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Heinrich Schwarz
Heinrich Schwarz
(14 June 1906 – 20 March 1947) was an SS- Hauptsturmführer
Hauptsturmführer
(captain) and concentration camp officer who served as commandant of Auschwitz
Auschwitz
III-Monowitz in Nazi-occupied Poland and Natzweiler-Struthof
Natzweiler-Struthof
in Alsace-Lorraine. Schwarz was born in Munich
Munich
on 14 June 1906 and originally worked as a book printer. He joined both the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
and the SS in November 1931. Following the outbreak of World War II, Schwarz served with the Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
on the Western Front until October 1940, when he was transferred to the SS-Concentration Camps Inspectorate. He was stationed at both the Mauthausen and Sachsenhausen concentration camps during 1940-1941. Auschwitz
Auschwitz
concentration camp[edit] In September 1941 Schwarz was transferred to Poland
Poland
and posted to the administrative office of the Auschwitz
Auschwitz
concentration camp. His initial duties included working as adjutant to the camp's commandant, Rudolf Höß. Schwarz also served as director of the camp's Work Assignment Department (Abt. IIIa) and held the position of Lagerführer for Auschwitz's central administration area. In November 1943, Höß was appointed assistant director of Office Group D for the SS Economic and Administrative Main Office in Berlin. Following his departure, the Auschwitz
Auschwitz
camp system was reorganized by the high command of the SS and divided into three semi-autonomous administrative units: Auschwitz I, Auschwitz
Auschwitz
II-Birkenau and the Auschwitz
Auschwitz
III-Monowitz labor camp. Under this new arrangement Schwarz was given command of Auschwitz III-Monowitz in December 1943. Central to the role Schwarz played as commandant was the provision of slave-laborers to the nearby Buna Werke, a synthetic rubber factory owned by the German chemical company IG Farben. Other German corporations, such as Siemens
Siemens
and Krupp, also received slave labor from Monowitz. The brutal working conditions which prevailed at Monowitz during the period Schwarz served as commandant resulted in a large number of deaths among the inmate population, with estimates ranging between 10,000 and 35,000 prisoners who were believed to have died in the labor camp itself or in the gas chambers located at neighboring Auschwitz-Birkenau. Following the evacuation of Auschwitz
Auschwitz
complex on 18 January 1945, Schwarz was initially slated to take over command of the Mittelbau-Dora
Mittelbau-Dora
concentration camp and the associated V-weapons production facility of Mittelwerk, but was passed over for this post in favor of Richard Baer. He was instead appointed commandant of Natzweiler-Struthof
Natzweiler-Struthof
in Alsace, where he oversaw the evacuation of the camp's inmates to Dachau during the spring and summer 1945. War crimes
War crimes
trial[edit] After the German defeat, Schwarz was tried and convicted of war crimes by French occupation authorities in Rastatt; in connection with atrocities committed during his brief tenure as commandant of Natzweiler-Struthof. He was sentenced to death and subsequently shot by firing squad near Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
on 20 March 1947.[1] References[edit]

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The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland

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Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

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Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber
Gas chamber
executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
"RONA" Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
"Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

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Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Warsaw Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz
Auschwitz
Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

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Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz
Auschwitz
trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz
Auschwitz
trial (Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau
Auschwitz-Birkenau
Memorial and Museum Majdanek State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 167691

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