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Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
(French: [lɑ̃glwa]; 13 November 1914 – 13 January 1977) was a French film archivist and cinephile. A pioneer of film preservation, Langlois was an influential figure in the history of cinema. His film screenings in Paris
Paris
in the 1950s are often credited with providing the ideas that led to the development of the auteur theory.[1][2][3] Langlois was co-founder of the Cinémathèque Française
Cinémathèque Française
with Georges Franju and Jean Mitry
Jean Mitry
and also co-founder of the International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF) in 1938. Through close collaboration with the Cinémathèque's longtime Chief Archivist, Lotte Eisner, he worked to preserve films and film history in the post-war era. An eccentric who was often at the center of controversy for his methods,[4] he also served as a key influence on the generation of young cinephiles and critics who would become the French New Wave. In 1974, Langlois received an Academy Honorary Award for "his devotion to the art of film, his massive contributions in preserving its past and his unswerving faith in its future".

Contents

1 Career at the Cinémathèque Française

1.1 Removal and reinstatement

2 Later life 3 Documentaries about Langlois 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Career at the Cinémathèque Française[edit] In 1936 Henri Langlois, Georges Franju
Georges Franju
and Jean Mitry
Jean Mitry
founded the Cinémathèque Française
Cinémathèque Française
in Paris, their film theater and museum.[5] It grew from ten films in 1936 to more than 60,000 films by the early 1970s. More than an archivist, Langlois saved many films which were at risk of vanishing. Besides films, Langlois also helped to preserve other items related to cinema such as cameras, projection machines, costumes, and vintage theater programmes. He eventually collected so many items that he donated them in 1972 to the Musée du Cinéma in the Palais de Chaillot, where they covered a two-mile span of film artifacts and memorabilia. The collection was relocated due to damage from a fire in 1997. During the Second World War, Langlois and his colleagues helped to save many films that were at risk of being destroyed due to the Nazi occupation of France. Langlois strongly influenced the French New Wave directors François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard,[3] Jacques Rivette, Claude Chabrol
Claude Chabrol
and Alain Resnais among others, and the generation of filmmakers that followed. Some of these filmmakers were called les enfants de la cinémathèque ("children of the cinémathèque"), as they could often be found in the front row of packed screenings. Langlois' romantic attitude to film was in contrast to the scientific approach utilised by Ernest Lindgren at Britain's National Film Archive.[6] Langlois' methods were unconventional. He was accused of having no rational approach to record keeping. The Cinémathèque lost a portion of its collection to a nitrate fire on 10 July 1959. Sources are in conflict as to the cause and the extent of the loss.[6] In September 1959, a rift developed between the Fédération Internationale des Archives du Film (FIAF) and the Cinémathèque. Langlois had been involved in the founding of FIAF. The dispute between the two bodies was resolved only some years after Langlois had died.[7] Removal and reinstatement[edit] In 1968, French culture minister André Malraux
André Malraux
tried to fire Langlois by stopping funding of the project. Malraux had invited the Soviet Minister of Culture to Paris. Malraux suddenly requested Langlois to privately screen, at the Cinematheque at Palais de Chaillot, for the visiting minister, the original version of a movie -- Octobre -- by Sergei Eisenstein. Langlois had already programmed the entire week and told Malraux that he could not accommodate the demands of the Soviet minister and that the Cinematheque was not a governmental agency. As an answer, Malraux simply closed the Cinematheque and sent the police against protesters (March 1968, including almost all of the directors of the New Wave; Nicholas Ray was there in person as well.. Local and international uproar ensued, and even the prestigious Cannes Film Festival was halted in protest that year. Protesters in Paris included the student activist Daniel Cohn-Bendit from University of Nanterre-Paris. Support came in telegrams from renowned directors, from Alfred Hitchcock
Alfred Hitchcock
to Kurosawa
Kurosawa
to Fellini
Fellini
to Gianni Serra (it). Malraux eventually reinstated Langlois after intense debate, while reducing museum funding. Truffaut opens Stolen Kisses (1968) with a shot of the shuttered and locked Cinémathèque and dedicates the film to Langlois. Later life[edit]

Place Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
in the 13th arrondissement in Paris
Paris
is named in his honour

In 1970, Langlois selected seventy films from the Cinémathèque's collection for inclusion in “Cinémathèque at the Metropolitan Museum,” an exhibition in celebration of the Centennial of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The exhibition, co-sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum and the City Center of Music and Drama
City Center of Music and Drama
in New York, showed seventy films dating from the medium’s first seventy-five years on thirty-five consecutive evenings from July 29 to September 3, 1970. Langlois selected films for their significance and contributions to the history of filmmaking, including work from official film industries as well as current and early avant garde directors. The program was the most diverse film exhibition held in the United States to date, and was the Museum’s first major undertaking in film.[8] In 1974, Langlois received an honorary Academy Award for his lifetime work with the Cinémathèque. He died three years later and is interred in the Cimetière du Montparnasse
Cimetière du Montparnasse
in Paris. Place Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
in the 13th arrondissement in Paris
Paris
is named in his honour. Documentaries about Langlois[edit] In 1970, an English language documentary Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
was made about his life's work, featuring interviews with Ingrid Bergman, Lillian Gish, François Truffaut, Catherine Deneuve, Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
and others. The film was produced and directed by Roberto Guerra & Eila Hershon.[9] In 2004–2005, Jacques Richard directed another documentary of Langlois's career, The Phantom of the Cinémathèque.[10] It features interviews with friends, colleagues, academics, and such movie luminaries as Simone Signoret, Godard, Chabrol, Truffaut and his spiritual successor Jean-Michel Arnold. Bernardo Bertolucci's 2003 film The Dreamers dwells on the firing of Langlois and includes period footage of the events. See also[edit]

Musée du Cinema – Henri Langlois (no longer in existence) Lotte H. Eisner Kashiko Kawakita

References[edit] Notes

^ "Henri Langlois: Phantom of the Cinematheque". leisurefeat.com.  ^ Truffaut’s manifesto : La Politique des Auteurs Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine. at Indian Auteur ^ a b Wollen, Peter (2004). "The Auteur
Auteur
Theory". In Shepherdson, K. J. Film theory: critical concepts in media and cultural studie. Routledge. ISBN 0415259738.  ^ "HENRI LANGLOIS, 62, HISTORIAN OF FILM; Director of La Cinematheque Dies-- Founded French Archives in '36 --Collected 50,000 Movies Center of Controversy Eccentric Work Methods". The New York Times. January 14, 1977. Retrieved January 10, 2010.  ^ "La Cinémathèque Française" Archived 2008-03-16 at the Wayback Machine., France Magazine: ^ a b Roger Smither " Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
and Nitrate, Before and After 1959" in Smither (ed) This Film is Dangerous: A Celebration of Nitrate Film, Brussels: FIAF, 2002, p.247-55 ^ Smither This Film is Dangerous, p.251 ^ Finding aid for the George Trescher records related to The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Centennial, 1949, 1960–1971 (bulk 1967–1970). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 8 August 2014. ^ https://movies.nytimes.com/movie/158566/Langlois/overview ^ NY Times 12 October 2005 "It makes a persuasive case for Langlois as one of the most important figures in the history of film"

Bibliography

Baecque, Antoine de; Toubiana, Serge (1999). Truffaut: A Biography. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0375400896.  MacCabe, Colin (2005). Godard: A Portrait of the Artist at Seventy. New York: Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-21105-0.  Myrent, Glenn; Langlois, Georges P. (1986). Henri Langlois: First Citizen of Cinema. Paris: Editions Denoël.  Roud, Richard (1983). A Passion for Films: Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
and the Cinematheque Francaise. London: Secker and Warburg. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Place Henri-Langlois (Paris).

Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
on IMDb
IMDb
Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
at Find a Grave
Find a Grave
CinemathequeFrancaise.com Tracing the journey and impact of Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
at Indian Auteur CineSceneSF – The Pied Piper of the Cinematheque

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Academy Honorary Award

1928–1950

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
/ Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett
James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
/ Sid Grauman
Sid Grauman
/ Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
/ Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
/ The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950)

1951–1975

Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
/ Rashomon
Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1975)

1976–2000

Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000)

2001–present

Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr.
(2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès Varda (2017)

v t e

Honorary César

1976–2000

Ingrid Bergman
Ingrid Bergman
(1976) Diana Ross
Diana Ross
(1976) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
(1977) Jacques Tati
Jacques Tati
(1977) Robert Dorfmann (1978) René Goscinny
René Goscinny
(1978) Marcel Carné
Marcel Carné
(1979) Charles Vanel
Charles Vanel
(1979) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1979) Pierre Braunberger (1980) Louis de Funès
Louis de Funès
(1980) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
(1980) Marcel Pagnol
Marcel Pagnol
(1981) Alain Resnais (1981) Georges Dancigers (1982) Alexandre Mnouchkine (1982) Jean Nény (1982) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1982) Raimu
Raimu
(1983) René Clément
René Clément
(1984) Georges de Beauregard (1984) Edwige Feuillère
Edwige Feuillère
(1984) Christian-Jaque (1985) Danielle Darrieux
Danielle Darrieux
(1985) Christine Gouze-Rénal (1985) Alain Poiré (1985) Maurice Jarre
Maurice Jarre
(1986) Bette Davis
Bette Davis
(1986) Jean Delannoy
Jean Delannoy
(1986) René Ferracci (1986) Claude Lanzmann
Claude Lanzmann
(1986) Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(1987) Serge Silberman (1988) Bernard Blier
Bernard Blier
(1989) Paul Grimault
Paul Grimault
(1989) Gérard Philipe
Gérard Philipe
(1990) Jean-Pierre Aumont
Jean-Pierre Aumont
(1991) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
(1991) Michèle Morgan
Michèle Morgan
(1992) Sylvester Stallone
Sylvester Stallone
(1992) Jean Marais
Jean Marais
(1993) Marcello Mastroianni
Marcello Mastroianni
(1993) Gérard Oury
Gérard Oury
(1993) Jean Carmet
Jean Carmet
(1994) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(1995) Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
(1995) Steven Spielberg
Steven Spielberg
(1995) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
(1996) Henri Verneuil
Henri Verneuil
(1996) Charles Aznavour
Charles Aznavour
(1997) Andie MacDowell
Andie MacDowell
(1997) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(1998) Clint Eastwood
Clint Eastwood
(1998) Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
(1998) Pedro Almodóvar
Pedro Almodóvar
(1999) Johnny Depp
Johnny Depp
(1999) Jean Rochefort
Jean Rochefort
(1999) Josiane Balasko
Josiane Balasko
(2000) Georges Cravenne
Georges Cravenne
(2000) Jean-Pierre Léaud
Jean-Pierre Léaud
(2000) Martin Scorsese
Martin Scorsese
(2000)

2001–present

Darry Cowl (2001) Charlotte Rampling
Charlotte Rampling
(2001) Agnès Varda
Agnès Varda
(2001) Anouk Aimée
Anouk Aimée
(2002) Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
(2002) Claude Rich
Claude Rich
(2002) Bernadette Lafont
Bernadette Lafont
(2003) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
(2003) Meryl Streep
Meryl Streep
(2003) Micheline Presle
Micheline Presle
(2004) Jacques Dutronc
Jacques Dutronc
(2005) Will Smith
Will Smith
(2005) Hugh Grant
Hugh Grant
(2006) Pierre Richard
Pierre Richard
(2006) Marlène Jobert
Marlène Jobert
(2007) Jude Law
Jude Law
(2007) Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
(2008) Roberto Benigni
Roberto Benigni
(2008) Dustin Hoffman
Dustin Hoffman
(2009) Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
(2010) Quentin Tarantino
Quentin Tarantino
(2011) Kate Winslet
Kate Winslet
(2012) Kevin Costner
Kevin Costner
(2013) Scarlett Johansson
Scarlett Johansson
(2014) Sean Penn
Sean Penn
(2015) Michael Douglas
Michael Douglas
(2016) George Clooney
George Clooney
(2017) Penélope Cruz
Penélope Cruz
(2018)

v t e

French New Wave

Cahiers du Cinéma Directors

François Truffaut Jean-Luc Godard Éric Rohmer Claude Chabrol Jacques Rivette

Left Bank

Henri Colpi Marguerite Duras Armand Gatti Chris Marker Alain Resnais Alain Robbe-Grillet Agnès Varda

Other filmmakers

Philippe de Broca Jacques Demy Jean Douchet Jean Eustache Georges Franju Pierre Kast Louis Malle Jean-Pierre Melville Luc Moullet Jacques Rozier Straub–Huillet Roger Vadim

Theoretical influences

Alexandre Astruc André Bazin Robert Bresson Jacques Doniol-Valcroze Henri Langlois Joseph-Marie Lo Duca Jean Rouch

Key films

Le Coup du Berger (1956) Le Beau Serge (1958) Le Signe du Lion (1959) The 400 Blows
The 400 Blows
(1959) Hiroshima mon amour
Hiroshima mon amour
(1959) Breathless (1960) Adieu Philippine
Adieu Philippine
(1962) Cléo from 5 to 7
Cléo from 5 to 7
(1962) La Jetée
La Jetée
(1962)

Related

Auteurism Cahiers du cinéma Cinémathèque Française Jump cut Two in the Wave
Two in the Wave
(2010 documentary)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 44301212 LCCN: n83055343 ISNI: 0000 0000 8122 3767 GND: 119000466 SUDOC: 026964643 BNF: cb119109743 (data) NDL: 00620975 NKC: kup19990000055526 Léonore: 19800035/1437/66346 BNE: XX4901618 SN

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