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Herbert Lange
Herbert Lange
(29 September 1909 – 20 April 1945) was an SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
and the commandant of Chełmno extermination camp until April 1942; leader of the SS Special
Special
Detachment Lange conducting the extermination of Jews from the Łódź Ghetto. He was responsible for numerous crimes against humanity including the murder of mental patients in Poland and in Germany during the Action T4
Action T4
forced euthanasia programme.

Contents

1 Biography 2 Crimes against humanity 3 Notes 4 References

Biography[edit] Lange studied law, but failed to obtain a degree and he subsequently joined the NSDAP (Nazi Party) on 1 May 1932. He enlisted in the SA three months later, and the following year, he joined the SS. He subsequently joined the police force, becoming a deputy commissioner in 1935. Crimes against humanity[edit] Lange entered Poland with Einsatzgruppe
Einsatzgruppe
Naumann (EG VI) during the September campaign. On 9 November 1939, following a Nazi German victory, Lange was promoted to the rank of SS- Untersturmführer
Untersturmführer
(2nd lieutenant) in occupied Poland and posted in charge of the Gestapo
Gestapo
in occupied Poznań.[1] In the beginning of 1940 he assumed command of an SS-Sonderkommando Lange named after him and tasked with the extermination of mentally ill in Wartheland
Wartheland
area (Wielkopolska) under the direction of notorious Holocaust
Holocaust
perpetrators Ernst Damzog
Ernst Damzog
and Wilhelm Koppe.[2] Lange served with Einsatzgruppe
Einsatzgruppe
VI during Operation Tannenberg.[3] Already by mid-1940, he and his men were responsible for the murder of about 1,100 patients in Owińska, 2,750 patients at Kościan, 1,558 patients and 300 Poles at Działdowo, and hundreds of Poles at Fort VII
Fort VII
where the mobile gas-chamber (Einsatzwagen) was invented. Their earlier hospital victims were usually shot in the back of the neck.[4] The unit, equipped with a gas van, shuttled between hospitals, picking up patients and killing them with carbon monoxide.[5] After his promotion to SS- Obersturmführer
Obersturmführer
(1st lieutenant) on 20 April 1940, his unit was permanently stationed at the Soldau concentration camp. In one special case, Wilhelm Rediess
Wilhelm Rediess
hired Kommando Lange to kill 1,558 mental patients from East Prussia
East Prussia
for ten Reichsmark a head.[6] By December 1941 Lange was a SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
(captain) and was appointed commander of the Chełmno extermination camp
Chełmno extermination camp
by then SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Ernst Damzog, chief of the Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
(SiPo) and Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) in Posen (Poznań). [7] He held that position until March 1942.[8] His commando was tasked with the liquidation of 100,000 Jews from the Warthegau
Warthegau
via Ghetto Litzmannstadt. In April 1942 Lange's unit was renamed SS Sonderkommando Kulmhof and introduced improvements to the extermination process at Chełmno. Lange constructed cremation pits to replace mass graves.[9] He was succeeded by Hans Bothmann
Hans Bothmann
who formed Special
Special
Detachment Bothmann in 1942. At a very minimum 152,000 people (Bohn) were killed at the camp,[10] though the West German prosecution, citing Nazi figures during the Chełmno trials
Chełmno trials
of 1962–65, laid charges for at least 180,000 victims.[11] Upon the completion of his task in 1942 Lange was transferred to the Reichssicherheitshauptamt
Reichssicherheitshauptamt
(Reich Main Security Office) and served under Arthur Nebe
Arthur Nebe
as a Kriminalrat (Criminal Investigator). He went to the Balkans on an anti-partisan mission.[12] In March 1944 Lange returned to the already inactive death camp at Chełmno, and resumed the gassing operations on the request of Greiser, for the final ten transports of ghettoised Jews.[12] In 1944 Lange aided in catching the conspirators of the attempt on Hitler's life (the 20 July Plot), leading to his promotion to SS-Sturmbannführer. Lange was killed in action during the Battle of Berlin
Berlin
on 20 April 1945.[13] Notes[edit]

^ a b Friedlander, Henry (1997). The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. UNC Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0807846759.  ^ Friedlander 1997, pp. 138-139. ^ Artur Hojan, Cameron Munro (2015). "Nazi Euthanasia Programme in Occupied Poland
Occupied Poland
1939-1945". Overview of the liquidation of the mentally ill during actions on the Polish territory (1939-1945). The Tiergartenstrasse 4 Association, international centre for the documentation, study and interpretation of Nazi crimes. Nazi Euthanasia in European Perspective conference, Berlin, Kleisthaus, Feb. 28-30, 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ Holocaust
Holocaust
Research Project.org (2007). "Lange, Herbert; SS-Hauptsturmführer". Chelmno Death Camp Dramatis Personae. Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Retrieved 2013-05-13.  ^ Friedlander 1997, p. 139. ^ Friedlander 1997, pp. 139-140. Rediess denied payment and left for Norway; legalese correspondence between Lange's superiors and Rediess continued for a whole year. ^ Epstein, Catherine (2010). Model Nazi - Arthur Greiser
Arthur Greiser
and the Occupation of Western Poland. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0199646531.  ^ Epstein 2010, p. 188. ^ Montague 2012, pp. 189-190. ^ USHMM (May 11, 2012). "Chelmno". Holocaust
Holocaust
Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum, Washington, DC. OTRS
OTRS
ticket no. 2007071910012533 confirmed.  ^ JTA (January 22, 1963). "Jewish Survivors of Chelmno Camp Testify at Trial of Guards". JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Archived from the original on February 20, 2014.  ^ a b Montague 2012, p. 190. ^ Epstein 2010, p. 338.

References[edit]

Friedlander, Henry (1997) [1995]. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Univ of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0807846759.  Montague, Patrick (2012). Chelmno and the Holocaust: The History of Hitler's First Death Camp. I.B.Tauris. pp. 188–190. ISBN 1848857225. 

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Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 33223

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