Videla (Argentina) * Operation Paperclip (USA) * Robert Leiber (Holy See) * Banzer (Bolivia) * Stroessner (Paraguay)

OTHER PERSONS

* Rodolfo Freude *