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Henan
Henan
(Chinese: 河南) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan
Henan
is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (中州) which literally means "central plain land" or "midland", although the name is also applied to the entirety of China
China
proper. Henan
Henan
is the birthplace of Chinese civilization with over 3,000 years of recorded history, and remained China's cultural, economical, and political center until approximately 1,000 years ago. Henan province
Henan province
is a home to a large number of heritage sites which have been left behind including the ruins of Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
capital city Yin and the Shaolin Temple. Four of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China, Luoyang, Anyang, Kaifeng, and Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
are located in Henan. Although the name of the province (河南) means "south of the [Yellow] river",[4] approximately a quarter of the province lies north of the Yellow River, also known as the Huang He. With an area of 167,000 km2 (64,479 sq mi), Henan
Henan
covers a large part of the fertile and densely populated North China
China
Plain. Its neighbouring provinces are Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hebei, Shandong, Anhui
Anhui
and Hubei. Henan
Henan
is China's third most populous province with a population of over 94 million. If it were a country by itself, Henan
Henan
would be the 14th most populous country in the world, ahead of Egypt
Egypt
and Vietnam. Henan
Henan
is the 5th largest provincial economy of China
China
and the largest among inland provinces. However, per capita GDP is low compared to other eastern and central provinces. Henan
Henan
is considered[by whom?] to be one of the less developed areas in China. The economy continues to grow based on aluminum and coal prices, as well as agriculture, heavy industry, tourism, and retail, and hightech industries and service sector is underdeveloped and is concentrated around Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
and Luoyang.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient Era 1.2 Imperial Era 1.3 Modern Era

2 Geography

2.1 Climate

3 Administrative divisions 4 Demographics

4.1 Religions

5 Politics 6 Economy 7 Transportation 8 Culture 9 Tourism 10 Colleges and universities 11 Notable individuals 12 Sports teams 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

History[edit] Widely regarded as the Cradle of Chinese civilization along with Shanxi
Shanxi
and Shaanxi
Shaanxi
provinces, Henan
Henan
is known for its historical prosperity and periodic downturns. The economic prosperity resulted from its extensive fertile plains and its location at the heart of the country. However, its strategic location also means that it has suffered from nearly all of the major wars in China. In addition, the numerous floods of the Yellow River
Yellow River
have caused significant damage from time to time. Kaifeng, in particular, has been buried by the Yellow River's silt seven times due to flooding. Ancient Era[edit]

a Yangshao pot that resembles an owl face.

Archaeological sites reveal that prehistoric cultures such as the Yangshao Culture
Yangshao Culture
and Longshan Culture
Longshan Culture
were active in what is now northern Henan
Henan
since the Neolithic
Neolithic
Era. The more recent Erlitou culture has been controversially identified with the Xia dynasty, the first and largely legendary Chinese dynasty that was established, roughly, in the 21st century BC. Virtually the entire kingdom existed within what is now north and central Henan. The Xia dynasty
Xia dynasty
collapsed around the 16th century BC following the invasion of Shang, a neighboring vassal state centered around today's Shangqiu
Shangqiu
in eastern Henan. The Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
(16th–11th centuries BC) was the first literate dynasty of China. Its many capitals are located at the modern cities of Shangqiu, Yanshi, and Zhengzhou. Their last and most important capital, Yin, located in modern Anyang, is where the first Chinese writing
Chinese writing
was created.

Shang dynasty
Shang dynasty
oracle bone script, the first form of Chinese writing

In the 11th century BC, the Zhou dynasty
Zhou dynasty
of Shaanxi
Shaanxi
arrived from the west and overthrew the Shang dynasty. The capital was moved to Chang'an, and the political and economical center was moved away from Henan
Henan
for the first time. In 722 BC, when Chang'an
Chang'an
was devastated by Xionites
Xionites
invasions, the capital was moved back east to Luoyang. This began the Spring and Autumn period, a period of warfare and rivalry. What is now Henan
Henan
and all of China
China
was divided into a variety of small, independent states, constantly at war for control of the central plain. Although regarded formally as the ruler of China, the control that Zhou king in Luoyang
Luoyang
exerted over the feudal kingdoms had virtually disappeared. Despite the prolonged period of instability, prominent philosophers such as Confucius
Confucius
emerged in this era and offered their ideas on how a state should be run. Laozi, the founder of Taoism, was born in northern Chu, part of modern-day Henan. Later on, these states were replaced by seven large and powerful states during the Warring States period, and Henan
Henan
was divided into three states, the Wei to the north, the Chu to the south, and the Han in the middle. In 221 BC, state of Qin forces from Shaanxi conquered all of the other six states, ending 800 years of warfare. Imperial Era[edit] Ying Zheng, the leader of Qin, crowned himself (220 BCE) as the First Emperor. He abolished the feudal system and centralized all powers, establishing the Qin dynasty
Qin dynasty
and unifying the core of the Han Chinese homeland for the first time. The empire quickly collapsed after the death (210 BCE) of Ying Zheng
Ying Zheng
and was replaced by the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
in 206 BC, with its capital at Chang'an. Thus, a golden age of Chinese culture, economy, and military power began. The capital moved east to Luoyang
Luoyang
in 25 AD, in response to a coup in Chang'an
Chang'an
that created the short-lived Xin dynasty. Luoyang
Luoyang
quickly regained control of China, and the Eastern Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(25–220) began, extending the golden age for another two centuries. The late Eastern Han dynasty
Han dynasty
saw war and rivalry between regional warlords. Xuchang
Xuchang
in central Henan
Henan
was the power base of Cao Cao, who eventually succeeded in unifying all of northern China
China
under the Kingdom of Wei. Wei then moved its capital to Luoyang, which remained the capital after the unification of China
China
by the Western Jin dynasty. During this period Luoyang
Luoyang
became one of the largest and most prosperous cities in the world, despite being repeatedly damaged by warfare.

A late Eastern Han
Eastern Han
(25–220 AD) Chinese tomb mural showing lively scenes of a banquet (yanyin 宴饮), dance and music (wuyue 舞乐), acrobatics (baixi 百戏), and wrestling (xiangbu 相扑), from the Dahuting Tomb(Chinese: 打虎亭汉墓, Pinyin: Dahuting Han mu), on the southern bank of the Suihe River in Zhengzhou, Henan
Henan
province, China
China
(just west of Xi County)

With the fall of the Western Jin dynasty in the 4th and 5th centuries, nomadic peoples from the north invaded northern China
China
and established many successive regimes in northern China, including Henan. These people were gradually assimilated into the Chinese culture
Chinese culture
in a process known as sinification. The short-lived Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
reunified China
China
again in 589 with its capital back in Chang'an. It collapsed due to Sui Emperor Yang's costly attempt to relocate the capital from Chang'an
Chang'an
to Luoyang
Luoyang
and the construction of many extravagant palaces there. The succeeding Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
(618–907) kept its capital in Chang'an, marking the beginning of China's second golden age, with Henan
Henan
being one of the wealthiest places in the empire. The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
lasted for three centuries before it eventually succumbed to internal strife. In the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907–960) that followed, Kaifeng
Kaifeng
in eastern Henan
Henan
became the capital of four dynasties. The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
that reunified China in 982 also had its capital at Kaifeng. Under Song rule, China
China
entered another era of culture and prosperity, and Kaifeng
Kaifeng
overtook Luoyang and Chang'an
Chang'an
as the largest city in China
China
and in the world.[5] In 1127, however, the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
succumbed to Jurchen (Jin dynasty) invaders from the north in the Jin–Song war, and in 1142 ceded all of northern China, including Henan. The Song government moved its capital to Hangzhou
Hangzhou
in Southern China, which, under the Southern Song dynasty (1127–1279) continued to enjoy relative economic and culture prosperity. A prolonged period of peace and cultural and economic prosperity in the Yangtze River
Yangtze River
delta Jiangnan
Jiangnan
region (modern southern Jiangsu, northern Zhejiang, and Shanghai) made this the new center of Chinese culture
Chinese culture
and economy. Kaifeng
Kaifeng
served as the Jurchen's "southern capital" from 1157 (other sources say 1161) and was reconstructed during this time.[6][7] But the Jurchen kept their main capital further north, until 1214, when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifeng
Kaifeng
in order to flee the Mongol
Mongol
onslaught. In 1234 they succumbed to combined Mongol
Mongol
and Song dynasty
Song dynasty
forces. Mongols
Mongols
took control, and in 1279 they conquered all of China, establishing the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
and set up the equivalent of modern Henan
Henan
province, with borders very similar to the modern ones. Neither its territories nor its role in the economy changed under later dynasties. Henan
Henan
remained important in the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
(1644–1911) that followed, though its economy slowly deteriorated due to frequent natural disasters. Modern Era[edit] The Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
was overthrown by the Republic of China
China
in 1911, marking the beginning of China's modern era. The construction and extension of the Pinghan Railway
Pinghan Railway
and Longhai Railway
Longhai Railway
had turned Zhengzhou, a minor county town at the time, into a major transportation hub. Despite the rise of Zhengzhou, Henan's overall economy repeatedly stumbled as it was the hardest hit by the many disasters that struck China
China
in its modern era. Henan
Henan
suffered greatly during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1938, when the Imperial Japanese Army
Imperial Japanese Army
captured Kaifeng, the government led by Chiang Kai-shek
Chiang Kai-shek
bombed the Huayuankou dam in Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
in order to prevent the Japanese forces from advancing further. However, this caused massive flooding in Henan, Anhui, and Jiangsu
Jiangsu
resulting in hundreds of thousands of deaths. In 1942 Henan
Henan
was hit by a great famine resulting from a mix of drought, locusts and destruction caused by the war. Grain requisition policies were continued by Chinese and Japanese authorities despite the shortage of food, making the death toll far greater than it might have been otherwise. In 1954, the new government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
moved the capital of Henan
Henan
from Kaifeng
Kaifeng
to Zhengzhou, as a result of its economic importance. The PRC had earlier established a short-lived Pingyuan Province
Pingyuan Province
consisting of what is now northern Henan
Henan
and western Shandong
Shandong
with Xinxiang
Xinxiang
as its capital. This province was abolished in 1952. In 1958, Yashan in Suiping County, Henan, became the first people's commune of China, heralding the beginning of the "Great Leap Forward". In the subsequent famines of the early 1960s popularly attributed to the Great Leap Forward, Henan
Henan
was one of the hardest hit and millions of lives were lost.[8][unreliable source?] A destructive flooding of the Huai River
Huai River
in the summer of 1950 prompted large-scale construction of dams on its tributaries in central and southern Henan. Unfortunately, many of the dams were not able to withstand the extraordinarily high levels of rainfall caused by Typhoon Nina in August 1975. Sixty-two dams, the largest of which was the Banqiao Dam
Banqiao Dam
in Biyang County collapsed; catastrophic flooding, spread over several counties throughout Zhumadian
Zhumadian
Prefecture and further downstream, killed at least 26,000 people.[9][10] Unofficial human life loss estimates, including deaths from the ensuing epidemics and famine, range as high as 85,600,[9] 171,000[11] or even 230 000.[9] This is considered the most deadly dam-related disaster in human history.[9] By the early 1970s, China
China
was one of the poorest countries in the world, and Henan
Henan
was one of the poorest provinces in China. In 1978, however, when the communist leader Deng Xiaoping
Deng Xiaoping
initiated the open door policy and embraced capitalism, China
China
entered an economic boom that continues today. The boom did not reach inland provinces such as Henan
Henan
initially, but by the 1990s Henan's economy was expanding at an even faster rate than that of China
China
overall. Henan
Henan
has still not, however, entirely shed its reputation as an economic backwater. In recent years the prevalence of "selling blood" (blood donations for payment) among poor villagers has put Henan
Henan
in the national spotlight. It was exposed that AIDS
AIDS
villages, where most of the population is HIV
HIV
positive, exist in Henan. In many rural areas of China
China
during the 1990s, particularly in the province of Henan, tens to hundreds of thousands of farmers and peasants were infected with HIV
HIV
through participation in state-run blood collection programs in which contaminated equipment was reused.[12][13] The initial cover up of the crisis by local officials, followed by the national exposure, has put Henan
Henan
in a somewhat negative spotlight. In November 2004, martial law was declared in Zhongmou County, Henan, to quell deadly ethnic clashes between Han Chinese
Han Chinese
and the Muslim Hui Chinese.[14] The reported number of deaths ranged between 7 and 148. Geography[edit]

Longmen Grottoes
Longmen Grottoes
(Mt. Longmen), Luoyang, Henan

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Henan
Henan
has a diverse landscape with floodplains in the east and mountains in the west. Much of the province forms part the densely populated North China
China
Plain, an area known as the "breadbasket of China". The Taihang Mountains
Taihang Mountains
intrude partially into Henan's northwestern borders from Shanxi, forming the eastern edge of Loess Plateau. To the west the Xionger and Funiu Mountains form an extensive network of mountain ranges and plateaus, supporting one of the few remaining temperate deciduous forests which once covered all of Henan. The renowned Mount Song
Mount Song
and its Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
is located in the far east of the region, near the capital city Zhengzhou. To the far south, the Dabie Mountains
Dabie Mountains
divides Hubei
Hubei
from Henan. The Nanyang Basin, separated from North China Plain
North China Plain
by these mountains, is another important agricultural and population center, with culture and history distinct from the rest of Henan
Henan
and closer to that of Hubei's. Unlike the rest of northern China, desertification is not a problem in Henan, though sandstorms are common in cities near the Yellow River
Yellow River
due to the large amount of sand present in the river. The Yellow River
Yellow River
passes through central Henan. It enters from the northwest, via the Sanmenxia
Sanmenxia
Reservoir. After it passes Luoyang, the mountains gave way to plains. Excessive amount of sediments are formed due to the silt it picks up from the Loess Plateau, raising the riverbed and causing frequent floods which shaped the habitat of the region. More recently however, construction of dams and levees, as well as the depletion of water resources have ended the floods. The Huai River
Huai River
in southern Henan
Henan
is another important river, and has been recognized as part of the boundary dividing northern and southern Chinese climate and culture. Henan
Henan
shares borders with six other provinces. It is bordered to the west by Shaanxi, to the south by Hubei, and to the north by Shanxi (northwest) and Hebei
Hebei
(northeast). To the east lie Shandong (northeast) and Anhui
Anhui
(southeast), whose borders meet at a narrow strip of land which separates Henan
Henan
from Jiangsu
Jiangsu
to the east. Climate[edit] Henan
Henan
has a temperate climate that is humid subtropical (Köppen Cwa or Cfa) to the south of the Yellow River
Yellow River
and bordering on humid continental (Köppen Dwa) to the north. It has a distinct seasonal climate characterised by hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cool to cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian
Siberian
anticyclone. Temperatures average around the freezing mark in January and 27 to 28 °C in July. A great majority of the annual rainfall occurs during the summer. Administrative divisions[edit] Further information: List of administrative divisions of Henan and List of township-level divisions of Henan Henan
Henan
is divided into seventeen prefecture-level divisions: all prefecture-level cities; along with one directly administered county-level city (a sub-prefecture-level city):

Administrative divisions of Henan

№ Division code[15] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[16] Population
Population
2010[17] Seat Divisions[18]

Districts* Counties CL cities

  410000 Henan 河南省 Hénán Shěng 167000.00 94,023,567 Zhengzhou 52 85 21

1 410100 Zhengzhou 郑州市 Zhèngzhōu Shì 7532.56 8,626,505 Zhongyuan District 6 1 5

5 410200 Kaifeng 开封市 Kāifēng Shì 6260.95 4,676,159 Gulou District 5 4

7 410300 Luoyang 洛阳市 Luòyáng Shì 15229.83 6,549,486 Luolong District 6 8 1

9 410400 Pingdingshan 平顶山市 Píngdǐngshān Shì 7909.42 4,904,367 Xinhua District 4 4 2

2 410500 Anyang 安阳市 Ānyáng Shì 7354.11 5,172,834 Beiguan District 4 4 1

3 410600 Hebi 鹤壁市 Hèbì Shì 2136.85 1,569,100 Qibin District 3 2

13 410700 Xinxiang 新乡市 Xīnxiāng Shì 8249.45 5,707,801 Weibin District 4 6 2

4 410800 Jiaozuo 焦作市 Jiāozuò Shì 4000.89 3,539,860 Jiefang District 4 4 2

10 410900 Puyang 濮阳市 Púyáng Shì 4187.90 3,598,494 Hualong District 1 5

15 411000 Xuchang 许昌市 Xǔchāng Shì 4978.36 4,307,199 Weidu District 2 2 2

6 411100 Luohe 漯河市 Luòhé Shì 6260.95 2,544,103 Yancheng District 3 2

11 411200 Sanmenxia 三门峡市 Sānménxiá Shì 9936.65 2,233,872 Hubin District 2 2 2

8 411300 Nanyang 南阳市 Nányáng Shì 26508.69 10,263,006 Wolong District 2 10 1

12 411400 Shangqiu 商丘市 Shāngqiū Shì 10700.23 7,362,472 Liangyuan District 2 6 1

14 411500 Xinyang 信阳市 Xìnyáng Shì 18908.27 6,108,683 Shihe District 2 8

16 411600 Zhoukou 周口市 Zhōukǒu Shì 11959.40 8,953,172 Chuanhui District 1 8 1

17 411700 Zhumadian 驻马店市 Zhùmǎdiàn Shì 15095.30 7,230,744 Yicheng District 1 9

18 419001 Jiyuan
Jiyuan
** 济源市 Jìyuán Shì 1893.76 675,710 Qinyuan Subdistrict

1

* – including Ethnic districts ** – Directly administered county-level divisions ( Jiyuan
Jiyuan
was formerly part of Jiaozuo)

The seventeen prefecture-level divisions and one directly administered county-level city of Henan
Henan
are subdivided into 158 county-level divisions (52 districts,21 county-level cities, and 85 counties; the sub-prefecture-level city of Jiyuan
Jiyuan
is counted as a county-level city here). Those are in turn divided into 2440 township-level divisions (866 towns, 1234 townships, twelve ethnic townships, and 328 subdistricts). Demographics[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1912[19] 28,518,000 —    

1928[20] 30,566,000 +7.2%

1936–37[21] 34,290,000 +12.2%

1947[22] 29,654,000 −13.5%

1954[23] 44,214,594 +49.1%

1964[24] 50,325,511 +13.8%

1982[25] 74,422,739 +47.9%

1990[26] 85,509,535 +14.9%

2000[27] 91,236,854 +6.7%

2010[28] 94,023,567 +3.1%

With a population of approximately 93.6 million, Henan
Henan
is the third most populous Chinese province after Guangdong
Guangdong
and Shandong. It is also the fifth most populous sub-national division in the world. If it were a country by itself, it would be the twelfth most populous in the world, just behind Mexico and ahead of the Philippines. However, the hukou system shows Henan
Henan
as the most populous province in China
China
with over 103 million people, as it counts the migrant Henanese laborers as residents of Henan, instead of the province they currently reside in. On the other hand, Guangdong
Guangdong
is shown as having only 81 million people, though the actual population is 95 million due to the influx of migrants from other provinces. The population is highly homogeneous with 98.8% of the population being Han. Small populations of Mongols
Mongols
and Manchus
Manchus
exists in scattered rural communities as well as major urban centers. Along with Jiangxi, Henan
Henan
has one of the most unbalanced gender ratios in China. As a result of the Chinese government's one-child policy (many parents do not want the only child to be female and abort the fetus), the gender ratio was 118.46 males for 100 females in 2000. Subsequently, aborting fetuses due to their female sex was banned in Henan
Henan
and heavy fines are issued for those who violate the law. In addition, daughter-only families receive an annual allowance from the government.[29] Despite these efforts the problem seems to have become far worse. Based on a 2009 British Medical Journal study, the ratio is over 140 boys for every 100 girls in the 1–4 age group;[30] this might be a strong exaggeration, as many families with more than one child do not register their daughters to the hukou in order to escape fines. Religions[edit]

Religion in Henan
Henan
(2012)[31]   Non religious and traditional faiths (86.1%)   Buddhism (6.4%)   Protestantism (5.6%)   Islam (1.3%)    Catholicism
Catholicism
(0.5%)   Others (0.2%)

According to a 2012 survey[31] only around 13% of the population of Henan
Henan
belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 6.4%, followed by Protestants with 5.6%, Muslims with 1.3% and Catholics with 0.5%. Henan
Henan
has some important centres of Chinese Buddhism, the White Horse Temple
White Horse Temple
and the famous Shaolin Monastery. Henan
Henan
has also the largest Christian population by numbers and percentage of any province of China,[32] 6.1% of the province's population as of 2012[update], corresponding to approximately 7 million Christians, despite a significant decline from 9.33% as of 2009[update].[33] The reports didn't give figures for other types of religion; 86% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Confucianism, Taoism
Taoism
and folk religious sects (for example, a sect that is endogenous to Henan
Henan
is the Tianxian miaodao). According to a 2007 survey, approximately 8% of the Henanese believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, the traditional Chinese religion of the lineages organised into lineage churches and ancestral shrines.[33]

Detail with incense burner at the Guanlin, Temple Mausoleum of Guandi in Luoyang.

Indian style pavilion of the White Horse Temple, the first Buddhist temple in China.

Temple of the Chenghuangshen
Chenghuangshen
(City God) of Anyang.

The Zhongyuan Buddha (Great Buddha of the Central Plains) of the Temple of the Spring in Lushan is currently the highest statue in the world.

Politics[edit] Main articles: Politics of Henan and List of current Chinese provincial leaders The Government of Henan
Henan
is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Henan is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Henan. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Henan
Henan
Communist Party of China
China
Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the " Henan
Henan
CPC Party Chief". Economy[edit] Henan
Henan
has seen rapid development in its economy over the past two decades, and its economy has expanded at an even faster rate than the national average of 10%. This rapid growth has transformed Henan from one of the poorest provinces to one that matches other central provinces, though still relatively impoverished on a national scale. In 2011, Henan's nominal GDP was 3.20 trillion RMB (US$427 billion),[34] making it the fifth largest economy in China, although it ranks nineteenth in terms of GDP per capita. Henan
Henan
is a semi-industrialized economy with an underdeveloped service sector. In 2009, Henan's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 277 billion RMB (US$40 billion), 1.097 trillion RMB (US$160 billion), and 563 billion RMB (US$82 billion), respectively. Agriculture
Agriculture
has traditionally been a pillar of its economy, with the nation's highest wheat and sesame output and second highest rice output, earning its reputation as the breadbasket of China. Henan
Henan
is also an important producer of beef, cotton, maize, pork, animal oil, and corn. Food production and processing makes up more than 14% of the output from the province's secondary industry,[35] and it is said that 90% of Chinese McDonald's
McDonald's
and KFC
KFC
ingredients comes from Henan.[36] Although Henan's industry has traditionally been based on light textiles and food processing, recent developments have diversified the industry sector to metallurgy, petrol, cement, chemical industry, machinery and electronics. Henan
Henan
has the second largest molybdenum reserves in the world. Coal, aluminum, alkaline metals and tungsten are also present in large amounts in western Henan. Export and processing of these materials is one of the main sources of revenues. Henan
Henan
is actively trying to build its economy around the provincial capital of Zhengzhou, and it is hoped that the province may become an important transportation and manufacturing hub in the years to come.[35] In 2008, the total trade volume (import and export) was US$17.5 billion, including US$10.7 billion for exports. Since 2002, 7,111 foreign enterprises have been approved, and foreign funds (FDI) of US$10.64 billion have been used in contracts with a realized FDI of US$5.3 billion. Foreign exchanges are increasing continuously. Friendly provincial relationships have been established with 16 states (districts) in the United States, Japan, Russia, France, Germany, and others. Some cities of Henan
Henan
have established friendly relationships (sister city) with thirty-two foreign cities. Henan's service sector is rather small and underdeveloped. Finance
Finance
and commerce are largely concentrated in urban centers such as Zhengzhou and Luoyang, where the economy is fueled by a large and relatively affluent consumer base. In order to make the economy more knowledge- and technology-based, the government established a number of development zones in all of the major cities, promoting industries such as software, information technologies, new materials, bio-pharmaceutical and photo-machinery-electronics.[37] Henan
Henan
is a major destination for tourists, with places such as Shaolin Temple
Shaolin Temple
and Longmen Grottoes
Longmen Grottoes
attracting millions of tourists each year. Transportation[edit]

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Henan
Henan
has some of the most advanced transportation system in China
China
due to its flat terrain and its location at the heart of central China's construction boom. The Jingguang and Longhai Railway, the nation's two most important railways, run through much of the province and intersects at Zhengzhou. Other railway hubs such as Shangqiu, Xinxiang, and Luohe
Luohe
have also become important centers of trade and manufacturing as a result. A high-speed railway links Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
with Xi'an. Henan's expressway system is highly developed and the total length is approximately 5,000 km (3,100 mi), the highest total for any Chinese province. The state of air transport is less stellar, the only 3 public airports are located in Xinzheng
Xinzheng
(near Zhengzhou), Luoyang, and Nanyang. Culture[edit] Main article: Zhongyuan culture

Most of Henan
Henan
speaks dialects of the Mandarin group of dialects spoken in northern and southwestern China. Linguists put these dialects into the category of "Zhongyuan Mandarin". The northwestern corner of Henan is an exception, where people speak Jin dialects instead. The dialects of Henan
Henan
are collectively called "the Henan
Henan
dialect" in popular usage, with easily identifiable stereotypical features. Yu opera
Yu opera
(Yuju) is the local form of Chinese opera; it is also well-known and popular across the rest of China. Henan
Henan
Quju and Henan Yuediao are also important local opera forms. Henan cuisine is the local cuisine, with traditions such as the Luoyang
Luoyang
Shuixi ( Luoyang
Luoyang
"Water Table", consisting entirely of various soups, etc.); Xinyang
Xinyang
Duncai ( Xinyang
Xinyang
brewed vegetables), and the traditional cuisine of Kaifeng. Important traditional art and craft products include: Junci, a type of porcelain originating in Yuzhou noted for its unpredictable colour patterns; the jade carvings of Zhenping; and Luoyang's Tangsancai ("Tang Three Colours"), which are earthenware figurines made in the traditional style of the Tang dynasty.

Tourism[edit] Henan
Henan
is located in the Yellow River
Yellow River
valley where ancient people lived. Intricate pottery, writing and musical instruments of the Peiligang Culture and Yangshao Culture
Yangshao Culture
arose during neolithic times. Three of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China
China
are in Henan: Luoyang, Kaifeng
Kaifeng
and Anyang. Henan
Henan
is one of the few provinces which has many historical relics in the country. There are 16 key national units of protecting historical relics and 267 provincial units of protecting historical relics. The over-ground historical relics are the second in China
China
in number. Historical relics in museums take up one-eighth of those in China, and the underground historical relics are the first in China
China
in number. In Henan
Henan
Museum there are 120,000 historical relics, including over 40,000 rare ones.

Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory

Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory, the oldest astronomical observatory in China. Annual Peony Show in Luoyang. Mount Jigong, on the southern border. Mount Song, near Dengfeng, one of the Five Sacred Mountains of China. Shaolin Temple, on Mount Song. The Longmen Grottoes, near Luoyang, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
since 2000. Songyue Pagoda Yinxu
Yinxu
in Anyang, a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Youguo Temple
Youguo Temple
with the Iron Pagoda White Horse Temple
White Horse Temple
in Luoyang Baligou in Xinxiang Bigan Temple (比干庙) in Xinxiang Luwang Mausoleum (潞王陵) in Xinxiang Guan Mountain (关山) in Xinxiang Tongbai Mountain (淮渎)[dubious – discuss] in Nanyang Tiantai Mountain (天台山) in jiaozuo

Colleges and universities[edit] See also: List of universities and colleges in Henan Public (a partial list)

Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
University (郑州大学)[2] Henan University
Henan University
(河南大学)[3] Shangqiu
Shangqiu
University(商丘学院) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
University of Light Industry (郑州轻工业大学) Henan
Henan
Normal University(河南师范大学)[4] Henan University
Henan University
of Technology (河南工业大学)[5] Henan Agricultural University (河南农业大学) (founded 1913) Henan
Henan
Medical University Henan
Henan
College of Traditional Chinese Medicine(河南中医学院) Henan University
Henan University
of Science and Technology (河南科技大学) Xinxiang
Xinxiang
University (新乡学院) [www.xxu.edu.cn] Huanghe Science and Technology University (黄河科技学院) Nanyang Institute of Technology North China
China
Institute of Water Conservancy and Hydroelectric Power (华北水利水电学院) Shangqiu
Shangqiu
Normal University (商丘师范学院) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Institute of Aeronautical Industry Management (郑州航空工业管理学院) Zhongyuan Institute of Technology (中原工学院) Anyang
Anyang
Institute of Technology (安阳工学院) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Grain University Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
University of Technology Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Textile Institute Luo Yang Institute of Technology(洛阳理工学院) Pingdingshan
Pingdingshan
Normal College Xinxiang
Xinxiang
Medical University Nanyang Teachers College (南阳师院) Henan Polytechnic University (河南理工大学)

Notable individuals[edit]

Sun Tiantian (born October 12, 1981), tennis player Zhao Ziyang
Zhao Ziyang
(October 17, 1919 − January 17, 2005), former Premier and CCP Secretary Deng Yaping (born February 5, 1973), four-time Olympic gold medalist. Du Wei (born February 9, 1982), professional football player Ge Xin'ai (born June 30, 1953) Table tennis World Champion (1975, 1977, 1979) Chen Zhong, Olympic gold medalist in Taekwondo Liu Guoliang, member of the Chinese ping pong team Su Zhibo, the first Chinese gold medalist in the Asian Games Shang Tang, the first ruling king of the Shang dynasty Hui Shi (380 BC−?), philosopher Xu Shen
Xu Shen
(c.58−c. 147), editor of the Shuowen Jiezi Ruan Ji
Ruan Ji
(210–263), poet Du Fu
Du Fu
(712–770), considered one of the greatest of Chinese poets Han Yu
Han Yu
(768–824), one of China's best known prose writers and poets Li Shangyin (813–858), poet Cheng Hao (1032–1085) and brother Cheng Yi (1033–1107), Neo-Confucian philosophers Li Tang (c. 1080−c. 1130), painter Yuan Shikai
Yuan Shikai
(1859–1916), second President of the Republic of China Feng Youlan
Feng Youlan
(1895–1990), philosopher Lao Zi
Lao Zi
(Lao Tzu: dates uncertain), founder of Daoism Chuang Tzu (born 369 BC), Daoist
Daoist
philosopher Gao Yaojie, medical doctor Mo Zi, founder of Mohism Lie Yukou
Lie Yukou
(c. 4th century BC), Daoist
Daoist
philosopher Li Pei Yun, Member of Henan
Henan
Professional Wushu Team and winner of the gold medal every year from 1977 through 1982 in the Henan
Henan
Province Kung-Fu competition in four different events; Nan Quan Style (empty hand form), Sword, Pairs and Long Stick. Ding Jia, Member of Henan
Henan
Professional Wushu Team and nine (9) time consecutive Chen Style Tai Chi Chinese National Champion. Su Qin Han Fei
Han Fei
(c. 280–233 BC), Legalist philosopher Chen Sheng, (known in some sources as Chen She) and Wu Guang
Wu Guang
(both died 209 BC or 208 BC), leaders of the first rebellion against Qin dynasty Jia Yi, a Chinese poet and statesman of the Han dynasty Zhang Heng, an astronomer, mathematician, inventor, geographer, artist, poet, statesman, and literary scholar of the Eastern Han dynasty Feng Yi, a general of the Eastern Han
Eastern Han
dynasty Zhang Ji (style-named Zhang Zhongjing) (150–219), an Eastern Han physician, the author of the Shanghan Zabing Lun Xu Shu
Xu Shu
one of Liu Bei's advisors during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period of China. Sima Yi
Sima Yi
(179–251), a general, military strategist, and politician of Cao Wei
Cao Wei
during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period Xun Yu
Xun Yu
(styled-named Wenruo), an advisor to Cao Cao
Cao Cao
during the Three Kingdoms period Xun You an advisor to Cao Cao
Cao Cao
during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period Deng Ai
Deng Ai
(?−264), an officer of Cao Wei
Cao Wei
during the Three Kingdoms period Fan Zhen (c. 450–515), a Chinese philosopher of the Southern Qi dynasty, remembered today for the treatise Shen Mie Lun (On the Annihilation of the Soul) Yue Fei
Yue Fei
(1103–1142), a noted Chinese patriot and general who fought for the Southern Song dynasty
Song dynasty
against the Jurchen Zhong you (151–230), a politician and calligrapher in Wei dynasty of San guo

Sports teams[edit] Professional sports teams in Henan
Henan
include;

Chinese Basketball Association

Henan
Henan
Dragons

Chinese Football Association Jia League

Henan
Henan
Jianye F.C.

See also[edit]

China
China
portal

List of Major National Historical and Cultural Sites in Henan

References[edit]

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China
– Survey". Ministry Of Commerce
Commerce
– People's Republic Of China. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.  ^ "百度百科-河南". National Bureau of Statistics of China.  ^ 《2013中国人类发展报告》 (PDF) (in Chinese). United Nations Development Programme China. 2013.  ^ (in Chinese) Origin of the Names of China's Provinces, People's Daily Online. ^ "What Were the Largest Cities Throughout History?". about.com.  ^ "Ethics of China
China
7 BC To 1279 by Sanderson Beck". beck.org.  ^ http://www.upkorea.net/news/photo/7345-2-7037.pdf ^ [1] Archived November 21, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b c d Yi Si, "The World's Most Catastrophic Dam Failures: The August 1975 Collapse of the Banqiao and Shimantan Dams", in: Dai Qing et al, The River Dragon Has Come!: The Three Gorges Dam and the Fate of China’s Yangtze River
Yangtze River
and Its People, pp. 25–38. ^ english@peopledaily.com.cn. " People's Daily Online
People's Daily Online
– After 30 years, secrets, lessons of China's worst dams burst accident surface". people.com.cn.  ^ Evan Osnos, "Faust, China, and Nuclear Power". New Yorker, 2011-10-12 ^ Dong, Dong The Discourse of HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
in China: News Construction and Representation of the Chinese HIV
HIV
Blood Scandal (1998–2002) Annual Meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, May 27, 2004. ^ Kellogg, Tom. Health officials seek to avoid responsibility for the spread of HIV/ AIDS
AIDS
in rural Henan
Henan
Archived 2010-07-14 at the Wayback Machine.. Human Rights in China. February 23, 2003. ^ Nanren, Hannah Beech (4 November 2004). "Henan's Ethnic Tensions" – via www.time.com.  ^ "中华人民共和国县以上行政区划代码". 中华人民共和国民政部.  ^ 深圳市统计局. 《深圳统计年鉴2014》. 深圳统计网. 中国统计出版社. Retrieved 2015-05-29.  ^ shi, Guo wu yuan ren kou pu cha ban gong; council, Guo jia tong ji ju ren kou he jiu ye tong ji si bian = Tabulation on the 2010 population census of the people's republic of China
China
by township / compiled by Population
Population
census office under the state; population, Department of; statistics, employment statistics national bureau of (2012). Zhongguo 2010 nian ren kou pu cha fen xiang, zhen, jie dao zi liao (Di 1 ban. ed.). Beijing
Beijing
Shi: Zhongguo tong ji chu ban she. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.  ^ 中华人民共和国民政部 (August 2014). 《中国民政统计年鉴2014》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.  ^ "1912年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1928年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1936–37年中国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "1947年全国人口". Retrieved 6 March 2014.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于第一次全国人口调查登记结果的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2009-08-05.  ^ "第二次全国人口普查结果的几项主要统计数字". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-09-14.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九八二年人口普查主要数字的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-05-10.  ^ "中华人民共和国国家统计局关于一九九〇年人口普查主要数据的公报". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-06-19.  ^ "现将2000年第五次全国人口普查快速汇总的人口地区分布数据公布如下". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2012-08-29.  ^ "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China
China
on Major Figures of the 2010 Population
Population
Census". National Bureau of Statistics of China. Archived from the original on 2013-07-27.  ^ english@peopledaily.com.cn. " People's Daily Online
People's Daily Online
– China's most populous province legislates to curb gender imbalance". peopledaily.com.cn.  ^ Zhu, Wei Xing; Lu, Li; Hesketh, Therese (9 April 2009). "China's excess males, sex selective abortion, and one child policy: analysis of data from 2005 national intercensus survey". BMJ. 338: b1211. doi:10.1136/bmj.b1211. PMC 2667570 . PMID 19359290 – via www.bmj.com.  ^ a b China
China
Family Panel Studies 2012: 当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据 Archived 2014-08-09 at the Wayback Machine.. p. 013 ^ 当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS (2012)调查数据 Archived 2014-08-09 at the Wayback Machine.. p. 024 ^ a b China
China
General Social Survey 2009, Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2007. Report by: Xiuhua Wang (2015, p. 15) Archived 2015-09-25 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "China's Provincial GDP Figures in 2011 – China
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China
Perspective". thechinaperspective.com.  ^ 河南_百度百科 ^ "Welcome RightSite Visitors". rightsite.asia. 5 June 2016. 

Economic profile for Henan
Henan
at HKTDC

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Henan.

Henan
Henan
Government website (in Chinese) Henan
Henan
travel guide from Wikivoyage

Places adjacent to Henan

Shanxi Hebei Shandong

Shaanxi

Henan

Hubei Anhui

v t e

Henan
Henan
topics

Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(capital)

General

History Politics Economy

Geography

Cities North China
China
Plain Taihang Mountains Loess Plateau Dabie Mountains Yellow River Nanyang Basin Huai River

Education

Henan
Henan
University Henan
Henan
Normal University Henan University
Henan University
of Technology Henan
Henan
Agricultural University

Culture

Zhongyuan culture Zhongyuan Mandarin Yu opera

Cuisine

Xinyang
Xinyang
brewed vegetables Luoyang

Visitor attractions

Gaocheng Astronomical Observatory Mount Song Shaolin Temple Longmen Grottoes Songyue Pagoda Youguo Temple White Horse Temple

Category Commons

v t e

County-level divisions of Henan
Henan
Province

Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(capital)

Prefecture-level cities

Zhengzhou

Zhongyuan District Erqi District Guancheng Hui District Jinshui District Shangjie District Huiji District Xinzheng
Xinzheng
City Dengfeng
Dengfeng
City Xinmi
Xinmi
City Gongyi
Gongyi
City Xingyang
Xingyang
City Zhongmu County

Kaifeng

Gulou District Longting District Shunhe Hui District Yuwangtai District Xiangfu District Qi County Tongxu County Weishi County Lankao County

Luoyang

Xigong District Laocheng District Chanhe Hui District Jianxi District Jili District Luolong District Yanshi City Mengjin County Xin'an County Luanchuan County Song County Ruyang County Yiyang County Luoning County Yichuan County

Pingdingshan

Xinhua District Weidong District Zhanhe District Shilong District Wugang City Ruzhou City Baofeng County Ye County Lushan County Jia County

Anyang

Beiguan District Wenfeng District Yindu District Long'an District Linzhou City Anyang
Anyang
County Tangyin County Hua County Neihuang County

Hebi

Qibin District Shancheng District Heshan District Xun County Qi County

Xinxiang

Weibin District Hongqi District Fengquan District Muye District Weihui City Huixian City Xinxiang
Xinxiang
County Huojia County Yuanyang County Yanjin County Fengqiu County Changyuan County

Jiaozuo

Jiefang District Shanyang District Zhongzhan District Macun District Mengzhou City Qinyang City Xiuwu County Bo'ai County Wuzhi County Wen County

Puyang

Hualong District Qingfeng County Nanle County Fan County Taiqian County Puyang
Puyang
County

Xuchang

Weidu District Jian'an District Yuzhou City Changge
Changge
City Yanling County Xiangcheng County

Luohe

Yuanhui District Yancheng District Shaoling District Wuyang County Linying County

Sanmenxia

Hubin District Shanzhou District Yima City Lingbao City Mianchi County Lushi County

Nanyang

Wolong District Wancheng District Dengzhou
Dengzhou
City Nanzhao County Fangcheng County Xixia County Zhenping County Neixiang County Xichuan County Sheqi County Tanghe County Xinye County Tongbai County

Shangqiu

Liangyuan District Suiyang District Yongcheng City Yucheng County Minquan County Ningling County Sui County Xiayi County Zhecheng County

Xinyang

Shihe District Pingqiao District Xi County Huaibin County Huangchuan County Guangshan County Gushi County Shangcheng County Luoshan County Xin County

Zhoukou

Chuanhui District Xiangcheng City Fugou County Xihua County Shangshui County Taikang County Luyi County Dancheng County Huaiyang County Shenqiu County

Zhumadian

Yicheng District Queshan County Biyang County Suiping County Xiping County Shangcai County Runan County Pingyu County Xincai County Zhengyang County

Sub-prefecture-level city

Jiyuan
Jiyuan
City

v t e

Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Provinces

Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang

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Special
Special
administrative regions

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Other

Taiwan¹

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

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