Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi,
pronounced [ʔoːˈlɛlo həˈvɐjʔi]) is a Polynesian
language that takes its name from Hawaiʻi, the largest island in the
tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. Hawaiian, along
with English, is an official language of the State of Hawaii. King
Kamehameha III established the first Hawaiian-language constitution in
1839 and 1840.
For various reasons, including territorial legislation establishing
English as the official language in schools, the number of native
speakers of Hawaiian gradually decreased during the period from the
1830s to the 1950s. Hawaiian was essentially displaced by English on
six of seven inhabited islands. In 2001, native speakers of Hawaiian
amounted to under 0.1% of the statewide population. Linguists were
unsure that Hawaiian and other endangered languages would
Nevertheless, from around 1949 to the present day, there has been a
gradual increase in attention to and promotion of the language. Public
Hawaiian-language immersion preschools called
Pūnana Leo were started
in 1984; other immersion schools followed soon after that. The first
students to start in immersion preschool have now graduated from
college and many are fluent Hawaiian speakers. The federal government
has acknowledged this development. For example, the Hawaiian National
Park Language Correction Act of 2000 changed the names of several
national parks in Hawaiʻi, observing the Hawaiian spelling.
However, the language is still classified as critically endangered by
A pidgin or creole language spoken in Hawaiʻi is Hawaiian
Hawaii Creole English, HCE). It should not be mistaken for the
Hawaiian language nor for a dialect of English.
Hawaiian alphabet has 13 letters: five vowels (each with a long
pronunciation and a short one) and eight consonants, one of which is
the glottal stop called ʻokina.
2 Family and origin
2.1 Methods of proving Hawaiian's linguistic relationships
3.1 First European contact
3.1.1 Folk tales
3.2 Written Hawaiian
3.3 Suppression of Hawaiian
3.4 1949 to present
4.2 Glottal stop
4.2.2 Electronic encoding
7 See also
10 External links
Hawaiian language takes its name from the largest island in the
Hawaii (Hawaiʻi in the Hawaiian language). The island
name was first written in English in 1778 by British explorer James
Cook and his crew members. They wrote it as "Owhyhee" or "Owhyee".
Explorers Mortimer (1791) and
Otto von Kotzebue
Otto von Kotzebue (1821) used that
The initial "O" in the name is a reflection of the fact that unique
identity is predicated in Hawaiian by using a copula form, o,
immediately before a proper noun. Thus, in Hawaiian, the name of
the island is expressed by saying O Hawaiʻi, which means "[This] is
Hawaiʻi." The Cook expedition also wrote "Otaheite" rather than
The spelling "why" in the name reflects the [hw] pronunciation of wh
in 18th-century English (still used in parts of the English-speaking
world). Why was pronounced [hwai]. The spelling "hee" or "ee" in the
name represents the sounds [hi], or [i].
Putting the parts together, O-why-(h)ee reflects [o-hwai-i], a
reasonable approximation of the native pronunciation, [o hɐwɐiʔi].
American missionaries bound for Hawaiʻi used the phrases "Owhihe
Language" and "Owhyhee language" in
Boston prior to their departure in
October 1819 and during their five-month voyage to Hawaiʻi. They
still used such phrases as late as March 1822. However, by July
1823, they had begun using the phrase "Hawaiian Language."
In Hawaiian, ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi means "Hawaiian language", as
adjectives follow nouns.
Family and origin
Hawaiian is a Polynesian member of the Austronesian language
family. It is closely related to other Polynesian languages, such
as Samoan, Marquesan, Tahitian, Māori, Rapa Nui (the language of
Easter Island) and Tongan.
According to Schütz (1994), the Marquesans colonized the archipelago
in roughly 300 CE followed by later waves of immigration from the
Society Islands and Samoa-Tonga. Their languages, over time, became
Hawaiian language within the Hawaiian Islands. Kimura and
Wilson (1983) also state:
"Linguists agree that Hawaiian is closely related to Eastern
Polynesian, with a particularly strong link in the Southern Marquesas,
and a secondary link in Tahiti, which may be explained by voyaging
between the Hawaiian and Society Islands."
Methods of proving Hawaiian's linguistic relationships
The genetic history of the
Hawaiian language is demonstrated primarily
through the application of lexicostatistics, which involves
quantitative comparison of lexical cognates, and the comparative
method. Both the number of cognates and the phonological
similarity of cognates are measures of language relationship.
The following table provides a limited lexicostatistical data set for
ten numbers. The asterisk (*) is used to show that these are
hypothetical, reconstructed forms. In the table, the year date of the
modern forms is rounded off to 2000 CE to emphasize the 6000-year time
lapse since the PAN era.
Numbers in Austronesian languages
PAN, c. 4000 BCE
ciek (Indonesia)/satu (Malaysia)
tekau (archaic: ngahuru)
Leeward Islands (Society Islands)
Leeward Islands (Society Islands) language
Note: For the number "10", the Tongan form in the table is part of the
word /hoŋo-fulu/ ('ten'). The Hawaiian cognate is part of the word
/ana-hulu/ ('ten days'); however, the more common word for "10" used
in counting and quantifying is /ʔumi/, a different root.[citation
Application of the lexicostatistical method to the data in the table
will show the four languages to be related to one another, with
Tagalog having 100% cognacy with PAN, while Hawaiian and Tongan have
100% cognacy with each other, but 90% with Tagalog and PAN. This is
because the forms for each number are cognates, except the Hawaiian
and Tongan words for the number "1", which are cognate with each
other, but not with Tagalog and PAN. When the full set of 200 meanings
is used, the percentages will be much lower. For example, Elbert found
Hawaiian and Tongan to have 49% (98 ÷ 200) shared cognacy. This
points out the importance of data-set size for this method, where less
data leads to cruder results, while more data leads to better
Application of the comparative method will show partly different
genetic relationships. It will point out sound changes, such as:
the loss of all PAN word-final consonants in Tongan and Hawaiian;
lowering of PAN *u to Tagalog [o] in word-final syllables;
retention of PAN *t in word-initial and word-medial position in
Tagalog and Tongan, but shift to /k/ in Hawaiian;
retention of PAN *p in Tagalog, but shift to /f/ in Tongan and /h/ in
This method will recognize sound change #1 as a shared innovation of
Hawaiian and Tongan. It will also take the Hawaiian and Tongan
cognates for "1" as another shared innovation. Due to these
exclusively shared features, Hawaiian and Tongan are found to be more
closely related to one another than either is to Tagalog or
The forms in the table show that the Austronesian vowels tend to be
relatively stable, while the consonants are relatively volatile. It is
also apparent that the Hawaiian words for "3", "5", and "8" have
remained essentially unchanged for 6000 years.
Hawaiian language history before 1778, see § Family and
First European contact
In 1778, British explorer
James Cook made Europe's initial, recorded
first contact with Hawaiʻi, beginning a new phase in the development
of Hawaiian. During the next forty years, the sounds of Spanish
(1789), Russian (1804), French (1816), and German (1816) arrived in
Hawaiʻi via other explorers and businessmen. Hawaiian began to be
written for the first time, largely restricted to isolated names and
words, and word lists collected by explorers and travelers.
The early explorers and merchants who first brought European languages
to the Hawaiian islands also took on a few native crew members who
Hawaiian language into new territory. Hawaiians took
these nautical jobs because their traditional way of life changed due
to plantations, and although there were not enough of these
Hawaiian-speaking explorers to establish any viable speech communities
abroad, they still had a noticeable presence. One of them, a boy
in his teens known as Obookiah (ʻŌpūkahaʻia), had a major impact
on the future of the language. He sailed to New England, where he
eventually became a student at the
Foreign Mission School
Foreign Mission School in Cornwall,
Connecticut. He inspired New Englanders to support a Christian mission
to Hawaiʻi, and provided information on the
Hawaiian language to the
American missionaries there prior to their departure for Hawaiʻi in
Like all natural spoken languages, the
Hawaiian language was
originally just an oral language. The native people of the Hawaiian
language relayed religion, traditions, history, and views of their
world through stories that were handed down from generation to
generation. One form of storytelling most commonly associated with the
Hawaiian islands is hula. Nathaniel B. Emerson notes that "It kept the
communal imagination in living touch with the nation's legendary
The islanders' connection with their stories is argued to be one
reason why Captain
James Cook received a pleasant welcome. Marshall
Sahlins has observed that Hawaiian folktales began bearing similar
content to those of the Western world in the eighteenth century.
He argues this was caused by the timing of Captain Cook's arrival,
which was coincidentally when the indigenous Hawaiians were
celebrating the Makahiki festival. The islanders' story foretold of
the god Lono's return at the time of the Makahiki festival.
Protestant missionaries from
New England arrived in Hawaiʻi.
Adelbert von Chamisso
Adelbert von Chamisso might have consulted with a native speaker of
Hawaiian in Berlin, Germany, before publishing his grammar of Hawaiian
(Über die Hawaiische Sprache) in 1837. When Hawaiian King David
Kalākaua took a trip around the world, he brought his native language
with him. When his wife, Queen Kapiʻolani, and his sister, Princess
(later Queen) Liliʻuokalani, took a trip across North America and on
to the British Islands, in 1887, Liliʻuokalani's composition Aloha
ʻOe was already a famous song in the U.S.
Headline from May 16, 1834, issue of newspaper published by Lorrin
Andrews and students at
In 1834, the first Hawaiian-language newspapers were published by
missionaries working with locals. The missionaries also played a
significant role in publishing a vocabulary (1836) grammar
(1854) and dictionary (1865) of Hawaiian. Literacy in Hawaiian
was widespread among the local population, especially ethnic
Hawaiians. Use of the language among the general population might have
peaked around 1881. Even so, some people worried, as early as 1854,
that the language was "soon destined to extinction."
Suppression of Hawaiian
The decline of the
Hawaiian language dates back to a coup that
overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy and dethroned the existing Hawaiian
queen. Thereafter, a law was instituted that banned the Hawaiian
language from being taught. The law cited as banning the Hawaiian
language is identified as Act 57, sec. 30 of the 1896 Laws of the
Republic of Hawaiʻi:
The English Language shall be the medium and basis of instruction in
all public and private schools, provided that where it is desired that
another language shall be taught in addition to the English language,
such instruction may be authorized by the Department, either by its
rules, the curriculum of the school, or by direct order in any
particular instance. Any schools that shall not conform to the
provisions of this section shall not be recognized by the Department.
— The Laws of Hawaii, Chapter 10, Section 123
This law established English as the medium of instruction for the
government-recognized schools both "public and private". While it did
not ban or make illegal the
Hawaiian language in other contexts, its
implementation in the schools had far-reaching effects. The banishment
was only two years removed from acknowledgement as a legitimate
sovereign government. From July 1894 to January 1895, 19 nations,
including the United States, recognized Hawai'i as an independent
country. Those who had been pushing for English-only schools took
this law as licence to extinguish the native language at the early
education level. While the law stopped short of making Hawaiian
illegal (it was still the dominant language spoken at the time), many
children who spoke Hawaiian at school, including on the playground,
were disciplined. This included corporal punishment and going to the
home of the offending child to strongly advise them to stop speaking
it in their home. Moreover, the law specifically provided for teaching
languages "in addition to the English language," reducing Hawaiian to
the status of a foreign language, subject to approval by the
Department. Hawaiian was not taught initially in any school, including
the all-Hawaiian Kamehameha Schools. This is largely because when
these schools were founded, like
Kamehameha Schools founded in 1887
(nine years before this law), Hawaiian was being spoken in the home.
Once this law was enacted, individuals at these institutions took it
upon themselves to enforce a ban on Hawaiian. Beginning in 1900, Mary
Kawena Pukui, who was later the co-author of the Hawaiian–English
Dictionary, was punished for speaking Hawaiian by being rapped on the
forehead, allowed to eat only bread and water for lunch, and denied
home visits on holidays.
Winona Beamer was expelled from
Kamehameha Schools in 1937 for chanting Hawaiian.
1949 to present
In 1949, the legislature of the Territory of Hawaiʻi commissioned
Mary Pukui and Samuel Elbert to write a new dictionary of Hawaiian,
either revising the Andrews-Parker work or starting from scratch.
Pukui and Elbert took a middle course, using what they could from the
Andrews dictionary, but making certain improvements and additions that
were more significant than a minor revision. The dictionary they
produced, in 1957, introduced an era of gradual increase in attention
to the language and culture.
Efforts to promote the language have increased in recent decades.
Hawaiian-language "immersion" schools are now open to children whose
families want to reintroduce
Hawaiian language for future
generations. The ʻAha Pūnana Leo’s Hawaiian language
preschools in Hilo, Hawaii, have received international
recognition. The local
National Public Radio
National Public Radio station features a
short segment titled "Hawaiian word of the day" and a Hawaiian
language news broadcast.
Honolulu television station
KGMB ran a weekly
Hawaiian language program, ʻĀhaʻi ʻŌlelo Ola, as recently as
2010. Additionally, the Sunday editions of the Honolulu
Star-Advertiser, the largest newspaper in Hawaii, feature a brief
article called Kauakukalahale written entirely in Hawaiian by
teachers, students, and community members.
Today, the number of native speakers of Hawaiian, which was under 0.1%
of the statewide population in 1997, has risen to 2,000, out of 24,000
total who are fluent in the language, according to the US 2011 census.
On six of the seven permanently inhabited islands, Hawaiian has been
largely displaced by English, but on Niʻihau, native speakers of
Hawaiian have remained fairly isolated and have continued to use
Hawaiian almost exclusively.
Niʻihau is the only area in the world where Hawaiian is the first
language and English is a foreign language. Because of many
sufficiently marked variations,
Niihau people, when visiting or living
in Honolulu, substitute the
Oahu dialect for their own –
apparently easy to do – saying that otherwise people in
Honolulu have trouble understanding them.
Niihau people speak very
rapidly; many vowels and entire syllables are dropped or
— Samuel Elbert and Mary Pukui, Hawaiian Grammar (1979)
The isolated island of Niʻihau, located off the southwest coast of
Kauai, is the one island where Hawaiian is still spoken as the
language of daily life. Elbert & Pukui (1979:23) states that
"[v]ariations in Hawaiian dialects have not been systematically
studied", and that "[t]he dialect of
Niʻihau is the most aberrant and
the one most in need of study". They recognized that Niʻihauans can
speak Hawaiian in substantially different ways. Their statements are
based in part on some specific observations made by Newbrand (1951).
(See Hawaiian phonological processes)
Main article: Hawaiian alphabet
Hawaiians had no written language prior to Western contact, except for
petroglyph symbols. The modern Hawaiian alphabet, ka pīʻāpā
Hawaiʻi, is based on the Latin script. Hawaiian words end only in
vowels, and every consonant must be followed by a vowel. The Hawaiian
alphabetical order has all of the vowels before the consonants, as
in the following chart.
This writing system was developed by American
during 1820–1826. It was the first thing they ever printed in
Hawaiʻi, on January 7, 1822, and it originally included the
consonants B, D, R, T, and V, in addition to the current ones (H, K,
L, M, N, P, W), and it had F, G, S, Y and Z for "spelling foreign
words". The initial printing also showed the five vowel letters (A, E,
I, O, U) and seven of the short diphthongs (AE, AI, AO, AU, EI, EU,
In 1826, the developers voted to eliminate some of the letters which
represented functionally redundant allophones (called "interchangeable
letters"), enabling the
Hawaiian alphabet to approach the ideal state
of one-symbol-one-phoneme, and thereby optimizing the ease with which
people could teach and learn the reading and writing of Hawaiian.
For example, instead of spelling one and the same word as pule, bule,
pure, and bure (because of interchangeable p/b and l/r), the word is
spelled only as pule.
Interchangeable B/P. B was dropped, P was kept.
Interchangeable L/R. R and D were dropped, L was kept.
Interchangeable K/T. T was dropped, K was kept.
Interchangeable V/W. V was dropped, W was kept.
However, hundreds of words were very rapidly borrowed into Hawaiian
from English, Greek, Hebrew, Latin, and Syriac. Although
these loan words were necessarily Hawaiianized, they often retained
some of their "non-Hawaiian letters" in their published forms. For
example, Brazil fully Hawaiianized is Palakila, but retaining "foreign
letters" it is Barazila. Another example is Gibraltar, written as
Kipalaleka or Gibaraleta. While [z] and [ɡ] are not regarded as
Hawaiian sounds, [b], [ɹ], and [t] were represented in the original
alphabet, so the letters (b, r, and t) for the latter are not truly
"non-Hawaiian" or "foreign", even though their post-1826 use in
published matter generally marked words of foreign origin.
Main article: ʻokina
ʻOkina (ʻoki 'cut' + -na '-ing') is the modern
Hawaiian name for the
symbol (a letter) that represents the glottal stop. It was
formerly known as ʻuʻina ('snap').
For examples of the ʻokina, consider the Hawaiian words Hawaiʻi and
Oʻahu (often simply
Oahu in English orthography). In
Hawaiian, these words can be pronounced [hʌˈʋʌi.ʔi] and
[oˈʔʌ.hu], and can be written with an
ʻokina where the glottal
stop is pronounced.
Elbert & Pukui's Hawaiian Grammar says "The glottal stop, ‘, is
made by closing the glottis or space between the vocal cords, the
result being something like the hiatus in English oh-oh."
As early as 1823, the missionaries made some limited use of the
apostrophe to represent the glottal stop, but they did not make it
a letter of the alphabet. In publishing the Hawaiian Bible, they used
it to distinguish koʻu ('my') from kou ('your'). In 1864, William
DeWitt Alexander published a grammar of Hawaiian in which he made it
clear that the glottal stop (calling it "guttural break") is
definitely a true consonant of the Hawaiian language. He wrote it
using an apostrophe. In 1922, the Andrews-Parker dictionary of
Hawaiian made limited use of the opening single quote symbol, called
"reversed apostrophe" or "inverse comma", to represent the glottal
stop. Subsequent dictionaries have preferred to use that symbol.
Today, many native speakers of Hawaiian do not bother, in general, to
write any symbol for the glottal stop. Its use is advocated mainly
among students and teachers of Hawaiian as a second language, and
»ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi« (Hawaiian: Hawaiian language) within single
quotes, font: Linux Libertine. The glyph of the two ʻokinas is
clearly different from the one of the opening quote.
ʻokina is written in various ways for electronic uses:
turned comma: ʻ,
Unicode hex value 02BB (decimal 699). This does not
always have the correct appearance because it is not supported in some
opening single quote, a.k.a. left single quotation mark: ‘ Unicode
hex value 2018 (decimal 8216). In many fonts this character looks like
either a left-leaning single quotation mark or a quotation mark
thicker at the bottom than at the top. In more traditional serif fonts
Times New Roman
Times New Roman it can look like a very small "6" with the
circle filled in black: ‘.
Because many people who want to write the
ʻokina are not familiar
with these specific characters and/or do not have access to the
appropriate fonts and input and display systems, it is sometimes
written with more familiar and readily available characters:
the ASCII apostrophe ',
Unicode hex value 27 (decimal 39),
following the missionary tradition.
the ASCII grave accent (often called "backquote" or "backtick") `,
Unicode hex value 60 (decimal 96)
the right single quotation mark, or "curly apostrophe" ’, Unicode
hex value 2019 (decimal 146)
Hawaiian name for the macron symbol is kahakō (kaha 'mark' +
kō 'long'). It was formerly known as mekona (Hawaiianization of
macron). It can be written as a diacritical mark which looks like a
hyphen or dash written above a vowel, i.e., ā ē ī ō ū and Ā Ē
Ī Ō Ū. It is used to show that the marked vowel is a "double", or
"geminate", or "long" vowel, in phonological terms. (See: Vowel
As early as 1821, at least one of the missionaries, Hiram Bingham, was
using macrons (and breves) in making handwritten transcriptions of
Hawaiian vowels. The missionaries specifically requested their
Boston to send them some type (fonts) with accented vowel
characters, including vowels with macrons, but the sponsor made only
one response and sent the wrong font size (pica instead of small
pica). Thus, they could not print ā, ē, ī, ō, nor ū (at the
right size), even though they wanted to.
Due to extensive allophony, Hawaiian has more than 13 phones. Although
vowel length is phonemic, long vowels are not always pronounced as
such, even though under the rules for assigning stress in
Hawaiian, a long vowel will always receive stress.
Main article: Hawaiian phonology
t ~ k
w ~ v
Hawaiian is known for having very few consonant phonemes –
eight: /p, k ~ t, ʔ, h, m, n, l, w ~ v/. It is notable that Hawaiian
has allophonic variation of [t] with [k], [w] with
[v], and (in some dialects) [l] with [n]. The [t]–[k]
variation is quite unusual among the world's languages, and is likely
a product both of the small number of consonants in Hawaiian, and the
recent shift of historical *t to modern [t]–[k], after historical *k
had shifted to [ʔ]. In some dialects, /ʔ/ remains as [k] in some
words. These variations are largely free, though there are
conditioning factors. /l/ tends to [n] especially in words with both
/l/ and /n/, such as in the island name Lānaʻi
([laːˈnɐʔi]–[naːˈnɐʔi]), though this is not always the case:
ʻeleʻele or ʻeneʻene "black". The [k] allophone is almost
universal at the beginnings of words, whereas [t] is most common
before the vowel /i/. [v] is also the norm after /i/ and /e/, whereas
[w] is usual after /u/ and /o/. After /a/ and initially, however, [w]
and [v] are in free variation."A consonant occurs only before a
vowel; thus two consonants never occur in succession and a syllable
always ends with a vowel".
Hawaiian has five short and five long vowels, plus diphthongs.
ɛ ~ e
ɐ ~ ə
Hawaiian has five pure vowels. The short vowels are /u, i, o, e, a/,
and the long vowels, if they are considered separate phonemes rather
than simply sequences of like vowels, are /uː, iː, oː, eː, aː/.
When stressed, short /e/ and /a/ tend to become [ɛ] and [ɐ], while
when unstressed they are [e] and [ə]. /e/ also tends to become [ɛ]
next to /l/, /n/, and another [ɛ], as in Pele [pɛlɛ]. Some
grammatical particles vary between short and long vowels. These
include a and o "of", ma "at", na and no "for". Between a back vowel
/o/ or /u/ and a following non-back vowel (/a e i/), there is an
epenthetic [w], which is generally not written. Between a front vowel
/e/ or /i/ and a following non-front vowel (/a o u/), there is an
epenthetic [j] (a y sound), which is never written.
Ending with /u/
Ending with /i/
Ending with /o/
Ending with /e/
Starting with /i/
Starting with /o/
Starting with /e/
Starting with /a/
The short-vowel diphthongs are /iu, ou, oi, eu, ei, au, ai, ao, ae/.
In all except perhaps /iu/, these are falling diphthongs. However,
they are not as tightly bound as the diphthongs of English, and may be
considered vowel sequences. (The second vowel in such sequences may
receive the stress, but in such cases it is not counted as a
diphthong.) In fast speech, /ai/ tends to [ei] and /au/ tends to [ou],
conflating these diphthongs with /ei/ and /ou/.
There are only a limited number of vowels which may follow long
vowels, and some authors treat these sequences as diphthongs as well:
/oːu, eːi, aːu, aːi, aːo, aːe/.
Ending with /u/
Ending with /i/
Ending with /o/
Ending with /e/
Starting with /o/
Starting with /e/
Starting with /a/
Hawaiian syllable structure is (C)V. All CV syllables occur except for
wū; wu occurs only in two words borrowed from English. As
shown by Schütz, Hawaiian word-stress is predictable in
words of one to four syllables, but not in words of five or more
syllables. Hawaiian phonological processes include palatalization and
deletion of consonants, as well as raising, diphthongization,
deletion, and compensatory lengthening of vowels. Phonological
reduction (or "decay") of consonant phonemes during the historical
development of the language has resulted in the phonemic glottal
stop. Ultimate loss (deletion) of intervocalic consonant
phonemes has resulted in Hawaiian long vowels and
Main article: Hawaiian grammar
Hawaiian is an analytic language with verb–subject–object word
order. While there is no use of inflection for verbs, in Hawaiian,
like other Austronesian personal pronouns, declension is found in the
differentiation between a- and o-class genitive case personal pronouns
in order to indicate inalienable possession in a binary possessive
class system. Also like many Austronesian languages, Hawaiian pronouns
employ separate words for inclusive and exclusive we (clusivity), and
distinguish singular, dual, and plural. The grammatical function of
verbs is marked by adjacent particles (short words) and by their
relative positions, that indicate tense–aspect–mood.
Some examples of verb phrase patterns:
ua VERB – perfective
e VERB ana – imperfective
ke VERB nei – present progressive
e VERB – imperative
mai VERB – negative imperative
i VERB – purposive
ke VERB – infinitive
Nouns can be marked with articles:
ka honu (the turtle)
nā honu (the turtles)
ka hale (the house)
ke kanaka (the person)
ka and ke are singular definite articles. ke is used before words
beginning with a-, e-, o- and k-, and with some words beginning ʻ-
and p-. ka is used in all other cases. nā is the plural definite
To show part of a group, the word kekahi is used. To show a bigger
part, mau is inserted to pluralize the subject.
kekahi pipi (one of the cows)
kekahi mau pipi (some of the cows)
The list of Hawaiian words and list of words of Hawaiian origin at
Wiktionary, a free dictionary and sibling project
Languages of the United States
List of English words of Hawaiian origin
Pidgin Hawaiian (not to be confused with Hawaiian Pidgin)
^ "Hawaiian". Ethnologue. SIL International. 2015. Retrieved 13
January 2016. Location: Hawaiian Islands, mainly
Island of Hawaiʻi, some on all other islands
^ "Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English".
www.census.gov. US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2017-10-29.
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute
for the Science of Human History.
Mary Kawena Pukui
Mary Kawena Pukui and
Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003). "lookup of
ʻōlelo". in Hawaiian Dictionary. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic
Library, University of
^ see e.g. (Hinton & Hale 2001)
^ "The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii". National
Archives and Records Administration.
^ Hawaiian National Park Language Correction Act of 2000 (S.939)
^ "UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in danger". www.unesco.org.
^ Schütz (1994:44, 459)
^ Carter (1996:144, 174)
^ Carter (1996:187–188)
^ Schütz (1994:41)
^ Schütz (1994:61–65)
^ Schütz (1994:304, 475)
^ Schütz (1994:108–109)
^ Schütz (1994:306)
^ Carter (1996:3 Figure 1)
^ Lyovin (1997:257–258)
^ Schütz (1994:334–336; 338 20n)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:35–36)
^ Kimura & Wilson (1983:185)
^ Lyovin (1997:1–12)
^ Schütz (1994:322–338)
^ The Proto-Austronesian (PAN) forms are from Li (2004:4). The Tagalog
forms are from Ramos (1971), the Tongan from Churchward (1959), and
the Hawaiian from Pukui & Elbert (1986).
^ a b Schütz (1994:333)
^ Lyovin (1997:8–12)
^ Schütz (1994:31–40)
^ Schütz (1994:43–44)
^ Nettle and Romaine, Daniel and Suzanne (2000). Vanishing Voices.
Oxford University Press. pp. 93–97.
^ Schütz (1994:85–97)
^ Emerson, Nathaniel B. (1909). Unwritten Literature of Hawaii: The
Sacred Songs of the Hula. Washington Government Printing Office.
^ Sahlins, Marshall (1985). Islands of History. University of Chicago
^ Kanopy (Firm). (2016). Nature Gods and Tricksters of Polynesia. San
Francisco, California, USA: Ka Streaming.
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:2)
^ Carter (1996:7, 169) example 138, quoting McGuire
^ Andrews (1836)
^ Elbert (1954)
^ Andrews (1865)
^ quoted in Schütz (1994:269–270)
^ a b "Meet the last native speakers of Hawaiian". Retrieved 10 May
^ Congress, United States. (1898). Congressional Edition. U.S.
Government Printing Office. p. 1-PA23. Retrieved
^ "The Republic of
Hawaii was given formal diplomatic recognition as
the rightful government of
Hawaii by at least 19 other nations from
July 1894 through January 1895.
Liliuokalani herself proclaimed the
Kingdom was finished and swore her oath of loyalty to the Republic.
Also Japan, in April 1897, raised the status of its office in Honolulu
from Consulate to Legation (a status not previously accorded during
the Kingdom period)". Angelfire. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
^ Mary Kawena Pukui, Nana i ke Kumu, Vol. 2 p. 61–62
^ M. J. Harden, Voices of Wisdom: Hawaiian Elders Speak, p. 99
^ Schütz (1994:230)
^ Warner (1996)
^ "Hawaiian Language Preschools Garner International Recognition".
Indian Country Today Media Network. 2004-05-30. Retrieved
^ "Hawaiian News: ʻÂhaʻi ʻÔlelo Ola –
Hawaii News Now – KGMB
Hawaii News Now. Retrieved May 12, 2012. External
link in work= (help)
^ a b Lyovin (1997:258)
^ Ramones, Ikaika. "
Niʻihau family makes rare public address".
http://hawaiiindependent.net. Retrieved 10 May 2017. External
link in website= (help)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:23)
^ Wight (2005:x)
^ Schütz (1994:217, 223)
^ Schütz (1994:98–133)
^ Schütz (1994:110) Plate 7.1
^ Schütz (1994:122–126; 173–174)
^ a b Lyovin (1997:259)
^ Schütz (1994:223)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:27, 31–32)
^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:406)
^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:450)
^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:257, 281, 451)
^ Schütz (1994:146)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:11)
^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:62, 275)
^ In English, the glottal stop is usually either omitted, or is
replaced by a non-phonemic glide, resulting in [hʌˈwai.i] or
[hʌˈwai.ji], and [oˈa.hu] or [oˈwa.hu]. Note that the latter two
are essentially identical in sound.
^ a b c Elbert, Samuel H.; Pukui, Mary Kawena (1979). Hawaiian
Grammar. Honolulu: University of
Hawaii Press. pp. 10, 14,
^ Schütz (1994:143)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:11)
^ Schütz (1994:144–145)
^ a b Schütz (1994:139–141)
^ Schütz (1994:146–148)
Hawaii County Real Property Tax Office". Retrieved 2009-03-03. This
site was designed to provide quick and easy access to real property
tax assessment records and maps for properties located in the County
of Hawaiʻi and related general information about real property tax
^ "Hawaiian diacriticals". Archived from the original on 2009-03-02.
Retrieved 2009-03-03. Over the last decade, there has been an attempt
by many well-meaning locals (Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian) to use
substitute characters when true diacriticals aren't available. ...
This brings me to one of my pet peeves and the purpose of this post:
misuse of the backtick (`) character. Many of the previously-mentioned
well-intentioned folks mistakenly use a backtick to represent an
ʻokina, and it drives me absolutely bonkers.
^ "Laʻakea Community". Retrieved 2009-03-03. Laʻakea Community
formed in 2005 when a group of six people purchased Laʻakea
^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:109, 110, 156, 478)
^ a b Elbert & Pukui (1979:14–15)
^ Schütz (1994:139, 399)
^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:xvii–xviii)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:14, 20–21)
^ Schütz (1994:115)
^ a b Elbert & Pukui (1979:22–25)
^ Kinney (1956)
^ Newbrand (1951)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:12–13)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:25–26)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979)
^ Pukui & Elbert (1986) see Hawaiian headwords.
^ Schütz (1994:29 4n)
^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:386)
^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:xvii–xviii)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:16–18)
^ Kinney (1956))
^ Robert Louis Stevenson, In the South Seas, 1891 page 12, quoted in
^ a b Carter (1996:373)
^ Lyovin (1997:268)
^ Pukui & Elbert (1986:164, 167)
^ Elbert & Pukui (1979:107–108))
Andrews, Lorrin (1836). A Vocabulary of Words in the Hawaiian
Language. Press of the
Lahainaluna high school.
Andrews, Lorrin (1865). A Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language. Notes
by William de Witt Alexander. Originally published by Henry M.
Whitney, Honolulu, republished by Island Heritage Publishing 2003.
Carter, Gregory Lee (1996). The Hawaiian Copula Verbs He, ʻO, and I,
as Used in the Publications of Native Writers of Hawaiian: A Study in
Hawaiian Language and Literature (Ph.D. thesis). University of
Churchward, C. Maxwell (1959). Tongan Dictionary. Tonga: Government
Printing Office. .
Dyen, Isidore (1965). "A Lexicostatistical Classification of the
Austronesian Languages". Indiana University Publications in
Anthropology and Linguistics. Memoir 19 of the International
Journal of American Linguistics.
Elbert, Samuel H. (1954). "Hawaiian Dictionaries, Past and Future".
Hawaiian Historical Society Annual Reports.
Elbert, Samuel H.; Pukui, Mary Kawena (1979). Hawaiian Grammar.
Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii.
Hinton, Leanne; Hale, Kenneth (2001). The Green Book of Language
Revitalization in Practice. Academic Press.
Kimura, Larry; Wilson, Pila (1983). "Native Hawaiian Culture". Native
Hawaiian Study Commission Minority Report. Washington: United States
Department of Interior. pp. 173–203.
Kinney, Ruby Kawena (1956). "A Non-purist View of Morphomorphemic
Variations in Hawaiian Speech". Journal of the Polynesian Society. 65
(3): 282–286. JSTOR 20703564.
Li, Paul Jen-kuei (2001). "The Dispersal of the Formosan Aborigines in
Taiwan" (PDF). Languages and Linguistics. 2 (1): 271–278. Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-12.
Li, Paul Jen-kuei (2004). Numerals in Formosan Languages. Taipei:
Lyovin, Anatole V. (1997). An Introduction to the Languages of the
World. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Newbrand, Helene L. (1951). A Phonemic Analysis of Hawaiian (M.A.
thesis). University of Hawaiʻi.
Pukui, Mary Kawena; Elbert, Samuel H. (1986). Hawaiian Dictionary.
University of Hawaiʻi
University of Hawaiʻi Press. ISBN 0-8248-0703-0.
Ramos, Teresita V. (1971). Tagalog Dictionary. Honolulu: The
University Press of Hawaii. ISBN 0-87022-676-2.
Schütz, Albert J. (1994). The Voices of Eden: A History of Hawaiian
Language Studies. Honolulu:
University of Hawaiʻi
University of Hawaiʻi Press.
U.S. Census (April 2010). "Table 1. Detailed Languages Spoken at Home
and Ability to Speak English for the Population 5 Years and Over for
the United States: 2006–2008" (MS-Excel Spreadsheet). American
Community Survey Data on Language Use. Washington, DC, USA: U.S.
Census Bureau. Retrieved May 7, 2012.
Warner, Sam L. (1996). I Ola ka ʻŌlelo i nā Keiki: Ka ʻApo ʻia
ʻana o ka ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi e nā Keiki ma ke Kula Kaiapuni. [That
the Language Live through the Children: The Acquisition of the
Hawaiian Language by the Children in the Immersion School.] (Ph.D.
thesis). University of Hawaiʻi. OCLC 38455191.
Wight, Kahikāhealani (2005). Learn Hawaiian at Home. Bess Press.
ISBN 1-57306-245-6. OCLC 76789116.
Wilson, William H. (1976). The O and A Possessive Markers in Hawaiian
(M.A. thesis). University of Hawaiʻi. OCLC 16326934.
Hawaiian edition of, the free encyclopedia
Hawaiian language test of
Wiktionary at Wikimedia Incubator
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hawaiian phrasebook.
Niuolahiki Distance Learning Program (a moodle-based online study
program for Hawaiian)
Ulukau – the Hawaiian electronic library, includes English to/from
Hawaiian language newspapers published between 1834 and 1948
Hawaiian Vocabulary List (from the World Loanword Database)
Ka Haka ʻUla O Keʻelikōlani, College of Hawaiian Language
Kulaiwi – learn Hawaiian through distance learning courses
Hawaiian.saivus.org – Detailed Hawaiian Language Pronunciation
Traditional and Neo Hawaiian: The Emergence of a New Form of Hawaiian
Language as a Result of Hawaiian Language Regeneration
"Hale Pa'i" Article about
Hawaiian language newspapers printed at
Lahainaluna on Maui.
Maui No Ka 'Oi Magazine Vol.12 No.3 (May 2008).
"Speak Hawaiian" Article about
Hawaiian language resource on iPhone.
Glossary of common Hawaiian vocabulary
How to Pronounce "Hawai'i", Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D, 2008
OLAC Resources in and about the Hawaiian language
" Article about Hawaiian Dictionary resource on iPhone in Honolulu
Magazine. (May 2012).
Languages of Hawaiʻi
American Sign Language
American Sign Language (ASL)
Hawaiʻi Sign Language (HSL)
State of Hawaii
Discovery and settlement
ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi (Hawaiian Language)
Seal of Hawaii
French Frigate Shoals
Pearl and Hermes
2008 occupation of Iolani Palace