Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American captain
of industry and a business magnate, the founder of the Ford Motor
Company, and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line
technique of mass production.
Although Ford did not invent the automobile or the assembly line,
he developed and manufactured the first automobile that many
middle-class Americans could afford. In doing so, Ford converted the
automobile from an expensive curiosity into a practical conveyance
that would profoundly impact the landscape of the 20th century. His
introduction of the
Model T automobile revolutionized transportation
and American industry. As the owner of the Ford Motor Company, he
became one of the richest and best-known people in the world. He is
credited with "Fordism": mass production of inexpensive goods coupled
with high wages for workers. Ford had a global vision, with
consumerism as the key to peace. His intense commitment to
systematically lowering costs resulted in many technical and business
innovations, including a franchise system that put dealerships
throughout most of North America and in major cities on six
continents. Ford left most of his vast wealth to the Ford Foundation
and arranged for his family to control the company permanently.
Ford was also widely known for his pacifism during the first years of
World War I, and for promoting antisemitic content, including The
Protocols of the Elders of Zion through his newspaper The Dearborn
Independent and the book The International Jew.
1 Early life
2 Marriage and family
3.1 Ford Motor Company
3.1.1 Model T
3.1.2 Model A and Ford's later career
3.1.3 Labor philosophy
188.8.131.52 The five-dollar wage
184.108.40.206 The five-day workweek
220.127.116.11 Labor unions
3.2 Ford Airplane Company
3.2.1 Willow Run
3.3 Peace and war
World War I
World War I era
3.3.2 The coming of
World War II
World War II and Ford's mental collapse
The Dearborn Independent
The Dearborn Independent and antisemitism
5 International business
7 Later career and death
8 Personal interests
8.1 Interest in materials science and engineering
8.2 Florida and Georgia residences and community
8.3 Preserving Americana
9 In popular culture
10 Honors and recognition
11 See also
13.1 Memoirs by
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company principals
13.3 Specialized studies
14 Further reading
15 External links
Henry Ford was born July 30, 1863, on a farm in Greenfield Township,
Michigan. His father, William Ford (1826–1905), was born in
County Cork, Ireland, to a family that was originally from Somerset,
England. His mother, Mary Ford (née Litogot; 1839–1876), was
born in Michigan as the youngest child of Belgian immigrants; her
parents died when she was a child and she was adopted by neighbors,
the O'Herns. Henry Ford's siblings were Margaret Ford (1867–1938);
Jane Ford (c. 1868–1945); William Ford (1871–1917) and Robert Ford
His father gave him a pocket watch in his early teens. At 15, Ford
dismantled and reassembled the timepieces of friends and neighbors
dozens of times, gaining the reputation of a watch repairman. At
twenty, Ford walked four miles to their Episcopal church every
Ford was devastated when his mother died in 1876. His father expected
him to eventually take over the family farm, but he despised farm
work. He later wrote, "I never had any particular love for the
farm—it was the mother on the farm I loved."
In 1879, Ford left home to work as an apprentice machinist in Detroit,
first with James F. Flower & Bros., and later with the Detroit Dry
Dock Co. In 1882, he returned to Dearborn to work on the family farm,
where he became adept at operating the Westinghouse portable steam
engine. He was later hired by Westinghouse to service their steam
engines. During this period Ford also studied bookkeeping at
Goldsmith, Bryant & Stratton Business College in Detroit.
Marriage and family
Henry Ford in 1888
Ford married Clara Jane Bryant (1866–1950) on April 11, 1888, and
supported himself by farming and running a sawmill. They had one
Edsel Ford (1893–1943).
In 1891, Ford became an engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company.
After his promotion to Chief Engineer in 1893, he had enough time and
money to devote attention to his personal experiments on gasoline
engines. These experiments culminated in 1896 with the completion of a
self-propelled vehicle which he named the Ford Quadricycle. He
test-drove it on June 4. After various test drives, Ford brainstormed
ways to improve the Quadricycle.
Also in 1896, Ford attended a meeting of Edison executives, where he
was introduced to Thomas Edison. Edison approved of Ford's automobile
experimentation. Encouraged by Edison, Ford designed and built a
second vehicle, completing it in 1898. Backed by the capital of
Detroit lumber baron William H. Murphy, Ford resigned from the Edison
Company and founded the
Detroit Automobile Company
Detroit Automobile Company on August 5,
1899. However, the automobiles produced were of a lower quality
and higher price than Ford wanted. Ultimately, the company was not
successful and was dissolved in January 1901.
With the help of C. Harold Wills, Ford designed, built, and
successfully raced a 26-horsepower automobile in October 1901. With
this success, Murphy and other stockholders in the Detroit Automobile
Company formed the
Henry Ford Company
Henry Ford Company on November 30, 1901, with Ford
as chief engineer. In 1902, Murphy brought in
Henry M. Leland
Henry M. Leland as a
consultant; Ford, in response, left the company bearing his name. With
Ford gone, Murphy renamed the company the Cadillac Automobile
Teaming up with former racing cyclist Tom Cooper, Ford also produced
the 80+ horsepower racer "999" which
Barney Oldfield was to drive to
victory in a race in October 1902. Ford received the backing of an old
acquaintance, Alexander Y. Malcomson, a Detroit-area coal dealer.
They formed a partnership, "Ford & Malcomson, Ltd." to manufacture
automobiles. Ford went to work designing an inexpensive automobile,
and the duo leased a factory and contracted with a machine shop owned
by John and
Horace E. Dodge
Horace E. Dodge to supply over $160,000 in parts.
Sales were slow, and a crisis arose when the Dodge brothers demanded
payment for their first shipment.
Ford Motor Company
Henry Ford with
Thomas Edison and Harvey Firestone. Fort Myers,
Florida, February 11, 1929.
In response, Malcomson brought in another group of investors and
convinced the Dodge Brothers to accept a portion of the new
company. Ford & Malcomson was reincorporated as the Ford Motor
Company on June 16, 1903, with $28,000 capital. The original
investors included Ford and Malcomson, the Dodge brothers, Malcomson's
uncle John S. Gray, Malcolmson's secretary James Couzens, and two of
Malcomson's lawyers, John W. Anderson and Horace Rackham. Ford then
demonstrated a newly designed car on the ice of Lake St. Clair,
driving 1 mile (1.6 km) in 39.4 seconds and setting a new land
speed record at 91.3 miles per hour (146.9 kilometres per hour).
Convinced by this success, the race driver Barney Oldfield, who named
this new Ford model "999" in honor of the fastest locomotive of the
day, took the car around the country, making the Ford brand known
throughout the United States. Ford also was one of the early backers
of the Indianapolis 500.
Model T was introduced on October 1, 1908. It had the steering
wheel on the left, which every other company soon copied. The entire
engine and transmission were enclosed; the four cylinders were cast in
a solid block; the suspension used two semi-elliptic springs. The car
was very simple to drive, and easy and cheap to repair. It was so
cheap at $825 in 1908 ($22,470 today) (the price fell every year) that
by the 1920s, a majority of American drivers had learned to drive on
the Model T.
Ford created a huge publicity machine in Detroit to ensure every
newspaper carried stories and ads about the new product. Ford's
network of local dealers made the car ubiquitous in almost every city
in North America. As independent dealers, the franchises grew rich and
publicized not just the Ford but the concept of automobiling; local
motor clubs sprang up to help new drivers and to encourage exploring
the countryside. Ford was always eager to sell to farmers, who looked
on the vehicle as a commercial device to help their business. Sales
skyrocketed—several years posted 100% gains on the previous year.
Always on the hunt for more efficiency and lower costs, in 1913 Ford
introduced the moving assembly belts into his plants, which enabled an
enormous increase in production. Although Ford is often credited with
the idea, contemporary sources indicate that the concept and its
development came from employees Clarence Avery, Peter E. Martin,
Charles E. Sorensen, and C. Harold Wills. (See Ford Piquette
Ford assembly line, 1913
Sales passed 250,000 in 1914. By 1916, as the price dropped to $360
for the basic touring car, sales reached 472,000. (Using the
consumer price index, this price was equivalent to $7,828.08 in 2015
A 1926 Ford T Roadster on display in India
By 1918, half of all cars in America were Model Ts. All new cars were
black; as Ford wrote in his autobiography, "Any customer can have a
car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black". Until
the development of the assembly line, which mandated black because of
its quicker drying time, Model Ts were available in other colors,
including red. The design was fervently promoted and defended by Ford,
and production continued as late as 1927; the final total production
was 15,007,034. This record stood for the next 45 years. This record
was achieved in 19 years from the introduction of the first Model T
Woodrow Wilson asked Ford to run as a Democrat for the
United States Senate
United States Senate from Michigan in 1918. Although the nation was at
war, Ford ran as a peace candidate and a strong supporter of the
proposed League of Nations. Ford was defeated in a close election
by the Republican candidate, Truman Newberry, a former United States
Secretary of the Navy.
Henry Ford turned the presidency of
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company over to his son
Edsel Ford in December 1918. Henry retained final decision authority
and sometimes reversed the decisions of his son. Ford started another
Henry Ford and Son, and made a show of taking himself and his
best employees to the new company; the goal was to scare the remaining
holdout stockholders of the
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company to sell their stakes to
him before they lost most of their value. (He was determined to have
full control over strategic decisions.) The ruse worked, and Ford and
Edsel purchased all remaining stock from the other investors, thus
giving the family sole ownership of the company.
By the mid-1920s, sales of the
Model T began to decline due to rising
competition. Other auto makers offered payment plans through which
consumers could buy their cars, which usually included more modern
mechanical features and styling not available with the Model T.
Despite urgings from Edsel, Henry refused to incorporate new features
Model T or to form a customer credit plan.
Model A and Ford's later career
By 1926, flagging sales of the
Model T finally convinced Ford to make
a new model. He pursued the project with a great deal of technical
expertise in design of the engine, chassis, and other mechanical
necessities, while leaving the body design to his son.
managed to prevail over his father's initial objections in the
inclusion of a sliding-shift transmission.
The result was the successful Ford Model A, introduced in December
1927 and produced through 1931, with a total output of more than
4 million. Subsequently, the Ford company adopted an annual model
change system similar to that recently pioneered by its competitor
General Motors (and still in use by automakers today). Not until the
1930s did Ford overcome his objection to finance companies, and the
Universal Credit Corporation became a major car-financing
Ford did not believe in accountants; he amassed one of the world's
largest fortunes without ever having his company audited under his
The five-dollar wage
Time magazine, January 14, 1935
Ford was a pioneer of "welfare capitalism", designed to improve the
lot of his workers and especially to reduce the heavy turnover that
had many departments hiring 300 men per year to fill 100 slots.
Efficiency meant hiring and keeping the best workers.
Ford astonished the world in 1914 by offering a $5 per day wage ($120
today), which more than doubled the rate of most of his workers. A
Cleveland, Ohio, newspaper editorialized that the announcement "shot
like a blinding rocket through the dark clouds of the present
industrial depression." The move proved extremely profitable;
instead of constant turnover of employees, the best mechanics in
Detroit flocked to Ford, bringing their human capital and expertise,
raising productivity, and lowering training costs. Ford
announced his $5-per-day program on January 5, 1914, raising the
minimum daily pay from $2.34 to $5 for qualifying male workers.
Detroit was already a high-wage city, but competitors were forced to
raise wages or lose their best workers. Ford's policy proved,
however, that paying people more would enable Ford workers to afford
the cars they were producing and be good for the local economy. He
viewed the increased wages as profit-sharing linked with rewarding
those who were most productive and of good character. It may have
been Couzens who convinced Ford to adopt the $5-day wage.
Real profit-sharing was offered to employees who had worked at the
company for six months or more, and, importantly, conducted their
lives in a manner of which Ford's "Social Department" approved. They
frowned on heavy drinking, gambling, and (what today are called)
deadbeat dads. The Social Department used 50 investigators, plus
support staff, to maintain employee standards; a large percentage of
workers were able to qualify for this "profit-sharing."[citation
Ford's incursion into his employees' private lives was highly
controversial, and he soon backed off from the most intrusive aspects.
By the time he wrote his 1922 memoir, he spoke of the Social
Department and of the private conditions for profit-sharing in the
past tense, and admitted that "paternalism has no place in industry.
Welfare work that consists in prying into employees' private concerns
is out of date. Men need counsel and men need help, often special
help; and all this ought to be rendered for decency's sake. But the
broad workable plan of investment and participation will do more to
solidify industry and strengthen organization than will any social
work on the outside. Without changing the principle we have changed
the method of payment."
The five-day workweek
In addition to raising the wages of his workers, Ford also introduced
a new, reduced workweek in 1926. The decision was made in 1922, when
Ford and Crowther described it as six 8-hour days, giving a 48-hour
week, but in 1926 it was announced as five 8-hour days, giving a
40-hour week. (Apparently the program started with Saturday being
a workday and sometime later it was changed to a day off.) On May 1,
1926, the Ford Motor Company's factory workers switched to a five-day
40-hour workweek, with the company's office workers making the
transition the following August.
Ford had made the decision to boost productivity, as workers were
expected to put more effort into their work in exchange for more
leisure time, and because he believed decent leisure time was good for
business, since workers would actually have more time to purchase and
consume more goods. However, altruistic concerns also played a role,
with Ford explaining "It is high time to rid ourselves of the notion
that leisure for workmen is either ‘lost time’ or a class
Ford was adamantly against labor unions. He explained his views on
unions in Chapter 18 of My Life and Work. He thought they were too
heavily influenced by some leaders who, despite their ostensible good
motives, would end up doing more harm than good for workers. Most
wanted to restrict productivity as a means to foster employment, but
Ford saw this as self-defeating because, in his view, productivity was
necessary for any economic prosperity to exist.
He believed that productivity gains that obviated certain jobs would
nevertheless stimulate the larger economy and thus grow new jobs
elsewhere, whether within the same corporation or in others. Ford also
believed that union leaders had a perverse incentive to foment
perpetual socio-economic crisis as a way to maintain their own power.
Meanwhile, he believed that smart managers had an incentive to do
right by their workers, because doing so would maximize their own
profits. Ford did acknowledge, however, that many managers were
basically too bad at managing to understand this fact. But Ford
believed that eventually, if good managers such as he could fend off
the attacks of misguided people from both left and right (i.e., both
socialists and bad-manager reactionaries), the good managers would
create a socio-economic system wherein neither bad management nor bad
unions could find enough support to continue existing.
To forestall union activity, Ford promoted Harry Bennett, a former
Navy boxer, to head the Service Department. Bennett employed various
intimidation tactics to squash union organizing. The most famous
incident, on May 26, 1937, involved Bennett's security men beating
with clubs members of the United Automobile Workers, including Walter
Reuther. While Bennett's men were beating the UAW representatives,
the supervising police chief on the scene was Carl Brooks, an alumnus
of Bennett’s Service Department, and [Brooks] "did not give orders
to intervene." The following day photographs of the injured UAW
members appeared in newspapers, later becoming known as The Battle of
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, Edsel—who was president of the
company—thought Ford had to come to some sort of collective
bargaining agreement with the unions because the violence, work
disruptions, and bitter stalemates could not go on forever. But Ford,
who still had the final veto in the company on a de facto basis even
if not an official one, refused to cooperate. For several years, he
kept Bennett in charge of talking to the unions that were trying to
organize the Ford Motor Company. Sorensen's memoir makes clear
that Ford's purpose in putting Bennett in charge was to make sure no
agreements were ever reached.
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company was the last Detroit automaker to recognize the
UAW. A sit-down strike by the UAW union in April 1941 closed the River
Rouge Plant. Sorensen recounted that a distraught
Henry Ford was
very close to following through with a threat to break up the company
rather than cooperate, but his wife Clara told him she would leave him
if he destroyed the family business. In her view, it would not be
worth the chaos it would create. Ford complied with his wife's
ultimatum, and even agreed with her in retrospect. Overnight, the Ford
Motor Company went from the most stubborn holdout among automakers to
the one with the most favorable UAW contract terms. The contract was
signed in June 1941. About a year later, Ford told Walter Reuther,
"It was one of the most sensible things
Harry Bennett ever did when he
got the UAW into this plant." Reuther inquired, "What do you mean?"
Ford replied, "Well, you’ve been fighting
General Motors and the
Wall Street crowd. Now you're in here and we've given you a union shop
and more than you got out of them. That puts you on our side, doesn't
it? We can fight
General Motors and Wall Street together, eh?"
Ford Airplane Company
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Ford, like other automobile companies, entered the aviation business
during World War I, building Liberty engines. After the war, it
returned to auto manufacturing until 1925, when Ford acquired the
Stout Metal Airplane Company.
Ford 4-AT-F (EC-RRA) of the Spanish Republican Airline, L.A.P.E.
Ford's most successful aircraft was the Ford 4AT Trimotor, often
called the "Tin Goose" because of its corrugated metal construction.
It used a new alloy called
Alclad that combined the corrosion
resistance of aluminum with the strength of duralumin. The plane was
similar to Fokker's V.VII-3m, and some say that Ford's engineers
surreptitiously measured the
Fokker plane and then copied it. The
Trimotor first flew on June 11, 1926, and was the first successful
U.S. passenger airliner, accommodating about 12 passengers in a rather
uncomfortable fashion. Several variants were also used by the U.S.
Army. Ford has been honored by the
Smithsonian Institution for
changing the aviation industry. 199 Trimotors were built before it was
discontinued in 1933, when the Ford Airplane Division shut down
because of poor sales during the Great Depression.
Main article: Willow Run
Peace and war
World War I
World War I era
Ford opposed war, which he viewed as a terrible waste. Ford
became highly critical of those who he felt financed war, and he tried
to stop them. In 1915, the pacifist
Rosika Schwimmer gained favor with
Ford, who agreed to fund a
Peace Ship to Europe, where
World War I
World War I was
raging. He and about 170 other prominent peace leaders traveled there.
Ford's Episcopalian pastor, Reverend Samuel S. Marquis, accompanied
him on the mission. Marquis headed Ford's Sociology Department from
1913 to 1921. Ford talked to President Wilson about the mission but
had no government support. His group went to neutral Sweden and the
Netherlands to meet with peace activists. A target of much ridicule,
Ford left the ship as soon as it reached Sweden.
Ford plants in the United Kingdom produced tractors to increase the
British food supply, as well as trucks and aircraft engines. When the
U.S. entered the war in 1917 the company became a major supplier of
weapons, especially the Liberty engine for airplanes, and
In 1918, with the war on and the
League of Nations
League of Nations a growing issue in
global politics, President Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, encouraged Ford
to run for a Michigan seat in the U.S. Senate. Wilson believed that
Ford could tip the scales in Congress in favor of Wilson's proposed
League. "You are the only man in Michigan who can be elected and help
bring about the peace you so desire," the president wrote Ford. Ford
wrote back: "If they want to elect me let them do so, but I won't make
a penny's investment." Ford did run, however, and came within 4,500
votes of winning, out of more than 400,000 cast statewide. Ford
remained a staunch Wilsonian and supporter of the League. When Wilson
made a major speaking tour in the summer of 1919 to promote the
League, Ford helped fund the attendant publicity.
The coming of
World War II
World War II and Ford's mental collapse
Ford had opposed America's entry into World War II and
continued to believe that international business could generate the
prosperity that would head off wars. Ford "insisted that war was the
product of greedy financiers who sought profit in human destruction";
in 1939 he went so far as to claim that the torpedoing of U.S.
merchant ships by German submarines was the result of conspiratorial
activities undertaken by financier war-makers. The financiers to
whom he was referring was Ford's code for Jews; he had also accused
Jews of fomenting the First World War. In the run-up to World
War II and when the war erupted in 1939, he reported that he did not
want to trade with belligerents. Like many other businessmen of the
Great Depression era, he never liked or entirely trusted the Franklin
Roosevelt Administration, and thought Roosevelt was inching the U.S.
closer to war. However, Ford continued to do business with Nazi
Germany, including the manufacture of war materiel.
Beginning in 1940, with the requisitioning of between 100 and 200
French POWs to work as slave laborers, Ford-Werke contravened Article
31 of the 1929 Geneva Convention. At that time, which was before
the U.S. entered the war and still had full diplomatic relations with
Nazi Germany, Ford-Werke was under the control of the Ford Motor
Company. The number of slave laborers grew as the war expanded
although Wallace makes it clear that companies in Germany were not
required by the
Nazi authorities to use slave laborers.[citation
When Rolls-Royce sought a U.S. manufacturer as an additional source
for the Merlin engine (as fitted to Spitfire and Hurricane fighters),
Ford first agreed to do so and then reneged. He "lined up behind the
war effort" when the U.S. entered in late 1941. His support of the
American war effort, however, was problematic.
Once the U.S. entered the war, Ford directed the
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company to
construct a vast new purpose-built factory at
Willow Run near Detroit,
Michigan. Ford broke ground on
Willow Run in the spring of 1942, and
the first B-24 came off the line in October 1942. At
3,500,000 sq ft (330,000 m2), it was the largest
assembly line in the world at the time. At its peak in 1944, the
Willow Run plant produced 650 B-24s per month, and by 1945 Ford was
completing each B-24 in eighteen hours, with one rolling off the
assembly line every 58 minutes. Ford produced 9,000 B-24s at
Willow Run, half of the 18,000 total B-24s produced during the
Edsel Ford died prematurely in 1943,
Henry Ford nominally resumed
control of the company, but a series of strokes in the late 1930s had
left him increasingly debilitated, and his mental ability was fading.
Ford was increasingly sidelined, and others made decisions in his
name. The company was in fact controlled by a handful of senior
executives led by Charles Sorensen, an important engineer and
production executive at Ford; and Harry Bennett, the chief of Ford's
Service Unit, Ford's paramilitary force that spied on, and enforced
discipline upon, Ford employees. Ford grew jealous of the publicity
Sorensen received and forced Sorensen out in 1944. Ford's
incompetence led to discussions in Washington about how to restore the
company, whether by wartime government fiat, or by instigating some
sort of coup among executives and directors. Nothing happened
until 1945 when, with bankruptcy a serious risk, Edsel's widow led an
ouster and installed her son,
Henry Ford II, as
president.[better source needed] The young man took
full control, and forced out
Harry Bennett in a purge of the old guard
The Dearborn Independent
The Dearborn Independent and antisemitism
Main article: Dearborn Independent
The Ford publication The International Jew, the World's Foremost
Problem. Articles from The Dearborn Independent, 1920
In the early 1920s, Ford sponsored a weekly newspaper that published
strongly antisemitic views. At the same time, Ford had a reputation as
one of the few major corporations actively hiring black workers, and
was not accused of discrimination against Jewish workers or suppliers.
He also hired women and handicapped men at a time when doing so was
In 1918, Ford's closest aide and private secretary, Ernest G. Liebold,
purchased an obscure weekly newspaper for Ford, The Dearborn
Independent. The Independent ran for eight years, from 1920 until
1927, with Liebold as editor. Every Ford franchise nationwide had to
carry the paper and distribute it to its customers.
During this period, Ford emerged as "a respected spokesman for
right-wing extremism and religious prejudice", reaching around 700,000
readers through his newspaper. The 2010 documentary film Jews and
Baseball: An American Love Story (written by
Pulitzer Prize winner Ira
Berkow) states that Ford wrote on May 22, 1920: "If fans wish to know
the trouble with American baseball they have it in three words—too
In Germany, Ford's antisemitic articles from The Dearborn Independent
were issued in four volumes, cumulatively titled The International
Jew, the World's Foremost Problem published by Theodor Fritsch,
founder of several antisemitic parties and a member of the Reichstag.
In a letter written in 1924,
Heinrich Himmler described Ford as "one
of our most valuable, important, and witty fighters". Ford is the
only American mentioned favorably in Mein Kampf, although he is only
Adolf Hitler wrote, "only a single great man,
Ford, [who], to [the Jews'] fury, still maintains full
independence...[from] the controlling masters of the producers in a
nation of one hundred and twenty millions." Speaking in 1931 to a
Detroit News reporter, Hitler said he regarded Ford as his
"inspiration", explaining his reason for keeping Ford's life-size
portrait next to his desk. Steven Watts wrote that Hitler
"revered" Ford, proclaiming that "I shall do my best to put his
theories into practice in Germany", and modeling the Volkswagen, the
people's car, on the Model T.
Max Wallace has stated "History
records that ...
Adolf Hitler was an ardent Anti-Semite before he ever
read Ford's The International Jew." Under Ford, the newspaper also
reprinted the antisemitic fabricated text The Protocols of the Elders
Grand Cross of the German Eagle, an award bestowed on Ford by Nazi
On February 1, 1924, Ford received Kurt Ludecke, a representative of
Hitler, at home. Ludecke was introduced to Ford by Siegfried Wagner
(son of the composer Richard Wagner) and his wife Winifred, both Nazi
sympathizers and antisemites. Ludecke asked Ford for a contribution to
Nazi cause, but was apparently refused.
While Ford's articles were denounced by the Anti-Defamation League
(ADL), the articles explicitly condemned pogroms and violence against
Jews, but blamed the Jews for provoking incidents of mass
violence. None of this work was written by Ford, but he allowed
his name to be used as author. According to trial testimony, he wrote
almost nothing. Friends and business associates have said they warned
Ford about the contents of the Independent and that he probably never
read the articles (he claimed he only read the headlines). Court
testimony in a libel suit, brought by one of the targets of the
newspaper, alleged that Ford did know about the contents of the
Independent in advance of publication.
A libel lawsuit was brought by San Francisco lawyer and Jewish farm
Aaron Sapiro in response to the antisemitic
remarks, and led Ford to close the Independent in December 1927. News
reports at the time quoted him as saying he was shocked by the content
and unaware of its nature. During the trial, the editor of Ford's "Own
Page", William Cameron, testified that Ford had nothing to do with the
editorials even though they were under his byline. Cameron testified
at the libel trial that he never discussed the content of the pages or
sent them to Ford for his approval. Investigative journalist Max
Wallace noted that "whatever credibility this absurd claim may have
had was soon undermined when James M. Miller, a former Dearborn
Independent employee, swore under oath that Ford had told him he
intended to expose Sapiro."
Michael Barkun observed:
That Cameron would have continued to publish such anti-Semitic
material without Ford's explicit instructions seemed unthinkable to
those who knew both men. Mrs. Stanley Ruddiman, a Ford family
intimate, remarked that "I don't think Mr. Cameron ever wrote anything
for publication without Mr. Ford's approval."
According to Spencer Blakeslee:
The ADL mobilized prominent Jews and non-Jews to publicly oppose
Ford's message. They formed a coalition of Jewish groups for the same
purpose and raised constant objections in the Detroit press. Before
leaving his presidency early in 1921,
Woodrow Wilson joined other
leading Americans in a statement that rebuked Ford and others for
their antisemitic campaign. A boycott against Ford products by Jews
and liberal Christians also had an impact, and Ford shut down the
paper in 1927, recanting his views in a public letter to Sigmund
Wallace also found that Ford's apology was likely, at least partly,
motivated by a business that was slumping as result of his
antisemitism repelling potential buyers of Ford cars. Up until the
apology, a considerable number of dealers, who had been required to
make sure that buyers of Ford cars received the Independent, bought up
and destroyed copies of the newspaper rather than alienate
Ford's 1927 apology was well received. "Four-Fifths of the hundreds of
letters addressed to Ford in July 1927 were from Jews, and almost
without exception they praised the industrialist." In January
1937, a Ford statement to the Detroit Jewish Chronicle disavowed "any
connection whatsoever with the publication in Germany of a book known
as the International Jew."
According to Pool and Pool (1978), Ford's retraction and apology
(which were written by others) were not even truly signed by him
(rather, his signature was forged by Harry Bennett), and Ford never
privately recanted his antisemitic views, stating in 1940: "I hope to
The International Jew
The International Jew again some time."
In July 1938, before the outbreak of war, the German consul at
Cleveland gave Ford, on his 75th birthday, the award of the Grand
Cross of the German Eagle, the highest medal
Nazi Germany could bestow
on a foreigner. James D. Mooney, vice president of overseas
operations for General Motors, received a similar medal, the Merit
Cross of the German Eagle, First Class.
On January 7, 1942, Ford wrote a letter to
Sigmund Livingston as the
Founder and National Chairman of the Anti-Defamation League. The
purpose of the letter was to clarify some general misconceptions that
he subscribed or supported directly or indirectly, "any agitation
which would promote antagonism toward my Jewish fellow citizens." He
concluded the letter with "My sincere hope that now in this country
and throughout the world when the war is finished, hatred of the Jews
and hatred against any other racial or religious groups shall cease
for all time."
The International Jew
The International Jew was halted in 1942 through legal
action by Ford, despite complications from a lack of copyright. It
is still banned in Germany. Extremist groups often recycle the
material; it still appears on antisemitic and neo-
Testifying at Nuremberg, convicted
Hitler Youth leader Baldur von
Schirach who, in his role as military governor of Vienna, deported
65,000 Jews to camps in Poland, stated:
The decisive anti-Semitic book I was reading and the book that
influenced my comrades was ... that book by Henry Ford, The
International Jew. I read it and became anti-Semitic. The book made a
great influence on myself and my friends because we saw in Henry Ford
the representative of success and also the representative of a
progressive social policy.
Robert Lacey wrote in Ford: The Men and the Machines that a close
Willow Run associate of Ford reported that when he was shown newsreel
footage of the
Nazi concentration camps, he "was confronted with the
atrocities which finally and unanswerably laid bare the bestiality of
the prejudice to which he contributed, he collapsed with a stroke –
his last and most serious." Ford had suffered previous strokes and
his final cerebral hemorrhage occurred in 1947 at age 83.
Ford's philosophy was one of economic independence for the United
River Rouge Plant
River Rouge Plant became the world's largest industrial
complex, pursuing vertical integration to such an extent that it could
produce its own steel. Ford's goal was to produce a vehicle from
scratch without reliance on foreign trade. He believed in the global
expansion of his company. He believed that international trade and
cooperation led to international peace, and he used the assembly line
process and production of the
Model T to demonstrate it.
He opened Ford assembly plants in Britain and Canada in 1911, and soon
became the biggest automotive producer in those countries. In 1912,
Ford cooperated with
Giovanni Agnelli of
Fiat to launch the first
Italian automotive assembly plants. The first plants in Germany were
built in the 1920s with the encouragement of
Herbert Hoover and the
Commerce Department, which agreed with Ford's theory that
international trade was essential to world peace. In the 1920s,
Ford also opened plants in Australia, India, and France, and by 1929,
he had successful dealerships on six continents. Ford experimented
with a commercial rubber plantation in the Amazon jungle called
Fordlândia; it was one of his few failures.
After signing the contract for technical assistance in building Nizhny
Novgorod (Gorky) Automobile Plant. Dearborn, Mich., May 31, 1929. Left
to right, Valery I. Mezhlauk, Vice Chairman of VSNKh; Henry Ford; Saul
G. Bron, President of Amtorg.
In 1929, Ford made an agreement with the Soviets to provide technical
aid over nine years in building the first Soviet automobile plant
Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky). (an additional contract for
construction of the plant was signed with The Austin Company on August
23, 1929). The contract involved the purchase of $30,000,000 worth
of knocked-down Ford cars and trucks for assembly during the first
four years of the plant’s operation, after which the plant would
gradually switch to Soviet-made components. Ford sent his engineers
and technicians to the Soviet Union to help install the equipment and
train the working force, while over a hundred Soviet engineers and
technicians were stationed at Ford’s plants in Detroit and Dearborn
"for the purpose of learning the methods and practice of manufacture
and assembly in the Company's plants." Said Ford: "No matter where
industry prospers, whether in India or China, or Russia, the more
profit there will be for everyone, including us. All the world is
bound to catch some good from it."
By 1932, Ford was manufacturing one third of all the world's
automobiles. It set up numerous subsidiaries that sold or assembled
the Ford cars and trucks:
Ford of Australia
Ford of Britain
Ford of Argentina
Ford of Brazil
Ford of Canada
Ford of Europe
Ford South Africa
Henry Ford in Germany; September 1930
Ford's image transfixed Europeans, especially the Germans, arousing
the "fear of some, the infatuation of others, and the fascination
among all". Germans who discussed "Fordism" often believed that it
represented something quintessentially American. They saw the size,
tempo, standardization, and philosophy of production demonstrated at
the Ford Works as a national service—an "American thing" that
represented the culture of the United States. Both supporters and
critics insisted that
Fordism epitomized American capitalist
development, and that the auto industry was the key to understanding
economic and social relations in the United States. As one German
explained, "Automobiles have so completely changed the American's mode
of life that today one can hardly imagine being without a car. It is
difficult to remember what life was like before Mr. Ford began
preaching his doctrine of salvation". For many Germans, Ford
embodied the essence of successful Americanism.
In My Life and Work, Ford predicted that if greed, racism, and
short-sightedness could be overcome, then economic and technological
development throughout the world would progress to the point that
international trade would no longer be based on (what today would be
called) colonial or neocolonial models and would truly benefit all
peoples. His ideas in this passage were vague, but they were
Ford (standing) launched Barney Oldfield's career in 1902
Ford maintained an interest in auto racing from 1901 to 1913 and began
his involvement in the sport as both a builder and a driver, later
turning the wheel over to hired drivers. He entered stripped-down
Model Ts in races, finishing first (although later disqualified) in an
"ocean-to-ocean" (across the United States) race in 1909, and setting
a one-mile (1.6 km) oval speed record at Detroit Fairgrounds in
1911 with driver Frank Kulick. In 1913, Ford attempted to enter a
Model T in the
Indianapolis 500 but was told rules required
the addition of another 1,000 pounds (450 kg) to the car before
it could qualify. Ford dropped out of the race and soon thereafter
dropped out of racing permanently, citing dissatisfaction with the
sport's rules, demands on his time by the booming production of the
Model Ts, and his low opinion of racing as a worthwhile activity.
In My Life and Work Ford speaks (briefly) of racing in a rather
dismissive tone, as something that is not at all a good measure of
automobiles in general. He describes himself as someone who raced only
because in the 1890s through 1910s, one had to race because prevailing
ignorance held that racing was the way to prove the worth of an
automobile. Ford did not agree. But he was determined that as long as
this was the definition of success (flawed though the definition was),
then his cars would be the best that there were at racing.
Throughout the book, he continually returns to ideals such as
transportation, production efficiency, affordability, reliability,
fuel efficiency, economic prosperity, and the automation of drudgery
in farming and industry, but rarely mentions, and rather belittles,
the idea of merely going fast from point A to point B.
Nevertheless, Ford did make quite an impact on auto racing during his
racing years, and he was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame of
America in 1996.
Later career and death
Edsel Ford, President of Ford Motor Company, died of cancer in
May 1943, the elderly and ailing
Henry Ford decided to assume the
presidency. By this point in his life, he had had several
cardiovascular events (variously cited as heart attacks or strokes)
and was mentally inconsistent, suspicious, and generally no longer fit
for such immense responsibilities.
Most of the directors did not want to see him as President. But for
the previous 20 years, though he had long been without any official
executive title, he had always had de facto control over the company;
the board and the management had never seriously defied him, and this
moment was not different. The directors elected him, and he served
until the end of the war. During this period the company began to
decline, losing more than $10 million a month ($141,420,000
today). The administration of President Franklin Roosevelt had been
considering a government takeover of the company in order to ensure
continued war production, but the idea never progressed.
Ford grave, Ford Cemetery
His health failing, Ford ceded the company Presidency to his grandson,
Henry Ford II, in September 1945 and went into retirement. He died on
April 7, 1947, of a cerebral hemorrhage at Fair Lane, his estate in
Dearborn, at the age of 83. A public viewing was held at Greenfield
Village where up to 5,000 people per hour filed past the casket.
Funeral services were held in Detroit's Cathedral Church of St. Paul
and he was buried in the Ford Cemetery in Detroit.
A compendium of short biographies of famous Freemasons, published by a
Freemason lodge, lists Ford as a member. The Grand Lodge of New
York confirms that Ford was a Freemason, and was raised in Palestine
Lodge No. 357, Detroit, in 1894. When he received his 33rd in 1940, he
said, "Masonry is the best balance wheel the United States has."
In 1923, Ford's pastor, and head of his sociology department,
Episcopal minister Samuel S. Marquis, claimed that Ford believed, or
"once believed," in reincarnation.
Ford published an anti-smoking book, circulated to youth in 1914,
called The Case Against the Little White Slaver, which documented many
dangers of cigarette smoking attested to by many researchers and
luminaries. At the time smoking was ubiquitous and was not yet
widely associated with health detriment, so Ford's opposition to
cigarettes was unusual.
Interest in materials science and engineering
Henry Ford long had an interest in materials science and engineering.
He enthusiastically described his company's adoption of vanadium steel
alloys and subsequent metallurgic R&D work.
Ford long had an interest in plastics developed from agricultural
products, especially soybeans. He cultivated a relationship with
George Washington Carver
George Washington Carver for this purpose.
Soybean-based plastics were used in Ford automobiles throughout the
1930s in plastic parts such as car horns, in paint, etc. This project
culminated in 1942, when Ford patented an automobile made almost
entirely of plastic, attached to a tubular welded frame. It weighed
30% less than a steel car and was said to be able to withstand blows
ten times greater than could steel. Furthermore, it ran on grain
alcohol (ethanol) instead of gasoline. The design never caught
Ford was interested in engineered woods ("Better wood can be made than
is grown") (at this time plywood and particle board were little
more than experimental ideas); corn as a fuel source, via both corn
oil and ethanol; and the potential uses of cotton. Ford was
instrumental in developing charcoal briquets, under the brand name
"Kingsford". His brother in law, E.G. Kingsford, used wood scraps from
the Ford factory to make the briquets.
In 1927 Ford partnered with
Thomas Edison and Harvey Samuel Firestone
(each contributing $25,000) to create the Edison Botanic Research
Corp. in Fort Myers, Florida, to look for a native source of rubber.
Ford was a prolific inventor and was awarded 161 U.S. patents.
Florida and Georgia residences and community
Ford had a vacation residence in
Fort Myers, Florida
Fort Myers, Florida next to that of
Thomas Edison, which he bought in 1915 and used until approximately
1930. It is still in existence today and is open as a museum.
He also had a vacation home (known today as the "Ford Plantation") in
Richmond Hill, Georgia
Richmond Hill, Georgia which is still in existence today as a private
community. Ford started buying land in this area and eventually owned
70,000 acres (110 square miles) there. In 1936, Ford broke ground
for a beautiful
Greek revival style mansion on the banks of the
Ogeechee River on the site of a 1730s plantation. The grand house,
made of Savannah-gray brick, had marble steps, air conditioning, and
an elevator. It sat on 55 acres of manicured lawns and flowering
gardens. The house became the center of social gatherings with
visitations by the Vanderbilts, Rockefellers, and the DuPonts. It
remains the centerpiece of The Ford Plantation today. Ford
converted the 1870s–era rice mill into his personal research
laboratory and powerhouse and constructed an underground tunnel from
there to the new home, providing it with steam. He contributed
substantially to the community, building a chapel and schoolhouse and
employing numerous local residents.
Ford had an interest in "Americana". In the 1920s, Ford began work to
turn Sudbury, Massachusetts, into a themed historical village. He
moved the schoolhouse supposedly referred to in the nursery rhyme,
"Mary Had a Little Lamb", from Sterling, Massachusetts, and purchased
the historic Wayside Inn. This plan never saw fruition. Ford repeated
the concept of collecting historic structures with the creation of
Greenfield Village in Dearborn, Michigan. It may have inspired the
Old Sturbridge Village
Old Sturbridge Village as well. About the same time, he
began collecting materials for his museum, which had a theme of
practical technology. It was opened in 1929 as the Edison Institute.
Although greatly modernized, the museum continues today.
In popular culture
Mr. and Mrs.
Henry Ford in his first car, the Ford Quadricycle
In Aldous Huxley's
Brave New World
Brave New World (1932), society is organized on
"Fordist" lines, the years are dated A.F. or Anno Ford ("In the Year
of our Ford"), and the expression "My Ford" is used instead of "My
Lord". The Christian cross is replaced with a capital "T" for Model-T.
Upton Sinclair created a fictional description of Ford in the 1937
novel The Flivver King.
Ferde Grofe composed a tone poem in Henry Ford's
Ford appears as a character in several historical novels, notably E.
L. Doctorow's Ragtime (1975), and Richard Powers' novel Three Farmers
on the Way to a Dance (1985).
Ford, his family, and his company were the subjects of a 1987 film
Cliff Robertson and Michael Ironside, based on the 1986
biography Ford: The Man and the Machine by Robert Lacey.
In the 2005 alternative history novel The Plot Against America, Philip
Roth features Ford as Secretary of the Interior in a fictional Charles
Lindbergh presidential administration.
The British author Douglas Galbraith uses the event of the Ford Peace
Ship as the center of his novel King Henry (2007).
Ford appears as a Great Builder in the 2008 strategy video game
In the fictional history of the
Assassin's Creed video game franchise,
Ford is portrayed as having been a major
Templar influence on the
events of the Great Depression, and later World War II.
Honors and recognition
In December 1999, Ford was among 18 included in Gallup's List of
Widely Admired People of the 20th Century, from a poll conducted of
the American people.
In 1928, Ford was awarded the Franklin Institute's Elliott Cresson
In 1938, Ford was awarded
Nazi Germany's Grand Cross of the German
Eagle, a medal given to foreigners sympathetic to Nazism.
United States Postal Service
United States Postal Service honored Ford with a Prominent
Americans series (1965–1978) 12¢ postage stamp.
He was inducted into the
Automotive Hall of Fame
Automotive Hall of Fame in 1946.
Metro Detroit portal
Book: Henry Ford
Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railroad
Dodge v. Ford Motor Company
Edison and Ford Winter Estates
Ford family tree
List of covers of Time magazine (1920s)
List of wealthiest historical figures
List of richest Americans in history
William Benson Mayo
^ "The Life of Henry Ford". Archived from the original on 5 October
2001. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
The Henry Ford
The Henry Ford Museum: The Life of
Henry Ford Archived
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^ "The history of Ford in Ireland Family Crest and Name
^ Ford, My Life and Work, 22–24; Nevins and Hill, Ford TMC, 58.
^ Evans, Harold "They Made America" Little, Brown and Company. New
^ Ford, My Life and Work, 24; Edward A. Guest "
Henry Ford Talks About
His Mother," American Magazine, July 1923, 11–15, 116–120.
^ Watts, Steven (2006). The People's Tycoon:
Henry Ford and the
American Century. Random House, Inc. p. 28.
^ "Widow of Automobile Pioneer, Victim of Coronary Occlusion, Survived
Him Three Years". Associated Press. September 29, 1950. Friday, Sept.
29 (Associated Press) Mrs. Clara Bryant Ford, 84 year-old widow
of Henry Ford, died at 2 A. M. today in
Henry Ford Hospital. A family
spokesman said her death was the result of an acute coronary
Edsel Ford Dies in Detroit at 49. Motor Company President, the Only
Son of Its Founder, Had Long Been Ill". Associated Press. May 26,
Edsel Ford, 49-year-old president of the Ford Motor Company,
died this morning at his home at
Grosse Pointe Shores following an
illness of six weeks.
^ The Showroom of Automotive History: 1896 Quadricycle Archived June
15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
^ a b c d e f g h i Ford R. Bryan, "The Birth of Ford Motor Company"
Archived August 29, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.,
Henry Ford Heritage
Association, retrieved August 20, 2012.
^ Richard Bak, Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford Empire (2003)
^ Nevins (1954) 1:387–415
^ Lewis 1976, pp 41–59
^ Ford & Crowther 1922, p. 72.
^ Watts, pp 243–48
^ Nevins and Hill (1957) vol 2
^ Nevins and Hill (1957) 2:409-36
^ Sorensen 1956, p. 223.
^ Nevins and Hill (1957) 2:459-78
^ Nevins and Hill (1957) 2:508-40
^ Using the consumer price index, this was equivalent to $111.10 per
day in 2008 dollars.
^ Lewis, Public Image p 71
^ Nevins, Ford 1:528-41
^ Watts, People's Tycoon, pp. 178–94
^ Watts, People's Tycoon, pp. 193–94
^ Ford & Crowther 1922, pp. 126–130.
^ Lewis, Public Image, 69–70
^ Ford & Crowther 1922, p. 130.
^ Ford & Crowther 1922, p. 126.
^ Samuel Crowther Henry Ford: "Why I Favor Five Days' Work With Six
Days' Pay", World's Work, October 1926 pp. 613–616
^ a b
^ Ford & Crowther 1922, pp. 253–266.
^ Harris, J: Henry Ford, pages 91–92. Moffa Press, 1984.
^ a b c d e f g h Wallace, Max. (2003). The American axis: Henry Ford,
Charles Lindbergh, and the rise of the Third Reich. New York: St.
^ Wallace 2003, p. 311
^ Sorensen 1956, p. 261.
^ a b Sorensen 1956, pp. 266–272.
^ Reuther., Dickmeyer, Elisabeth (2004). Putting the world
together : my father Walter Reuther, the liberal warrior. Lake
Orion, Mich.: LivingForce Pub. p. 63. ISBN 9780975379219.
^ Henry Ford, Biography (March 25, 1999). A&E Television.
^ Michigan History, January/February 1993
^ Watts (2005). The People's Tycoon. pp. 225–249.
Allan Nevins and Frank Ernest Hill, Ford: Expansion and Challenge,
1915–1933 (1957) pp 55–85
^ Banham, Russ. (2002) The Ford Century. Tehabi Books.
ISBN 1-887656-88-X, p. 44.
^ Watts (2005). The People's Tycoon. p. 378.
^ John Milton Cooper Jr, Woodrow Wilson: A Biography (2009) p 521
^ Baldwin, Neil (2001).
Henry Ford and the Jews: The Mass Production
of Hate. New York: Public Affairs.
^ Stephen Watts, The People's Tycoon (2005) p 505
^ Watts, The People's Tycoon (2005) p 508
^ a b Nolan, Jenny. "Michigan History:
Willow Run and the Arsenal of
Democracy."[dead link] The Detroit News, 28 January 1997. Retrieved: 7
^ Watts, The People's Tycoon (2005) p 503
^ Watts, The People's Tycoon (2005) p 522-5
^ a b Sorensen 1956, pp. 324–333.
^ Yates, Brock. "10 Best Moguls", in Car and Driver, 1/88, p.45.
^ Watts, The People's Tycoon (2005) p 522-7
^ Howard P. Segal (2008). Recasting the Machine Age: Henry Ford's
Village Industries. p. 46.
^ Glock, Charles Y. and Quinley, Harold E. (1983). Anti-Semitism in
America. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 0-87855-940-X, p. 168.
^ Zeitlin, Alan (November 15, 2010). "
Jews and Baseball
Jews and Baseball Is a Film You
Should Catch". The New York Blueprint. Archived from the original on
December 10, 2010. Retrieved February 6, 2014.
^ Allen, Michael Thad (2002). The Business of Genocide: The SS, Slave
Labor, and the Concentration Camps. Chapel Hill, NC: University of
North Carolina Press. pp. 14, 290. ISBN 0-8078-2677-4.
See also, Pfal-Traughber, Armin (1993). Der
antisemitisch-antifreimaurerische Verschwörungsmythos in der Weimarer
Republik und im NS-Staat. Vienna: Braumüller. p. 39. . See
also: Eliten-Antisemitismus in Nazi-Kontinuität. In:
Graswurzelrevolution. December 2003. Pfal-Traughber and Allen both
Heinrich Himmler als Ideologe. p. 37.
^ Mein Kampf
pp. 929, 930
^ a b c "Ford and GM Scrutinized for Alleged
Washington Post. November 30, 1998. pp. A01. Retrieved March 5,
^ Watts, p. xi.
^ Wallace, Max. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindberg and
the Rise of the Third Reich, St. Martin's Griffin, New York, p. 52
^ Rudin, A. James (10 October 2014). "The dark legacy of Henry Ford's
anti-Semitism". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
^ Max Wallace. The American Axis: Henry Ford, Charles Lindbergh, and
the Rise of the Third Reich, (Macmillan, 2004), pp. 50–54,
ISBN 0-312-33531-8. Years later, in 1977, Winifred claimed that
Ford had told her that he had helped finance Hitler. This anecdote is
the suggestion that Ford made a contribution. The company has always
denied that any contribution was made, and no documentary evidence has
ever been found. Ibid p. 54. See also Neil Baldwin,
Henry Ford and the
Jews: The Mass Production of Hate (Public Affairs, 2002), pp.
185–89, ISBN 1-58648-163-0.
^ Ford, Henry (2003). The International Jew: The World's Foremost
Problem. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-7829-3, p. 61.
^ Watts pp. x, 376–387; Lewis (1976) pp. 135–59.
^ Lewis, (1976) pp. 140–56; Baldwin pp. 220–21.
^ Wallace, Max. (2003). The American Axis: Ford, Lindbergh, and the
Rise of the Third Reich. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 30.
^ Barkun, Michael (1996). Religion and the Racist Right: The Origins
of the Christian Identity Movement. UNC Press.
ISBN 0-8078-4638-4, p. 35.
^ Blakeslee, Spencer (2000). The Death of American Antisemitism.
Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-96508-2, p. 83.
^ a b c Lewis, David I. (1976). The Public Image of Henry Ford: An
American Folk Hero and His Company. Wayne State University Press.
ISBN 0-8143-1553-4. , pp. 146–154.
^ Pool & Pool 1978
^ Farber, David R. (2002). Sloan Rules: Alfred P. Sloan and the
Triumph of General Motors. University of Chicago Press,
ISBN 0-226-23804-0, p. 228.
^ "Arnstein & Lehr, The First 120 Years" (Louis A. Lehr,
Jr.)(Amazon), p. 32
Baldur von Schirach
Baldur von Schirach before the International Military Tribunal at
Nuremberg. May 23, 1946.
^ de:Der internationale Jude
^ Lacey 1986, pp. 218–219; which in turn cites:
Bentley Historical Library, Josephine Fellows Gomon papers, Box 10,
draft manuscript, The Poor Mr Ford.
^ a b "Leader in Production Founded Vast Empire in Motors in 1903. He
had Retired in 1945. Began Company With Capital of $28,000 Invested by
His Friends and Neighbors.
Henry Ford Is Dead. Founder of Vast
Automotive Empire and Leader in Mass Production". Associated Press.
April 8, 1947. Henry Ford, noted automotive pioneer, died at 11:40
tonight at the age of 83. He had retired a little more than a year and
a half ago from active direction of the great industrial empire he
founded in 1903.
^ Watts 236–40
^ Melnikova-Raich, Sonia (2011). "The Soviet Problem with Two
'Unknowns': How an American Architect and a Soviet Negotiator
Jump-Started the Industrialization of Russia, Part II: Saul Bron". IA,
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Russia's First Modern City, 1930. Kent State University Press.
ISBN 9781612773216. OCLC 819325601.
^ Agreement Between the Ford Motor Company, the Supreme Council of
National Economy, and the Amtorg Trading Corporation, 31 May 1929,
Amtorg Records 1929–1930, Acc. 199, box 1a, Benson Ford Research
Center, The Henry Ford, Dearborn, Mich.
^ The New York Times, 5 and 7 May 1929.
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^ Nolan, p. 31.
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^ Ford & Crowther 1922, p. 50.
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Wayne State University Press.
^ The Case Against the Little White Slaver
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George Washington Carver
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^ Lewis 1995.
^ a b Ford 1922, p. 281.
^ Ford 1922, pp. 275–276.
^ Seibert, David. "
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Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company principals
Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1922), My Life and Work, Garden City,
New York, USA: Garden City Publishing Company, Inc. Various
republications, including ISBN 9781406500189. Original is public
domain in U.S. Also available at Google Books.
Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1926). "Today and Tomorrow". Garden
City, New York City: Doubleday, Page & Company. Co-edition, 1926,
London, William Heinemann. Various republications, including
Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1930). "Moving Forward". Garden City,
New York City: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc. Co-edition, 1931,
London, William Heinemann.
Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1930). "Edison as I Know Him". New
Book Corporation. Apparent co-edition, 1930, as My
Friend Mr. Edison, London, Ernest Benn. Republished as Edison as I
Knew Him by American Thought and Action, San Diego, 1966,
OCLC 3456201. Republished as Edison as I Know Him by Kessinger
Publishing, LLC, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4325-6158-1.
Bennett, Harry; with Marcus, Paul (1951). We Never Called Him Henry.
New York: Fawcett Publications. LCCN 51036122. .
Sorensen, Charles E.; with Williamson, Samuel T. (1956), My Forty
Years with Ford, New York, New York, USA: Norton,
LCCN 56010854 . Various republications, including
Bak, Richard (2003). Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford Empire.
Wiley ISBN 0-471-23487-7
Brinkley, Douglas G. Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His Company,
and a Century of Progress (2003)
Halberstam, David. "Citizen Ford" American Heritage 1986 37(6):
49–64. interpretive essay
Jardim, Anne. The First Henry Ford: A Study in Personality and
Business Leadership Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Press 1970.
Lacey, Robert. Ford: The Men and the Machine Little, Brown, 1986.
Lewis, David I. (1976). The Public Image of Henry Ford: An American
Folk Hero and His Company. Wayne State University Press.
Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1954). Ford: The Times, The Man, The
Company. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. ACLS e-book; also
Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1957). Ford: Expansion and
Challenge, 1915–1933. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. ACLS
Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1962). Ford: Decline and Rebirth,
1933–1962. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. ACLS e-book
Nye, David E. Henry Ford: "Ignorant Idealist." Kennikat, 1979.
Watts, Steven. The People's Tycoon:
Henry Ford and the American
Baime, A.J. The Arsenal of Democracy: FDR, Detroit, and an Epic Quest
to Arm an America at War (2014)
Barrow, Heather B. Henry Ford's Plan for the American Suburb: Dearborn
and Detroit. DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press, 2015.
Batchelor, Ray. Henry Ford: Mass Production, Modernism and Design
Manchester U. Press, 1994.
Bonin, Huber et al. Ford, 1902–2003: The European History 2 vol
Paris 2003. ISBN 2-914369-06-9 scholarly essays in English;
reviewed in Holden, Len. "Fording the Atlantic: Ford and
Europe" in Business History Volume 47, #Jan 1, 2005 pp 122–127
Brinkley, Douglas. "Prime Mover". American Heritage 2003 54(3):
44–53. on Model T
Bryan, Ford R. Henry's Lieutenants, 1993; ISBN 0-8143-2428-2
Bryan, Ford R. Beyond the Model T: The Other Ventures of Henry Ford
Wayne State Press 1990.
Dempsey, Mary A. "Fordlandia," Michigan History 1994 78(4): 24–33.
Ford's rubber plantation in Brazil
Denslow, William R. (2004) . 10,000 Famous Freemasons. Part.
One, Volume 1, from A to J (Paperback republication ed.). Kessinger
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-7578-5. Foreword by Harry S.
Grandin, Greg. Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford's Forgotten
Jungle City. London, Icon, 2010. ISBN 978-1-84831-147-3
Hounshell, David A. (1984), From the American System to Mass
Production, 1800-1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in
the United States, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University
Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8, LCCN 83016269
Jacobson, D. S. "The Political Economy of Industrial Location: the
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company at Cork 1912–26." Irish Economic and Social
History 1977 4: 36–55. Ford and Irish politics
Kraft, Barbara S. The Peace Ship: Henry Ford's Pacifist Adventure in
the First World War Macmillan, 1978
Levinson, William A. Henry Ford's Lean Vision: Enduring Principles
from the First Ford Motor Plant, 2002; ISBN 1-56327-260-1
Lewis, David L. "Ford and Kahn" Michigan History 1980 64(5): 17–28.
Ford commissioned architect Albert Kahn to design factories
Lewis, David L. "
Henry Ford and His Magic Beanstalk" . Michigan
History 1995 79(3): 10–17. Ford's interest in soybeans and plastics
Lewis, David L. "Working Side by Side" Michigan History 1993 77(1):
24–30. Why Ford hired large numbers of black workers
McIntyre, Stephen L. "The Failure of Fordism: Reform of the Automobile
Repair Industry, 1913–1940: Technology and Culture 2000 41(2):
269–299. repair shops rejected flat rates
Meyer, Stephen. The Five Dollar Day: Labor Management and Social
Control in the Ford Motor Company, 1908–1921 (1981)
Nevins, Allan, and Frank Ernest Hill. Ford: the Times the Man the
Company (1954); Ford: Expansion and Challenge, 1915-1933 (1957); Ford:
Decline and Rebirth, 1933-1962 (1963) comprehensive scholarly history
Nolan; Mary. Visions of Modernity: American Business and the
Modernization of Germany (1994)
Daniel M. G. Raff and Lawrence H. Summers (October 1987). "Did Henry
Ford Pay Efficiency Wages?". Journal of Labor Economics. 5 (4):
Pietrykowski, Bruce. (1995). "
Fordism at Ford: Spatial
Decentralization and Labor Segmentation at the Ford Motor Company,
1920–1950". Economic Geography. 71 (4): 383–401.
doi:10.2307/144424. JSTOR 144424.
Pool, James; Pool, Suzanne (1978), ""Chapter: Ford and Hitler"", Who
Financed Hitler: The Secret Funding of Hitler's Rise to Power,
1919-1933, Dial Press, ISBN 978-0708817568.
Roediger, David, ed "Americanism and Fordism—American Style: Kate
Richards O'hare's 'Has
Henry Ford Made Good?'" Labor History 1988
29(2): 241–252. Socialist praise for Ford in 1916
Segal, Howard P. "'Little Plants in the Country': Henry Ford's Village
Industries and the Beginning of Decentralized Technology in Modern
America" Prospects 1988 13: 181–223. Ford created 19 rural
workplaces as pastoral retreats
Tedlow, Richard S. "The Struggle for Dominance in the Automobile
Market: the Early Years of Ford and General Motors" Business and
Economic History 1988 17: 49–62. Ford stressed low price based on
efficient factories but GM did better in oligopolistic competition by
including investment in manufacturing, marketing, and management.
Thomas, Robert Paul. "The Automobile
Industry and its Tycoon"
Explorations in Entrepreneurial History 1969 6(2): 139–157. argues
Ford did NOT have much influence on US industry,
Valdés, Dennis Nodin. "Perspiring Capitalists: Latinos and the Henry
Ford Service School, 1918–1928" Aztlán 1981 12(2): 227–239. Ford
brought hundreds of Mexicans in for training as managers
Wilkins, Mira and Frank Ernest Hill, American Business Abroad: Ford on
Six Continents Wayne State University Press, 1964
Williams, Karel, Colin Haslam and John Williams, "Ford versus
'Fordism': The Beginning of Mass Production?" Work, Employment &
Society, Vol. 6, No. 4, 517–555 (1992), stress on Ford's flexibility
and commitment to continuous improvements
Foust, James C. (1997). "Mass-produced Reform: Henry Ford's Dearborn
Independent". American Journalism. 14 (3–4): 411–424.
Higham, Charles, Trading with the Enemy The Nazi–American Money Plot
1933–1949 ; Delacorte Press 1983
Kandel, Alan D. "Ford and Israel" Michigan Jewish History 1999 39:
13–17. covers business and philanthropy
Henry Ford and the Jews; Rowman & Littlefield
Publishers, Inc., 1980; ISBN 0-8128-2701-5
Lewis, David L. (1984). "Henry Ford's Anti-semitism and its
Repercussions". Michigan Jewish History. 24 (1): 3–10.
Reich, Simon (1999) "The
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company and the Third Reich"
Dimensions, 13(2):15–17 online
Ribuffo, Leo P. (1980). "
Henry Ford and the International Jew".
American Jewish History. 69 (4): 437–477.
Sapiro, Aaron L. (1982). "A Retrospective View of the Aaron
Henry Ford Case". Western States Jewish Historical Quarterly.
15 (1): 79–84.
Silverstein, K. (2000). "Ford and the Führer". The Nation.
Vol. 270 no. 3. pp. 11–16.
Woeste, Victoria Saker. (2004). "Insecure Equality: Louis Marshall,
Henry Ford, and the Problem of Defamatory Antisemitism, 1920–1929".
Journal of American History. 91 (3): 877–905. doi:10.2307/3662859.
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Peace Ship in American Heritage
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alleged collaboration with
"Power, Ignorance, and Anti-Semitism:
Henry Ford and His War on Jews"
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Review of The People's Tycoon by Steven Watts.
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