Heraldry (/ˈhɛrəldri/) is a broad term, encompassing the design,
display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as
related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of
ceremony, rank, and pedigree. Armory is the most familiar
branch of heraldry, concerning the design and transmission of the
heraldic achievement, more commonly known as the coat of arms. The
coat of arms usually includes a shield, helmet, and crest, together
with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, badges, heraldic
banners, and mottoes.
Although the use of various devices to signify individuals and groups
goes back to antiquity, both the form and use of such devices varied
widely, and the concept of regular, hereditary designs, constituting
the distinguishing feature of heraldry, did not develop until the High
Middle Ages. The use of helmets with face guards during this period
made it difficult to recognize one's commanders in the field when
large armies were gathered together for extended periods,
necessitating the development of heraldry as a symbolic
The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive
the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the
Heraldry has been described poetically as "the
handmaid of history", "the shorthand of history", and "the
floral border in the garden of history". In modern times, heraldry
is used by individuals, public and private organizations,
corporations, cities, towns, and regions to symbolize their heritage,
achievements, and aspirations.
1.2 Origins of modern heraldry
1.3 Heralds and heraldic authorities
1.4 Later uses and developments
2 The heraldic achievement
2.1 Elements of an achievement
2.1.1 The shield
2.1.3 Variations of the field
2.1.4 Divisions of the field
2.2 Helm and crest
Supporters and other insignia
2.5 Differencing and cadency
3 National styles
3.1 German-Nordic heraldry
3.2 Dutch heraldry
3.3 Gallo-British heraldry
3.4 Latin heraldry
3.5 Central and Eastern European heraldry
4 Quasi-heraldic emblems
4.1 Greek symbols
5 Modern heraldry
6 See also
10 External links
Various symbols have been used to represent individuals or groups for
thousands of years. The earliest representations of distinct persons
and regions in Egyptian art show the use of standards topped with the
images or symbols of various gods, and the names of kings appear upon
emblems known as serekhs, representing the king's palace, and usually
topped with a falcon representing the god Horus, of whom the king was
regarded as the earthly incarnation. Similar emblems and devices are
found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, and the
precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can also be
found. In the Bible, the
Book of Numbers
Book of Numbers refers to the standards
and ensigns of the children of Israel, who were commanded to gather
beneath these emblems and declare their pedigrees. The Greek and
Latin writers frequently describe the shields and symbols of various
heroes, and units of the Roman army were sometimes identified by
distinctive markings on their shields.
Until the nineteenth century, it was common for heraldic writers to
cite examples such as these, and metaphorical symbols such as the
"Lion of Judah" or "Eagle of the Caesars" as evidence of the antiquity
of heraldry itself; and to infer therefrom that the great figures of
ancient history bore arms representing their noble status and descent.
The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ
himself was a gentleman of coat armour. But these fabulous claims
have long since been dismissed as the fantasy of medieval heralds, for
there is no evidence of a distinctive symbolic language akin to that
of heraldry during this early period; nor do many of the shields
described in antiquity bear a close resemblance to those of medieval
heraldry; nor is there any evidence that specific symbols or designs
were passed down from one generation to the next, representing a
particular person or line of descent.
The medieval heralds also devised arms for various knights and lords
from history and literature. Notable examples include the toads
attributed to Pharamond, the cross and martlets of Edward the
Confessor, and the various arms attributed to the
Nine Worthies and
the Knights of the Round Table. These too are now regarded as a
fanciful invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry.
Reverse of the
Narmer Palette, circa 3100 BC. The top row depicts four
men carrying standards. Directly above them is a serekh containing the
name of the king, Narmer.
Fresco depicting a shield of a type common in Mycenaean Greece.
Race with Greek soldiers in armor, circa 550 BC.
A reconstruction of a shield that would have been carried by a Roman
Shields from the "Magister Militum Praesentalis II". From the Notitia
Dignitatum, a medieval copy of a Late Roman register of military
The death of King Harold, from the Bayeux Tapestry. The shields look
heraldic, but do not seem to have been personal or hereditary emblems.
Origins of modern heraldry
See also: List of oldest heraldry
Enamel from the tomb of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, one of
the earliest depictions of modern heraldry.
The development of the modern heraldic language cannot be attributed
to a single individual, time, or place. Although certain designs that
are now considered heraldic were evidently in use during the eleventh
century, most accounts and depictions of shields up to the beginning
of the twelfth century contain little or no evidence of their heraldic
character. For example, the Bayeux Tapestry, illustrating the Norman
invasion of England in 1066, and probably commissioned about 1077,
when the cathedral of Bayeux was rebuilt,[i] depicts a number of
shields of various shapes and designs, many of which are plain, while
others are decorated with dragons, crosses, or other typically
heraldic figures. Yet no individual is depicted twice bearing the same
arms, nor are any of the descendants of the various persons depicted
known to have borne devices resembling those in the tapestry.
Similarly, an account of the French knights at the court of the
Byzantine emperor Alexius I at the beginning of the twelfth century
describes their shields of polished metal, utterly devoid of heraldic
design. A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and
decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic.
The Abbey of St. Denis contained a window commemorating the knights
who embarked on the
Second Crusade in 1147, and was probably made soon
after the event; but Montfaucon's illustration of the window before it
was destroyed shows no heraldic design on any of the shields.
In England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents
had to be sealed. Beginning in the twelfth century, seals assumed a
distinctly heraldic character; a number of seals dating from between
1135 and 1155 appear to show the adoption of heraldic devices in
England, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy. A notable example of
an early armorial seal is attached to a charter granted by Philip I,
Count of Flanders, in 1164. Seals from the latter part of the eleventh
and early twelfth centuries show no evidence of heraldic symbolism,
but by the end of the twelfth century, seals are uniformly heraldic in
One of the earliest known examples of armory as it subsequently came
to be practiced can be seen on the tomb of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count
of Anjou, who died in 1151. An enamel, probably commissioned by
Geoffrey's widow between 1155 and 1160, depicts him carrying a blue
shield decorated with six golden lions rampant.[ii] He wears a blue
helmet adorned with another lion, and his cloak is lined in vair. A
medieval chronicle states that Geoffrey was given a shield of this
description when he was knighted by his father-in-law, Henry I, in
1128; but this account probably dates to about 1175.
The earlier heraldic writers attributed the lions of England to
William the Conqueror, but the earliest evidence of the association of
lions with the English crown is a seal bearing two lions passant, used
by the future King John during the lifetime of his father, Henry II,
who died in 1189. Since Henry was the son of Geoffrey
Plantagenet, it seems reasonable to suppose that the adoption of lions
as an heraldic emblem by Henry or his sons might have been inspired by
Geoffrey's shield. John's elder brother, Richard the Lionheart, who
succeeded his father on the throne, is believed to have been the first
to have borne the arms of three lions passant-guardant, still the arms
of England, having earlier used two lions rampant combatant, which
arms may also have belonged to his father. Richard is also
credited with having originated the English crest of a lion statant
The origins of heraldry are sometimes associated with the Crusades, a
series of military campaigns undertaken by Christian armies from 1096
to 1487, with the goal of reconquering Jerusalem and other former
Byzantine territories captured by Muslim forces during the seventh
century. While there is no evidence that heraldic art originated in
the course of the Crusades, there is no reason to doubt that the
gathering of large armies, drawn from across Europe for a united
cause, would have encouraged the adoption of armorial bearings as a
means of identifying one's commanders in the field, or that it helped
disseminate the principles of armory across Europe. At least two
distinctive features of heraldry are generally accepted as products of
the crusaders: the surcoat, an outer garment worn over the armor to
protect the wearer from the heat of the sun, was often decorated with
the same devices that appeared on a knight's shield. It is from this
garment that the phrase "coat of arms" is derived. Also the
lambrequin, or mantling, that depends from the helmet and frames the
shield in modern heraldry, began as a practical covering for the
helmet and the back of the neck during the Crusades, serving much the
same function as the surcoat. Its slashed or scalloped edge, today
rendered as billowing flourishes, is thought to have originated from
hard wearing in the field, or as a means of deadening a sword blow and
perhaps entangling the attacker's weapon.
Heralds and heraldic authorities
The spread of armorial bearings across Europe soon gave rise to a new
occupation: the herald, originally a type of messenger employed by
noblemen, assumed the responsibility of learning and knowing the rank,
pedigree, and heraldic devices of various knights and lords, as well
as the rules and protocols governing the design and description, or
blazoning of arms, and the precedence of their bearers. As early
as the late thirteenth century, certain heralds in the employ of
monarchs were given the title "King of Heralds", which eventually
became "King of Arms."
Two pursuivants wearing tabards, Windsor Castle, 2006.
In the earliest period, arms were assumed by their bearers without any
need for heraldic authority. However, by the middle of the fourteenth
century, the principle that only a single individual was entitled to
bear a particular coat of arms was generally accepted, and disputes
over the ownership of arms seems to have led to gradual establishment
of heraldic authorities to regulate their use. The earliest known work
of heraldic jurisprudence, De Insigniis et Armis, was written about
1350 by Bartolus de Saxoferrato, a professor of law at the University
of Padua. The most celebrated armorial dispute in English
heraldry is that of Scrope v. Grosvenor (1390), in which two different
men claimed the right to bear azure, a bend or. The continued
proliferation of arms, and the number of disputes arising from
different men assuming the same arms, led Henry V to issue a
proclamation in 1419, forbidding all those who had not borne arms at
Battle of Agincourt
Battle of Agincourt from assuming arms, except by inheritance or a
grant from the crown.
Beginning in the reign of Henry VIII, the Kings of Arms were commanded
to make visitations, in which they traveled about the country,
recording arms borne under proper authority, and requiring those who
bore arms without authority either to obtain authority for them, or
cease their use. Arms borne improperly were to be taken down and
defaced. The first such visitation began in 1530, and the last was
carried out in 1700, although no new commissions to carry out
visitations were made after the accession of William III in
In 1484, during the reign of Richard III, the various heralds employed
by the crown were incorporated into the College of Arms, through which
all new grants of arms would eventually be issued. The college
currently consists of three Kings of Arms, assisted by six Heralds,
and four Pursuivants, or junior officers of arms, all under the
authority of the Earl Marshal; but all of the arms granted by the
college are granted by the authority of the crown. Similar bodies
regulate the granting of arms in other monarchies and several members
of the Commonwealth of Nations, but in most other countries there is
no heraldic authority, and no law preventing anyone from assuming
whatever arms they please, provided that they do not infringe upon the
arms of another.
Later uses and developments
Although heraldry originated from military necessity, it soon found
itself at home in the pageantry of the medieval tournament. The
opportunity for knights and lords to display their heraldic bearings
in a competitive medium led to further refinements, such as the
development of elaborate tournament helms, and further popularized the
art of heraldry throughout Europe. Prominent burghers and
corporations, including many cities and towns, assumed or obtained
grants of arms, with only nominal military associations. Heraldic
devices were depicted in various contexts, such as religious and
funerary art, and in using a wide variety of media, including
stonework, carved wood, enamel, stained glass, and embroidery.
As the rise of firearms rendered the mounted knight increasingly
irrelevant on the battlefield during the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries, and the tournament faded into history, the military
character of heraldry gave way to its use as a decorative art. Freed
from the limitations of actual shields and the need for arms to be
easily distinguished in combat, heraldic artists designed increasingly
elaborate achievements, culminating in the development of "landscape
heraldry", incorporating realistic depictions of landscapes, during
the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth
century. These fell out of fashion during the mid-nineteenth century,
when a renewed interest in the history of armory led to the
re-evaluation of earlier designs, and a new appreciation for the
medieval origins of the art. Since the late nineteenth
century, heraldry has focused on the use of varied lines of partition
and little-used ordinaries to produce new and unique designs.
The heraldic achievement
Elements of an achievement
Part of a series on
Conventional elements of coats of arms
Slogan (battle cry)
An heraldic achievement consists of a shield of arms, together with
all of its accompanying elements, such as a crest, supporters, and
other heraldic embellishments. The term "coat of arms" technically
refers to the shield of arms itself, but the phrase is commonly used
to refer to the entire achievement. The one indispensable element of a
coat of arms is the shield; many ancient coats of arms consist of
nothing else, but no coat of arms exists without a shield.
From a very early date, illustrations of arms were frequently
embellished with helmets placed above the shields. These in turn came
to be decorated with fan-shaped or sculptural crests, often
incorporating elements from the shield of arms; as well as a wreath or
torse, or sometimes a coronet, from which depended the lambrequin or
mantling. To these elements, modern heraldry often adds a motto
displayed on a ribbon, typically below the shield. The helmet is borne
of right, and forms no part of a grant of arms; it may be assumed
without authority by anyone entitled to bear arms, together with
mantling and whatever motto the armiger may desire. The crest,
however, together with the torse or coronet from which it arises, must
be granted or confirmed by the relevant heraldic authority.
If the bearer is entitled to the ribbon, collar, or badge of a
knightly order, it may encircle or depend from the shield. Some arms,
particularly those of the nobility, are further embellished with
supporters, heraldic figures standing alongside or behind the shield;
often these stand on a compartment, typically a mound of earth and
grass, on which other badges, symbols, or heraldic banners may be
displayed. The most elaborate achievements sometimes display the
entire coat of arms beneath a pavilion, an embellished tent or canopy
of the type associated with the medieval tournament.
Main article: Escutcheon (heraldry)
The primary element of an heraldic achievement is the shield, or
escutcheon, upon which the coat of arms is depicted.[iii] All of the
other elements of an achievement are designed to decorate and
complement these arms, but only the shield of arms is
required. The shape of the shield, like many other
details, is normally left to the discretion of the heraldic
artist,[iv] and many different shapes have prevailed during different
periods of heraldic design, and in different parts of
One shape alone is normally reserved for a specific purpose: the
lozenge, a diamond-shaped escutcheon, was traditionally used to
display the arms of women, on the grounds that shields, as implements
of war, were inappropriate for this purpose. This
distinction was not always strictly adhered to, and a general
exception was usually made for sovereigns, whose arms represented an
entire nation. Sometimes an oval shield, or cartouche, was substituted
for the lozenge; this shape was also widely used for the arms of
clerics in French, Spanish, and Italian heraldry, although it was
never reserved for their use. In recent years, the use of the
cartouche for women's arms has become general in Scottish heraldry,
while both Scottish and Irish authorities have permitted a traditional
shield under certain circumstances, and in
Canadian heraldry the
shield is now regularly granted.
The whole surface of the escutcheon is termed the field, which may be
plain, consisting of a single tincture, or divided into multiple
sections of differing tinctures by various lines of partition; and any
part of the field may be semé, or powdered with small charges.
The edges and adjacent parts of the escutcheon are used to identify
the placement of various heraldic charges; the upper edge, and the
corresponding upper third of the shield, are referred to as the chief;
the lower part is the base. The sides of the shield are known as the
dexter and sinister flanks, although it is important to note that
these terms are based on the point of view of the bearer of the
shield, who would be standing behind it; accordingly the side which is
to the bearer's right is the dexter, and the side to the bearer's left
is the sinister, although to the observer, and in all heraldic
illustration, the dexter is on the left side, and the sinister on the
The placement of various charges may also refer to a number of
specific points, nine in number according to some authorities, but
eleven according to others. The three most important are fess point,
located in the visual center of the shield;[v] the honour point,
located midway between fess point and the chief; and the nombril
point, located midway between fess point and the base. The
other points include dexter chief, center chief, and sinister chief,
running along the upper part of the shield from left to right, above
the honour point; dexter flank and sinister flank, on the sides
approximately level with fess point; and dexter base, middle base, and
sinister base along the lower part of the shield, below the nombril
Main article: Tincture (heraldry)
One of the most distinctive qualities of heraldry is the use of a
limited palette of colours and patterns, usually referred to as
tinctures. These are divided into three categories, known as metals,
colours, and furs.[vi]
The metals are or and argent, representing gold and silver,
respectively, although in practice they are usually depicted as yellow
and white. Five colours are universally recognized: gules, or red;
sable, or black; azure, or blue; vert, or green; and purpure, or
purple; and most heraldic authorities also admit two additional
colours, known as sanguine or murrey, a dark red or mulberry colour
between gules and purpure, and tenné, an orange or dark yellow to
brown colour. These last two are quite rare, and are often referred to
as stains, from the belief that they were used to represent some
dishonourable act, although in fact there is no evidence that this use
existed outside the imagination of the more fanciful heraldic
writers. Perhaps owing to the realization that there is really no
such thing as a stain in genuine heraldry, as well as the desire to
create new and unique designs, the use of these colours for general
purposes has become accepted in the twentieth and twenty-first
centuries.[vii] Occasionally one meets with other colours,
particularly in continental heraldry, although they are not generally
regarded among the standard heraldic colours. Among these are
cendrée, or ash-colour; brunâtre, or brown; bleu-céleste or bleu de
ciel, sky blue; amaranth or columbine, a bright violet-red or pink
colour; and carnation, commonly used to represent flesh in French
heraldry. A more recent addition is the use of copper as a
metal in one or two Canadian coats of arms.
There are two basic types of heraldic fur, known as ermine and vair,
but over the course of centuries each has developed a number of
variations. Ermine represents the fur of the stoat, a type of weasel,
in its white winter coat, when it is called an ermine. It consists of
a white, or occasionally silver field, powdered with black figures
known as ermine spots, representing the black tip of the animal's
tail. Ermine was traditionally used to line the cloaks and caps of the
nobility. The shape of the heraldic ermine spot has varied
considerably over time, and nowadays is typically drawn as an
arrowhead surmounted by three small dots, but older forms may be
employed at the artist's discretion. When the field is sable and the
ermine spots argent, the same pattern is termed ermines; when the
field is or rather than argent, the fur is termed erminois; and when
the field is sable and the ermine spots or, it is termed pean.
Vair represents the winter coat of the red squirrel, which is
blue-grey on top and white underneath. To form the linings of cloaks,
the pelts were sewn together, forming an undulating, bell-shaped
pattern, with interlocking light and dark rows. The heraldic fur is
depicted with interlocking rows of argent and azure, although the
shape of the pelts, usually referred to as "vair bells", is usually
left to the artist's discretion. In the modern form, the bells are
depicted with straight lines and sharp angles, and meet only at
points; in the older, undulating pattern, now known as vair ondé or
vair ancien, the bells of each tincture are curved and joined at the
base. There is no fixed rule as to whether the argent bells should be
at the top or the bottom of each row. At one time vair commonly came
in three sizes, and this distinction is sometimes encountered in
continental heraldry; if the field contains fewer than four rows, the
fur is termed gros vair or beffroi; if of six or more, it is
menu-vair, or miniver.
A common variation is counter-vair, in which alternating rows are
reversed, so that the bases of the vair bells of each tincture are
joined to those of the same tincture in the row above or below. When
the rows are arranged so that the bells of each tincture form vertical
columns, it is termed vair in pale; in continental heraldry one may
encounter vair in bend, which is similar to vair in pale, but
diagonal. When alternating rows are reversed as in counter-vair, and
then displaced by half the width of one bell, it is termed vair in
point, or wave-vair. A form peculiar to
German heraldry is alternate
vair, in which each vair bell is divided in half vertically, with half
argent and half azure. All of these variations can also be
depicted in the form known as potent, in which the shape of the vair
bell is replaced by a T-shaped figure, known as a potent from its
resemblance to a crutch. Although it is really just a variation of
vair, it is frequently treated as a separate fur.
When the same patterns are composed of tinctures other than argent and
azure, they are termed vairé or vairy of those tinctures, rather than
vair; potenté of other colours may also be found. Usually vairé will
consist of one metal and one colour, but ermine or one of its
variations may also be used, and vairé of four tinctures, usually two
metals and two colours, is sometimes found.
Three additional furs are sometimes encountered in continental
heraldry; in French and Italian heraldry one meets with plumeté or
plumetty, in which the field appears to be covered with feathers, and
papelonné, in which it is decorated with scales. In German heraldry
one may encounter kursch, or vair bellies, depicted as brown and
furry; all of these probably originated as variations of vair.
Considerable latitude is given to the heraldic artist in depicting the
heraldic tinctures; there is no fixed shade or hue to any of
Whenever an object is depicted as it appears in nature, rather than in
one or more of the heraldic tinctures, it is termed proper, or the
colour of nature. This does not seem to have been done in the earliest
heraldry, but examples are known from at least the seventeenth
century. While there can be no objection to the occasional depiction
of objects in this manner, the overuse of charges in their natural
colours is often cited as indicative of bad heraldic practice. The
much-maligned practice of landscape heraldry, which flourished in the
latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth
century, made extensive use of such non-heraldic colours.
One of the most important conventions of heraldry is the so-called
"rule of tincture". To provide for contrast and visibility, metals
should never be placed on metals, and colours should never be placed
on colours. This rule does not apply to charges which cross a division
of the field, which is partly metal and partly colour; nor, strictly
speaking, does it prevent a field from consisting of two metals or two
colours, although this is unusual. Furs are considered amphibious, and
neither metal nor colour; but in practice ermine and erminois are
usually treated as metals, while ermines and pean are treated as
colours. This rule is strictly adhered to in British armory, with only
rare exceptions; although generally observed in continental heraldry,
it is not adhered to quite as strictly. Arms which violate this rule
are sometimes known as "puzzle arms", of which the most famous example
is the arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, consisting of gold crosses on
a silver field.
Variations of the field
Main article: Variation of the field
The field of a shield, or less often a charge or crest, is sometimes
made up of a pattern of colours, or variation. A pattern of horizontal
(barwise) stripes, for example, is called barry, while a pattern of
vertical (palewise) stripes is called paly. A pattern of diagonal
stripes may be called bendy or bendy sinister, depending on the
direction of the stripes. Other variations include chevrony, gyronny
and chequy. Wave shaped stripes are termed undy. For further
variations, these are sometimes combined to produce patterns of
barry-bendy, paly-bendy, lozengy and fusilly. Semés, or patterns of
repeated charges, are also considered variations of the field. The
Rule of tincture
Rule of tincture applies to all semés and variations of the field.
Divisions of the field
A shield parted per pale and per fir twig fess
Main article: Division of the field
The field of a shield in heraldry can be divided into more than one
tincture, as can the various heraldic charges. Many coats of arms
consist simply of a division of the field into two contrasting
tinctures. These are considered divisions of a shield, so the rule of
tincture can be ignored. For example, a shield divided azure and gules
would be perfectly acceptable. A line of partition may be straight or
it may be varied. The variations of partition lines can be wavy,
indented, embattled, engrailed, nebuly, or made into myriad other
forms; see Line (heraldry).
Main article: Ordinary (heraldry)
In the early days of heraldry, very simple bold rectilinear shapes
were painted on shields. These could be easily recognized at a long
distance and could be easily remembered. They therefore served the
main purpose of heraldry: identification. As more complicated
shields came into use, these bold shapes were set apart in a separate
class as the "honorable ordinaries". They act as charges and are
always written first in blazon. Unless otherwise specified they extend
to the edges of the field. Though ordinaries are not easily defined,
they are generally described as including the cross, the fess, the
pale, the bend, the chevron, the saltire, and the pall.
There is a separate class of charges called sub-ordinaries which are
of a geometrical shape subordinate to the ordinary. According to
Friar, they are distinguished by their order in blazon. The
sub-ordinaries include the inescutcheon, the orle, the tressure, the
double tressure, the bordure, the chief, the canton, the label, and
Ordinaries may appear in parallel series, in which case blazons in
English give them different names such as pallets, bars, bendlets, and
chevronels. French blazon makes no such distinction between these
diminutives and the ordinaries when borne singly. Unless otherwise
specified an ordinary is drawn with straight lines, but each may be
indented, embattled, wavy, engrailed, or otherwise have their lines
Main article: Charge (heraldry)
A charge is any object or figure placed on a heraldic shield or on any
other object of an armorial composition. Any object found in
nature or technology may appear as a heraldic charge in armory.
Charges can be animals, objects, or geometric shapes. Apart from the
ordinaries, the most frequent charges are the cross – with its
hundreds of variations – and the lion and eagle. Other common
animals are stags, wild boars, martlets, and fish. Dragons, bats,
unicorns, griffins, and more exotic monsters appear as charges and as
Animals are found in various stereotyped positions or attitudes.
Quadrupeds can often be found rampant (standing on the left hind
foot). Another frequent position is passant, or walking, like the
lions of the coat of arms of England. Eagles are almost always shown
with their wings spread, or displayed. A pair of wings conjoined is
called a vol.
English heraldry the crescent, mullet, martlet, annulet,
fleur-de-lis, and rose may be added to a shield to distinguish cadet
branches of a family from the senior line. These cadency marks are
usually shown smaller than normal charges, but it still does not
follow that a shield containing such a charge belongs to a cadet
branch. All of these charges occur frequently in basic undifferenced
coats of arms.
An extravagant example of marshalling: the 719 quarterings of the
Grenville Armorial at Stowe.
To marshal two or more coats of arms is to combine them in one shield,
to express inheritance, claims to property, or the occupation of an
office. This can be done in a number of ways, of which the simplest is
impalement: dividing the field per pale and putting one whole coat in
each half. Impalement replaced the earlier dimidiation – combining
the dexter half of one coat with the sinister half of another –
because dimidiation can create ambiguity between, for example, a bend
and a chevron. "Dexter" (from Latin dextra, right) means to the right
from the viewpoint of the bearer of the arms and "sinister" (from
Latin sinistra, left) means to the left. The dexter side is considered
the side of greatest honour (see also Dexter and sinister).
A more versatile method is quartering, division of the field by both
vertical and horizontal lines. This practice originated in Spain
(Castile and León) after the 13th century. As the name implies,
the usual number of divisions is four, but the principle has been
extended to very large numbers of "quarters".
Quarters are numbered from the dexter chief (the corner nearest to the
right shoulder of a man standing behind the shield), proceeding across
the top row, and then across the next row and so on. When three coats
are quartered, the first is repeated as the fourth; when only two
coats are quartered, the second is also repeated as the third. The
quarters of a personal coat of arms correspond to the ancestors from
whom the bearer has inherited arms, normally in the same sequence as
if the pedigree were laid out with the father's father's ... father
(to as many generations as necessary) on the extreme left and the
mother's mother's...mother on the extreme right. A few lineages have
accumulated hundreds of quarters, though such a number is usually
displayed only in documentary contexts. The Scottish and Spanish
traditions resist allowing more than four quarters, preferring to
subdivide one or more "grand quarters" into sub-quarters as needed.
The third common mode of marshalling is with an inescutcheon, a small
shield placed in front of the main shield. In Britain this is most
often an "escutcheon of pretence" indicating, in the arms of a married
couple, that the wife is an heraldic heiress (i.e., she inherits a
coat of arms because she has no brothers). In continental Europe an
inescutcheon (sometimes called a "heart shield") usually carries the
ancestral arms of a monarch or noble whose domains are represented by
the quarters of the main shield.
In German heraldry, animate charges in combined coats usually turn to
face the centre of the composition.
Helm and crest
German heraldry has examples of shields with numerous crests, as this
Saxe-Altenburg featuring a total of seven crests. Some thaler
coins display as many as fifteen.
Helmet (heraldry) and Crest (heraldry)
In English the word "crest" is commonly (but erroneously) used to
refer to an entire heraldic achievement of armorial bearings. The
technical use of the heraldic term crest refers to just one component
of a complete achievement. The crest rests on top of a helmet which
itself rests on the most important part of the achievement: the
The modern crest has grown out of the three-dimensional figure placed
on the top of the mounted knights' helms as a further means of
identification. In most heraldic traditions, a woman does not display
a crest, though this tradition is being relaxed in some heraldic
jurisdictions, and the stall plate of Lady Marion Fraser in the
Thistle Chapel in St Giles, Edinburgh, shows her coat on a lozenge but
with helmet, crest, and motto.
The crest is usually found on a wreath of twisted cloth and sometimes
within a coronet. Crest-coronets are generally simpler than coronets
of rank, but several specialized forms exist; for example, in Canada,
descendants of the United Empire Loyalists are entitled to use a
Loyalist military coronet (for descendants of members of Loyalist
regiments) or Loyalist civil coronet (for others).
When the helm and crest are shown, they are usually accompanied by a
mantling. This was originally a cloth worn over the back of the helmet
as partial protection against heating by sunlight. Today it takes the
form of a stylized cloak hanging from the helmet. Typically in
British heraldry, the outer surface of the mantling is of the
principal colour in the shield and the inner surface is of the
principal metal, though peers in the United Kingdom use standard
Argent - Red/White) regardless of rank or
the colourings of their arms. The mantling is sometimes conventionally
depicted with a ragged edge, as if damaged in combat, though the edges
of most are simply decorated at the emblazoner's discretion.
Clergy often refrain from displaying a helm or crest in their heraldic
achievements. Members of the clergy may display appropriate headwear.
This often takes the form of a small crowned, wide brimmed hat called
a galero with the colours and tassels denoting rank; or, in the case
Papal coats of arms
Papal coats of arms until the inauguration of
Pope Benedict XVI
Pope Benedict XVI in
2005, an elaborate triple crown known as a tiara. Benedict broke with
tradition to substitute a mitre in his arms. Orthodox and Presbyterian
clergy do sometimes adopt other forms of head gear to ensign their
shields. In the Anglican tradition, clergy members may pass crests on
to their offspring, but rarely display them on their own shields.
An armorial motto is a phrase or collection of words intended to
describe the motivation or intention of the armigerous person or
corporation. This can form a pun on the family name as in Thomas
Nevile's motto Ne vile velis. Mottoes are generally changed at will
and do not make up an integral part of the armorial achievement.
Mottoes can typically be found on a scroll under the shield. In
Scottish heraldry, where the motto is granted as part of the blazon,
it is usually shown on a scroll above the crest, and may not be
changed at will. A motto may be in any language.
Supporters and other insignia
Flags as supporters and orders in the armory of the Prince of Vergara.
Supporters are human or animal figures or, very rarely, inanimate
objects, usually placed on either side of a coat of arms as though
supporting it. In many traditions, these have acquired strict
guidelines for use by certain social classes. On the European
continent, there are often fewer restrictions on the use of
supporters. In the United Kingdom, only peers of the realm, a few
baronets, senior members of orders of knighthood, and some corporate
bodies are granted supporters. Often, these can have local
significance or a historical link to the armiger.
If the armiger has the title of baron, hereditary knight, or higher,
he may display a coronet of rank above the shield. In the United
Kingdom, this is shown between the shield and helmet, though it is
often above the crest in Continental heraldry.
Another addition that can be made to a coat of arms is the insignia of
a baronet or of an order of knighthood. This is usually represented by
a collar or similar band surrounding the shield. When the arms of a
knight and his wife are shown in one achievement, the insignia of
knighthood surround the husband's arms only, and the wife's arms are
customarily surrounded by an ornamental garland of leaves for visual
Differencing and cadency
Main article: Cadency
Since arms pass from parents to offspring, and there is frequently
more than one child per couple, it is necessary to distinguish the
arms of siblings and extended family members from the original arms as
passed on from eldest son to eldest son. Over time several schemes
have been used.
Main article: Blazon
To "blazon" arms means to describe them using the formal language of
heraldry. This language has its own vocabulary and syntax, or rules
governing word order, which becomes essential for comprehension when
blazoning a complex coat of arms. The verb comes from the Middle
English blasoun, itself a derivative of the French blason meaning
"shield". The system of blazoning arms used in English-speaking
countries today was developed by heraldic officers in the Middle Ages.
The blazon includes a description of the arms contained within the
escutcheon or shield, the crest, supporters where present, motto and
other insignia. Complex rules, such as the rule of tincture, apply to
the physical and artistic form of newly created arms, and a thorough
understanding of these rules is essential to the art of heraldry.
Though heraldic forms initially were broadly similar across Europe,
several national styles had developed by the end of the Middle Ages,
and artistic and blazoning styles today range from the very simple to
The emergence of heraldry occurred across western Europe almost
simultaneously in the various countries. Originally, heraldic style
was very similar from country to country. Over time, heraldic
tradition diverged into four broad styles: German-Nordic,
Gallo-British, Latin, and Eastern. In addition it can be argued
that newer national heraldic traditions, such as South African and
Canadian, have emerged in the 20th century.
Main articles: Czech heraldry, Danish heraldry, Finnish heraldry,
German heraldry, Icelandic heraldry, Norwegian heraldry, and Swedish
Coats of arms in Germany, the Nordic countries, Estonia, Latvia, Czech
lands and northern
Switzerland generally change very little over time.
Marks of difference are very rare in this tradition as are heraldic
furs. One of the most striking characteristics of German-Nordic
heraldry is the treatment of the crest. Often, the same design is
repeated in the shield and the crest. The use of multiple crests is
also common. The crest is rarely used separately as in British
heraldry, but can sometimes serve as a mark of difference between
different branches of a family.
Torse is optional. Heraldic
courtoisie is observed: that is, charges in a composite shield (or two
shields displayed together) usually turn to face the centre.
Coats consisting only of a divided field are somewhat more frequent in
Germany than elsewhere.
Main article: Dutch heraldry
Low Countries were great centres of heraldry in medieval times.
One of the famous armorials is the
Gelre Armorial or Wapenboek,
written between 1370 and 1414. Coats of arms in the
not controlled by an official heraldic system like the two in the
United Kingdom, nor were they used solely by noble families. Any
person could develop and use a coat of arms if they wished to do so,
provided they did not usurp someone else's arms, and historically,
this right was enshrined in Roman Dutch law. As a result, many
merchant families had coats of arms even though they were not members
of the nobility. These are sometimes referred to as burgher arms, and
it is thought that most arms of this type were adopted while the
Netherlands was a republic (1581–1806). This
heraldic tradition was also exported to the erstwhile Dutch
Dutch heraldry is characterised by its simple and rather sober style,
and in this sense, is closer to its medieval origins than the
elaborate styles which developed in other heraldic traditions.
Main articles: American heraldry, Canadian heraldry, Cornish heraldry,
English heraldry, French heraldry, Irish heraldry, Scottish heraldry,
and Welsh heraldry
The use of cadency marks to difference arms within the same family and
the use of semy fields are distinctive features of Gallo-British
heraldry (in Scotland the most significant mark of cadency being the
bordure, the small brisures playing a very minor role). It is common
to see heraldic furs used. In the United Kingdom, the style is
notably still controlled by royal officers of arms. French
heraldry experienced a period of strict rules of construction under
Napoleon. English and Scots heraldries make greater use of
supporters than other European countries.
Furs, chevrons and five-pointed stars are more frequent in France and
Britain than elsewhere.
Main articles: Papal coats of arms, Portuguese heraldry, Spanish
heraldry, and Brazilian heraldry
The heraldry of southern France, Andorra, Spain, and
characterized by a lack of crests, and uniquely shaped shields.
Portuguese heraldry, however, does use crests. Portuguese and
Spanish heraldry occasionally introduce words to the shield of arms, a
practice usually avoided in British heraldry. Latin heraldry is known
for extensive use of quartering, because of armorial inheritance via
the male and the female lines. Moreover, Italian heraldry is dominated
by the Roman Catholic Church, featuring many shields and achievements,
most bearing some reference to the Church.
Trees are frequent charges in Latin arms. Charged bordures, including
bordures inscribed with words, are seen often in Spain.
Central and Eastern European heraldry
Coat of Arms of the
Turiec county in Slovakia.
Main articles: Polish heraldry, Hungarian heraldry, Belarusian
heraldry, and Russian heraldry
Eastern European heraldry is in the traditions developed in Belarus,
Bulgaria, Serbia, Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Lithuania, Poland,
Slovakia, Ukraine, and Russia. Eastern coats of arms are characterized
by a pronounced, territorial, clan system – often, entire villages
or military groups were granted the same coat of arms irrespective of
family relationships. In Poland, nearly six hundred unrelated families
are known to bear the same Jastrzębiec coat of arms. Marks of cadency
are almost unknown, and shields are generally very simple, with only
one charge. Many heraldic shields derive from ancient house marks. At
the least, fifteen per cent of all Hungarian personal arms bear a
severed Turk's head, referring to their wars against the Ottoman
True heraldry, as now generally understood, has its roots in medieval
Europe. However, there have been other historical cultures which have
used symbols and emblems to represent families or individuals, and in
some cases these symbols have been adopted into Western heraldry. For
example, the coat of arms of the
Ottoman Empire incorporated the royal
tughra as part of its crest, along with such traditional Western
heraldic elements as the escutcheon and the compartment.
Ancient Greeks were among the first civilizations to use symbols
consistently in order to identify a warrior, clan or a state.[citation
needed] The first record of a shield blazon is illustrated in
Aeschylus' tragedy Seven Against Thebes. The Greek
Heraldry Society is
a useful source of information on Hellenic
Heraldry and Byzantine
Main article: Mon (emblem)
Mon (紋), also monshō (紋章), mondokoro (紋所), and kamon
(家紋), are Japanese emblems used to decorate and identify an
individual or family. While mon is an encompassing term that may refer
to any such device, kamon and mondokoro refer specifically to emblems
used to identify a family.[further explanation needed] An
authoritative mon reference compiles Japan's 241 general categories of
mon based on structural resemblance (a single mon may belong to
multiple categories), with 5116 distinct individual mon (it is however
well acknowledged that there exist lost or obscure mon that are not in
The devices are similar to the badges and coats of arms in European
heraldic tradition, which likewise are used to identify individuals
and families. Mon are often referred to as crests in Western
literature, another European heraldic device similar to the mon in
Main article: Tamga
A tamga or tamgha "stamp, seal" (Mongolian: тамга, Turkic: tamga)
is an abstract seal or stamp used by Eurasian nomadic peoples and by
cultures influenced by them. The tamga was normally the emblem of a
particular tribe, clan or family. They were common among the Eurasian
nomads throughout Classical Antiquity and the
Middle Ages (including
Alans, Mongols, Sarmatians,
Scythians and Turkic peoples). Similar
"tamga-like" symbols were sometimes also adopted by sedentary peoples
adjacent to the Pontic-Caspian steppe both in
Eastern Europe and
Central Asia, such as the East Slavs, whose ancient royal symbols
are sometimes referred to as "tamgas" and have similar
Unlike European coats of arms, tamgas were not always inherited, and
could stand for families or clans (for example, when denoting
territory, livestock, or religious items) as well as for specific
individuals (such as when used for weapons, or for royal seals). One
could also adopt the tamga of one's master or ruler, therefore
signifying said master's patronage. Outside of denoting ownership,
tamgas also possessed religious significance, and were used as
talismans to protect one from curses (it was believed that, as symbols
of family, tamgas embodied the power of one's heritage). Tamgas
depicted geometric shapes, images of animals, items, or glyphs. As
they were usually inscribed using heavy and unwieldy instruments, such
as knives or brands, and on different surfaces (meaning that their
appearance could vary somewhat), tamgas were always simple and
stylised, and needed to be laconic and easily recognisable.
Main article: Tughra
Coat of arms
Coat of arms of the Ottoman Empire
Every sultan of the
Ottoman Empire had his own monogram, called the
tughra, which served as a royal symbol. A coat of arms in the European
heraldic sense was created in the late 19th century. Hampton Court
Ottoman Empire the coat of arms to be included in their
collection. As the coat of arms had not been previously used in
Ottoman Empire, it was designed after this request and the final
design was adopted by Sultan Abdul Hamid II on April 17, 1882. It
included two flags: the flag of the Ottoman Dynasty, which had a
crescent and a star on red base, and the flag of the Islamic Caliph,
which had three crescents on a green base.
Arms created in 1977, featuring a hydrocarbon molecule
Military coat of arms, depicting a red locomotive.
Heraldry flourishes in the modern world; institutions, companies, and
private persons continue using coats of arms as their pictorial
identification. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the English Kings
of Arms, Scotland's Lord Lyon King of Arms, and the Chief
Ireland continue making grants of arms. There are heraldic
authorities in Canada, South Africa, Spain, and Sweden that grant
or register coats of arms. In South Africa, the right to armorial
bearings is also determined by Roman Dutch law, due to its origins as
a 17th-century colony of the Netherlands.
Heraldic societies abound in Africa, Asia, Australasia, the Americas
Heraldry aficionados participate in the Society for
Creative Anachronism, medieval revivals, micronations and other
related projects. Modern armigers use heraldry to express ancestral
and personal heritage as well as professional, academic, civic, and
national pride. Little is left of class identification in modern
heraldry, where the emphasis is more than ever on expression of
Heraldry continues to build on its rich tradition in academia,
government, guilds and professional associations, religious
institutions, and the military. Nations and their subdivisions –
provinces, states, counties, cities, etc. – continue to build on the
traditions of civic heraldry. The Roman Catholic Church, Anglican
churches, and other religious institutions maintain the traditions of
ecclesiastical heraldry for clergy, religious orders, and schools.
Many of these institutions have begun to employ blazons representing
modern objects unknown in the medieval world. For example, some
heraldic symbols issued by the United States Army Institute of
Heraldry incorporate symbols such as guns, airplanes, or locomotives.
Some scientific institutions incorporate symbols of modern science
such as the atom or particular scientific instruments. The arms of the
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority
United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority uses traditional heraldic
symbols to depict the harnessing of atomic power. Locations with
strong associations to particular industries may incorporate
associated symbols. The coat of arms of
Stenungsund Municipality in
Sweden, pictured right, incorporates a hydrocarbon molecule, alluding
to the historical significance of the petrochemical industry in the
Heraldry in countries with heraldic authorities continues to be
regulated generally by laws granting rights to arms and recognizing
possession of arms as well as protecting against their misuse.
Countries without heraldic authorities usually treat coats of arms as
creative property in the manner of logos, offering protection under
Attitude, for the poses of heraldic beasts
Heraldic authorities, official authorities governing heraldry
Heraldic flag, for banners, standards, pennon and so forth
Heraldic societies, an extended list including non-official heraldic
authorities and societies
Law of Arms, for laws and customs of heraldic practice
List of heraldic charges
Mon, for the Japanese emblems likened to heraldry
Roll of Arms
Supporters of England
Royal Badges of England
Vexillology, the study of flag design
^ This was undertaken by Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, and half-brother of
William I, whose conquest of England is commemorated by the tapestry.
^ Only four lions are visible in this depiction, in which the shield
is shown in profile, but judging from their position, there must have
been six; the tomb of Geoffrey's grandson, William Longspée, shows
him bearing an apparently identical shield, but on this all six lions
are at least partly visible.
^ Note that the term "coat of arms" is sometimes used to refer to the
entire achievement, of which the shield is the central part.
^ There are exceptions to this rule, in which the shape of the
escutcheon is specified in the blazon; for example, the arms of
Nunavut, and the former Republic of Bophuthatswana; in the
United States, the arms of North Dakota use an escutcheon in the shape
of a stone arrowhead, while the arms of
Connecticut require a
rococo shield; the Scottish Public Register specifies an oval
escutcheon for the Lanarkshire Master Plumbers' and Domestic
Engineers' Association, and a square shield for the Anglo Leasing
^ Because most shields are widest at the chief, and narrow to a point
at the base, fess point is usually slightly higher than the midpoint.
^ Technically, the word tincture applies specifically to the colours,
rather than to the metals or the furs; but for lack of another term
including all three, it is regularly used in this extended sense.
^ For instance, the arms of Lewes Old Grammar School, granted October
25, 2012: "
Murrey within an Orle of eight Crosses crosslet
Lion rampant Or holding in the forepaws a Book bound Azure the spine
and the edges of the pages Gold" and those of Woolf, granted October
2, 2015: "
Murrey a Snow Wolf's Head erased proper on a Chief
Boar's Head coped at the neck between two Fleurs de Lys Azure."
^ "There are no fixed shades for heraldic colours. If the official
description of a coat of arms gives its tinctures as
Azure (blue) and
Argent (white or silver) then, as long as the blue is
not too light and the red not too orange, purple or pink, it is up to
the artist to decide which particular shades they think are
^ Arthur Charles Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, Dodge
Publishing Company, New York (1909), reprinted by Bonanza Books, New
York (1978), p. 1.
^ Stephen Friar, Ed. A Dictionary of Heraldry. (Harmony Books, New
York: 1987), p. 183.
^ Webster's Third New International Dictionary, C. & G. Merriam
Company, Cambridge, Massachusetts (1961).
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 1, 57–59.
^ a b c Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 1–18.
^ John Brooke-Little, An
Heraldic Alphabet, Macdonald, London (1973),
^ S. T. Aveling, Heraldry: Ancient and Modern, including Boutell's
Heraldry, Frederick Warne and Company, London and New York (1890), p.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, p. v.
Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk
Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk & Pottinger, Simple Heraldry, Thomas
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 19–26.
^ Numbers, i. 2, 18, 52; ii. 2, 34; quoted by William Sloane
Sloane-Evans, in A Grammar of British Heraldry, John Russell Smith,
London (1854), p. ix (quoted by Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to
Heraldry, p. 6).
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 6–10.
^ Notitia Dignitatum, Bodleian Library
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, p. 6.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 11–16.
^ John Woodward and George Burnett, A Treatise on Heraldry: British
and Foreign, W. & A. K. Johnson, Edinburgh and London (1892), vol.
1, pp. 29–31.
^ a b Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 14–16.
^ a b Woodward and Burnett, vol. 1, p. 26.
^ Woodward and Burnett, vol. 1, p. 31.
^ Thomas Woodcock & John Martin Robinson, The Oxford Guide to
Heraldry, Oxford University Press, New York (1988), p. 1.
Heraldry in England, p. 8.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, p. 62.
^ C. A. Stothard, Monumental Effigies of Great Britain (1817) pl. 2,
illus. in Anthony Wagner, Richmond Herald,
Heraldry in England,
Penguin (1946), pl. I.
^ Michel Pastoureau, Heraldry: An Introduction to a Noble Tradition,
Thames and Hudson Ltd. (1997), p. 18.
^ Woodward and Burnett, vol. 1, p. 32.
^ a b Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 173–174.
^ Pastoureau, p. 59.
^ Woodward and Burnett, p. 37.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 17–18.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 17–18, 383.
^ a b Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 27–29.
^ De Insigniis et Armis
^ George Squibb, "The
Law of Arms
Law of Arms in England", in The Coat of Arms
vol. II, no. 15 (Spring 1953), p. 244.
^ a b c Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 21–22.
^ Woodward and Burnett, vol. 1, pp. 35–36.
^ Julian Franklyn,
Shield and Crest: An Account of the Art and Science
of Heraldry, MacGibbon & Kee, London (1960), p. 386.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, p. 38.
^ a b Pastoureau, pp. 39–41.
^ a b c
College of Arms
College of Arms official website, accessed 3 March 2016.
^ Peter Gwynn-Jones, The Art of Heraldry: Origins, Symbols, and
Designs, Parkgate Books/Barnes & Noble (1998), pp. 18–20.
^ Ottfried Neubecker, Heraldry: Sources, Symbols and Meaning,
Macdonald and James Publishers (1977), pp. 253–258.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 87–88.
^ Gwynn-Jones, pp. 110–112.
^ Gwynn-Jones, pp. 113–121.
^ a b c Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 57–59.
^ a b c d Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 57, 60–61.
^ Aveling, Boutell's Heraldry, p. 6.
^ William Whitmore, The Elements of Heraldry, Weathervane Books, New
York (1968), p. 9.
Government of Nunavut. n.d. About the Flag and Coat of Arms.
Government of Nunavut, Iqaluit, NU, Canada. Accessed October 19, 2006.
Available at GOV.nu.ca Archived 2006-04-27 at the Wayback Machine.
^ Hartemink R. 1996. South African Civic Heraldry-Bophuthatswana. Ralf
Hartemink, The Netherlands. Accessed October 19, 2006. Available at
^ Jun 19, 2012. "US
Heraldic Registry". US
Heraldry Society - Arms of Connecticut".
Americanheraldry.org. Archived from the original on 2012-07-22.
^ Aveling, Boutell's Heraldry, pp. 6–7.
^ a b Woodward and Burnett, vol. 1, pp. 54–58.
^ Neubecker, pp. 72–77.
^ Aveling, Boutell's Heraldry, p. 9.
^ Stephen Slater, The Complete Book of Heraldry, Hermes House, New
York (2003), p. 56.
^ Slater, p. 231.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 89, 96–98.
^ a b c Aveling, Boutell's Heraldry, p. 8.
^ a b c Woodward and Burnett, vol. 1, pp. 59–60.
^ a b Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 104–105.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, p. 70.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 70–74.
^ Woodward and Burnett, vol. 1, pp. 61–62.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, p. 74.
^ Woodward and Burnett, vol. 1, p. 63.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 77–79.
^ a b Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 79–83.
^ Thomas Innes, Scots Heraldry, Johnston & Bacon, London (1978),
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 84–85.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 80–85.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 83–85.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 75, 87–88.
^ Fox-Davies, A Complete Guide to Heraldry, pp. 85–87.
^ Bruno Heim, Or and Argent, Gerrards Cross, Buckingham (1994).
^ Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles (2004). A Complete Guide to Heraldry.
Kessinger Publishing. p. 101. ISBN 1-4179-0630-8.
^ Stephen Friar and John Ferguson. Basic Heraldry. (W.W. Norton &
Company, New York: 1993), 148.
^ Carl-Alexander von Volborth. Heraldry: Customs, Rules, and Styles.
(Blandford Press, Dorset: 1981), 18.
^ Stephen Friar, Ed. A Dictionary of Heraldry. (Harmony Books, New
York: 1987), 259.
^ Stephen Friar, Ed. A Dictionary of Heraldry. (Harmony Books, New
York: 1987), 330.
^ Woodcock, Thomas & John Martin Robinson. The Oxford Guide to
Heraldry. (Oxford University Press, New York: 1988), 60.
^ John Brooke-Little. Boutell's Heraldry. (Frederick Warne &
Company, London: 1973), 311.
Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk
Iain Moncreiffe of that Ilk and Don Pottinger. Simple Heraldry,
Cheerfully Illustrated. (Thomas Nelson and Sons, London: 1953), 20.
^ Thomas Woodcock & John Martin Robinson. The Oxford Guide to
Heraldry. (Oxford University Press, New York: 1988), 14.
^ Edmundas Rimša.
Heraldry Past to Present. (Versus Aureus, Vilnius:
^ Peter Gwynn-Jones. The Art of Heraldry. (Parkgate Books, London:
^ Ottfried Neubecker. Heraldry: Sources, Symbols, and Meaning. (Tiger
Books International, London: 1997), 186.
^ Julian Franklyn.
Shield and Crest. (MacGibbon & Kee, London:
^ "Baronage.co.uk". Baronage.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-06-19.
^ Davies, T. R. (Spring 1976). "Did National
Heraldry Exist?". The
Coat of Arms NS II (97): 16.
^ von Warnstedt, Christopher. (October 1970). "The
of Europe". The Coat of Arms XI (84): 128.
^ Alan Beddoe, revised by Strome Galloway. Beddoe's Canadian Heraldry.
(Mika Publishing Company, Belleville: 1981).
^ a b von Warnstedt, Christopher. (October 1970). "The Heraldic
Provinces of Europe". The Coat of Arms XI (84): 129.
^ a b Thomas Woodcock & John Martin Robinson. The Oxford Guide to
Heraldry. (Oxford University Press, New York: 1988), 15.
^ Neubecker, Ottfried. Heraldry. Sources, Symbols and Meaning (London
1976), p. 158
^ Pinches, J. H.: European
Nobility and Heraldry. (
1994, ISBN 0-900455-45-4, p. 82
^ Carl-Alexander von Volborth. Heraldry: Customs, Rules, and Styles.
(Blandford Press, Dorset: 1981), p. 88.
^ J. A. de Boo. Familiewapens, oud en nieuw. Een inleiding tot de
Familieheraldiek. (Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie, The Hague: 1977)
^ Roosevelt Coats of Arms: Theodore and Franklin Delano Archived
2007-10-17 at the Wayback Machine. at American
Accessed January 20, 2007.
^ Cornelius Pama Heraldiek in Suid-Afrika. (Balkema, Cape Town: 1956).
^ Carl-Alexander von Volborth.
Heraldry of the World. (Blandford
Press, Dorset: 1979), 192.
^ Thomas Woodcock & John Martin Robinson. The Oxford Guide to
Heraldry. (Oxford University Press, New York: 1988), 21.
^ von Warnstedt, Christopher. (October 1970). "The
of Europe". The Coat of Arms XI (84): p.129.
^ Thomas Woodcock & John Martin Robinson. The Oxford Guide to
Heraldry. (Oxford University Press, New York: 1988), pp.24-30.
^ von Warnstedt, Christopher. (October 1970). "The
of Europe". The Coat of Arms XI (84): pp.129-30.
^ Thomas Woodcock & John Martin Robinson. The Oxford Guide to
Heraldry. (Oxford University Press, New York: 1988), 28-32.
Heraldry Society". Greekheraldry.com. Retrieved
^ 日本の家紋大全 梧桐書院 ISBN 434003102X
^ Some 6939 mon are listed here.
^ Ottfried Neubecker. Heraldik. Orbis, 2002; Brook 154; Franklin and
Shepard 120-121; Pritsak 78-79.
Russia and Its World: Essays in Honor of Thomas S.
Noonan". Retrieved 2016-06-13.
^ ТАМГА (к функции знака). В.С.
альманах, No 7, Армавир, 2001, стр. 75-86)
^ See the
College of Arms
College of Arms newsletter for quarterly samplings of
English grants and the Chief
Herald of Ireland's webpage Archived
2006-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. for recent Irish grants.
^ See the Public Register of Arms, Flags and Badges of Canada.
^ Cornelius Pama.
Heraldry of South African families: coats of
arms/crests/ancestry. (Balkema, Cape Town: 1972)
^ Stephen Slater. The Complete Book of Heraldry. (Hermes House, New
York: 2003), p.238.
^ Child, Heather (1976-01-01).
Heraldic Design: A Handbook for
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Earliest to the Present Time. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co.,
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Heraldic Imagination. New York: Clarkson N.
Elvins, Mark Turnham. Cardinals and Heraldry. London: Buckland
Fairbairn, James. Fairbairn's Crests of the Families of Great Britain
& Ireland. New York: Bonanza Books, 1986.
Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles. The Art of Heraldry: An Encyclopedia of
Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles. A Complete Guide to Heraldry. London: TC
& EC Jack, 1909.
Franklyn, Julian. Heraldry. Cranbury, New Jersey: A.S. Barnes and
Company, Inc., 1968.
Gwynn-Jones, Peter. The Art of Heraldry: Origins, Symbols, and
Designs. London: Parkgate Books Ltd., 1998.
Humphery-Smith, Cecil. General Armory Two. London:
Tabard Press, 1973.
Innes of Edingight, Malcolm, revisor. Scots Heraldry. 3rd Ed. Johnston
& Bacon, London, 1978.
Le Févre, Jean. A European Armorial: An Armorial of Knights of the
Golden Fleece and 15th Century Europe. Eds. Pinches and Anthony Wood.
Heraldry Today, 1971.
Louda, Jiří and Michael Maclagan.
Heraldry of the Royal Families of
Europe. New York: Clarkson Potter, 1981.
Mackenzie of Rosehaugh, G. Scotland's Herauldrie: the Science of
Herauldrie treated as a part of the Civil law and Law of Nations.
Edinburgh: Heir of Andrew Anderson, 1680.
Moncreiffe of Easter Moncrieffe, Iain and Don Pottinger. Simple
Heraldry - Cheerfully Illustrated. London and Edinburgh: Thomas Nelson
and Sons, 1953.
Neubecker, Ottfried. Heraldry: Sources, Symbols and Meaning.
Maidenhead, England: McGraw-Hill, 1976.
Nisbet, Alexander. A system of Heraldry. Edinburgh: T & A
Parker, James. A Glossary of Terms Used in Heraldry. Newton Abbot:
David & Charles, 1970.
Pastoureau, Michel. Heraldry: An Introduction to a Noble Tradition.
London: Thames and Hudson Ltd., 1997.
Paul, James Balfour. An Ordinary of Arms Contained in the Public
Register of All Arms and Bearings in Scotland. Edinburgh: W. Green
& Sons, 1903.
Reid of Robertland, David and Vivien Wilson. An Ordinary of Arms.
Second vol. Edinburgh: Lyon Office, 1977.
Rietstap, Johannes B. Armorial General. Baltimore: Genealogical
Publishing Co., 1967.
Siebmacher, Johann. J. Siebmacher's Grosses und Allgemeines Wappenbuch
Vermehrten Auglage. Nürnberg: Von Bauer & Raspe, 1890-1901.
Wagner, Sir Anthony R. Heralds of England: A History of the Office and
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Heraldry. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
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