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HERBERT LANGE (29 September 1909 – 20 April 1945) was an SS - Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
and the commandant of Chełmno extermination camp until April 1942; leader of the SS Special Detachment Lange conducting the extermination of Jews from the Łódź Ghetto . He was responsible for numerous crimes against humanity including the murder of mental patients in Poland and in Germany during the Action T4
Action T4
forced euthanasia programme.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography * 2 Crimes against humanity * 3 Notes * 4 References

BIOGRAPHY

Lange studied law, but failed to obtain a degree and he subsequently joined the NSDAP (Nazi Party) on 1 May 1932. He enlisted in the SA three months later, and the following year, he joined the SS . He subsequently joined the police force, becoming a deputy commissioner in 1935.

CRIMES AGAINST HUMANITY

Lange entered Poland with Einsatzgruppe
Einsatzgruppe
Naumann (EG VI ) during the September campaign . On 9 November 1939, following a Nazi German victory, Lange was promoted to the rank of SS- Untersturmführer (2nd lieutenant) in occupied Poland and posted in charge of the Gestapo in occupied Poznań
Poznań
. In the beginning of 1940 he assumed command of an SS-Sonderkommando Lange named after him and tasked with the extermination of mentally ill in Wartheland area ( Wielkopolska ) under the direction of notorious Holocaust
Holocaust
perpetrators Ernst Damzog and Wilhelm Koppe . Lange served with Einsatzgruppe
Einsatzgruppe
VI during Operation Tannenberg . Already by mid-1940, he and his men were responsible for the murder of about 1,100 patients in Owińska , 2,750 patients at Kościan
Kościan
, 1,558 patients and 300 Poles at Działdowo , and hundreds of Poles at Fort VII where the mobile gas-chamber (Einsatzwagen) was invented. Their earlier hospital victims were usually shot in the back of the neck. The unit, equipped with a gas van , shuttled between hospitals, picking up patients and killing them with carbon monoxide .

After his promotion to SS- Obersturmführer
Obersturmführer
(1st lieutenant) on 20 April 1940, his unit was permanently stationed at the Soldau concentration camp . In one special case, Wilhelm Rediess hired Kommando Lange to kill 1,558 mental patients from East Prussia for ten Reichsmark a head. By December 1941 Lange was a SS-Hauptsturmführer (captain) and was appointed commander of the Chełmno extermination camp by then SS- Standartenführer
Standartenführer
Ernst Damzog , chief of the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) and Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) in Posen (Poznań ). He held that position until March 1942. His commando was tasked with the liquidation of 100,000 Jews from the Warthegau via Ghetto Litzmannstadt . In April 1942 Lange's unit was renamed SS Sonderkommando Kulmhof and introduced improvements to the extermination process at Chełmno. Lange constructed cremation pits to replace mass graves. He was succeeded by Hans Bothmann who formed Special Detachment Bothmann in 1942. At a very minimum 152,000 people (Bohn) were killed at the camp, though the West German prosecution, citing Nazi figures during the Chełmno trials of 1962–65, laid charges for at least 180,000 victims.

Upon the completion of his task in 1942 Lange was transferred to the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Main Security Office) and served under Arthur Nebe as a Kriminalrat (Criminal Investigator). He went to the Balkans on an anti-partisan mission. In March 1944 Lange returned to the already inactive death camp at Chełmno, and resumed the gassing operations on the request of Greiser, for the final ten transports of ghettoised Jews. In 1944 Lange aided in catching the conspirators of the attempt on Hitler
Hitler
's life (the 20 July Plot ), leading to his promotion to SS-Sturmbannführer.

Lange was killed in action during the Battle of Berlin
Berlin
on 20 April 1945.

NOTES

* ^ A B Friedlander, Henry (1997). The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. UNC Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0807846759 . * ^ Friedlander 1997 , pp. 138-139. * ^ Artur Hojan, Cameron Munro (2015). "Nazi Euthanasia Programme in Occupied Poland 1939-1945". Overview of the liquidation of the mentally ill during actions on the Polish territory (1939-1945). The Tiergartenstrasse 4 Association, international centre for the documentation, study and interpretation of Nazi crimes. Nazi Euthanasia in European Perspective conference, Berlin, Kleisthaus, Feb. 28-30, 2013. Retrieved 2 July 2015. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Holocaust
Holocaust
Research Project.org (2007). "Lange, Herbert; SS-Hauptsturmführer". Chelmno Death Camp Dramatis Personae. Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. Retrieved 2013-05-13. * ^ Friedlander 1997 , p. 139. * ^ Friedlander 1997 , pp. 139-140. Rediess denied payment and left for Norway; legalese correspondence between Lange's superiors and Rediess continued for a whole year. * ^ Epstein, Catherine (2010). Model Nazi - Arthur Greiser
Arthur Greiser
and the Occupation of Western Poland. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0199646531 . * ^ Epstein 2010 , p. 188. * ^ Montague 2012 , pp. 189-190. * ^ USHMM (May 11, 2012). "Chelmno". Holocaust
Holocaust
Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Museum, Washington, DC. OTRS ticket no. 2007071910012533 confirmed. * ^ JTA (January 22, 1963). "Jewish Survivors of Chelmno Camp Testify at Trial of Guards". JTA Archive. Jewish Telegraphic Agency. Archived from the original on February 20, 2014. * ^ A B Montague 2012 , p. 190. * ^ Epstein 2010 , p. 338.

REFERENCES

* Friedlander, Henry (1997) . The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Univ of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0807846759 . * Montague, Patrick (2012). Chelmno and the Holocaust: The History of Hitler\'s First Death Camp. I.B.Tauris. pp. 188–190. ISBN 1848857225 .

* v * t * e

The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust
Holocaust
Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

* v * t * e

Camps, ghettos and operations

CAMPS

EXTERMINATION

* Auschwitz-Birkenau * Chełmno * Majdanek

* Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

* Bełżec * Sobibór * Treblinka

CONCENTRATION

* Kraków-Płaszów * Potulice * Soldau * Stutthof * Szebnie * Trawniki * Warsaw

MASS SHOOTINGS

* AB Action * Bronna Góra * Erntefest * Jedwabne * Kielce cemetery * Aktion Krakau * Lviv pogroms * Lwów professors * Palmiry * Sonderaktion Krakau * Tannenberg * Tykocin * Bydgoszcz * Wąsosz * Bloody Sunday

GHETTOS

* List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland (1939–1942)

* Będzin * Białystok * Brest * Częstochowa * Grodno * Kielce * Kraków * Lwów * Łódź * Lubartów * Lublin * Międzyrzec Podlaski * Mizocz * Nowy Sącz * Pińsk * Radom * Siedlce * Sambor * Słonim * Sosnowiec * Stanisławów * Tarnopol * Wilno * Warsaw

OTHER ATROCITIES

* Action T4
Action T4
* Grossaktion Warsaw * Human medical experimentation

* v * t * e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

MAJOR PERPETRATORS

ORGANIZERS

* Josef Bühler * Eichmann * Eicke * Ludwig Fischer * Hans Frank * Globocnik * Glücks * Greiser * Himmler * Hermann Höfle * Fritz Katzmann * Wilhelm Koppe * Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger * Kutschera * Erwin Lambert * Ernst Lerch * Oswald Pohl * Reinefarth * Scherner * Seyss-Inquart * Sporrenberg * Streckenbach * Thomalla * Otto Wächter
Otto Wächter
* Wisliceny

CAMP COMMAND

* Aumeier * Baer * Boger * Braunsteiner * Eberl * Eupen * Kurt Franz * Karl Frenzel * Karl Fritzsch * Göth * Grabner * Hartjenstein * Hering * Höss * Hössler * Josef Kramer * Liebehenschel * Mandel * Matthes * Michel * Möckel * Mulka * Johann Niemann * Oberhauser * Reichleitner * Heinrich Schwarz * Stangl * Gustav Wagner * Christian Wirth

GAS CHAMBER EXECUTIONERS

* Erich Bauer * Bolender * Hackenholt * Klehr * Hans Koch * Herbert Lange * Theuer

PHYSICIANS

* von Bodmann * Clauberg * Gebhardt * Fritz Klein
Fritz Klein
* Mengele * Horst Schumann
Horst Schumann
* Trzebinski * Eduard Wirths

GHETTO COMMAND

* Auerswald * Biebow * Blösche * Bürkl * Konrad * Palfinger * von Sammern-Frankenegg * Stroop

EINSATZGRUPPEN

* Wolfgang Birkner * Blobel * Felix Landau * Schaper * Schöngarth * von Woyrsch

PERSONNEL

CAMP GUARDS

* Juana Bormann * Danz * Demjanjuk * Margot Dreschel * Kurt Gerstein * Grese * Höcker * Kaduk * Kollmer * Muhsfeldt * Orlowski * Volkenrath

BY CAMP

* Sobibór * Treblinka

ORGANIZATIONS

* Einsatzgruppen * General Government
General Government
* Hotel Polski * WVHA * RKFDV * VoMi

COLLABORATORS

JEWISH

* Group 13 * Kapo * Żagiew

Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian

* Schutzmannschaft

OTHER NATIONALITIES

* Arajs Kommando * Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
Ukrainian Auxiliary Police
* Ukrainian collaboration * Lithuanian Security Police * Trawniki * Ypatingasis būrys * Pieter Menten

* v * t * e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

ORGANIZATIONS

* AK * AOB * Bund * GL * PKB * ŻOB * ŻZA

UPRISINGS

* Ghetto uprisings * Białystok * Częstochowa * Sobibór * Treblinka * Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

LEADERS

* Mordechai Anielewicz * Icchak Cukierman * Mordechai Tenenbaum * Marek Edelman * Leon Feldhendler * Paweł Frenkiel * Henryk Iwański * Itzhak Katzenelson * Michał Klepfisz * Miles Lerman * Alexander Pechersky * Witold Pilecki * Frumka Płotnicka * Roza Robota * Szmul Zygielbojm

JUDENRAT

* Jewish Ghetto Police * Adam Czerniaków * Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski
Chaim Rumkowski

VICTIM LISTS

GHETTOS

* Kraków * Łódź * Lvov (Lwów) * Warsaw

CAMPS

* Auschwitz * Bełżec * Gross-Rosen * Izbica * Majdanek * Sobibór * Soldau * Stutthof * Trawniki * Treblinka

DOCUMENTATION

NAZI SOURCES

* Auschwitz Album
Auschwitz Album
* Frank Memorandum * Höcker Album * Höfle Telegram * Katzmann Report * Korherr Report * Nisko Plan * Posen speeches * Special Prosecution Book-Poland * Stroop Report
Stroop Report
* Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference

WITNESS ACCOUNTS

* Graebe affidavit * Gerstein Report * Vrba–Wetzler report
Vrba–Wetzler report
* Witold\'s Report * Sonderkommando photographs

CONCEALMENT

* Sonderaktion 1005

TECHNICAL AND LOGISTICS

* Identification in camps * Gas chamber * Gas van * Holocaust
Holocaust
train * Human medical experimentation * Zyklon B

* v * t * e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

AFTERMATH

* Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors * Polish population transfers (1944–1946) * Bricha * Kielce pogrom * Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 * Ministry of Public Security

TRIALS

WEST GERMAN TRIALS

* Frankfurt Auschwitz trials
Frankfurt Auschwitz trials
* Treblinka trials

POLISH, EAST GERMAN, AND SOVIET TRIALS

* Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) * Stutthof trials * Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

MEMORIALS

* Museum of the History of Polish Jews * Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum * Majdanek State Museum * Sobibór Museum * International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz * March of the Living
March of the Living

RIGHTEOUS AMONG THE NATIONS

* Polish Righteous Among the Nations * Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust
Holocaust
* Garden of the Righteous

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 33223236 * GND :

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