HOME
The Info List - Harper Lee





Nelle Harper Lee
Harper Lee
(April 28, 1926 – February 19, 2016), better known by her pen name Harper Lee, was an American novelist widely known for To Kill a Mockingbird, published in 1960. Immediately successful, it won the 1961 Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
and has become a classic of modern American literature. Though Lee had only published this single book, in 2007 she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom
Presidential Medal of Freedom
for her contribution to literature.[1] Additionally, Lee received numerous honorary degrees, though she declined to speak on those occasions. She was also known for assisting her close friend Truman Capote
Truman Capote
in his research for the book In Cold Blood
In Cold Blood
(1966).[2] Capote was the basis for the character Dill in To Kill a Mockingbird.[3] The plot and characters of To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
are loosely based on Lee's observations of her family and neighbors, as well as an event that occurred near her hometown in 1936, when she was 10 years old. The novel deals with the irrationality of adult attitudes towards race and class in the Deep South
Deep South
of the 1930s, as depicted through the eyes of two children. The novel was inspired by racist attitudes in her hometown of Monroeville, Alabama. Another novel, Go Set a Watchman, was written in the mid-1950s and published in July 2015 as a "sequel", though it was later confirmed to be To Kill a Mockingbird's first draft.[4][5][6]

Contents

1 Early life 2 To Kill a Mockingbird

2.1 Origin 2.2 Autobiographical details in the novel

3 After To Kill a Mockingbird

3.1 Middle years 3.2 2005–2014 3.3 2015: Go Set a Watchman

4 Death 5 Fictional portrayals 6 Works

6.1 Books 6.2 Articles

7 See also 8 References 9 External links

Early life Nelle Harper Lee
Harper Lee
was born on April 28, 1926, in Monroeville, Alabama [7] where she grew up as the youngest of four children of Frances Cunningham (Finch) and Amasa Coleman Lee.[8] Her parents chose her middle name, Harper, to honor pediatrician Dr. William W. Harper, of Selma, Alabama, who saved the life of her sister Louise.[9] Her first name, Nelle, was her grandmother's name spelled backwards and the name she used;[10] Harper Lee
Harper Lee
being primarily her pen name.[10] Lee's mother was a homemaker; her father, a former newspaper editor, and proprietor, practiced law and served in the Alabama
Alabama
State Legislature from 1926 to 1938. Before A.C. Lee became a title lawyer, he once defended two black men accused of murdering a white storekeeper. Both clients, a father, and son, were hanged.[11] Lee had three siblings: Alice Finch Lee (1911–2014),[12] Louise Lee Conner (1916–2009), and Edwin Lee (1920–1951).[13] While enrolled at Monroe County High School, Lee developed an interest in English literature. After graduating from high school in 1944,[8] she attended the then all-female Huntingdon College
Huntingdon College
in Montgomery for a year, then transferred to the University of Alabama
University of Alabama
in Tuscaloosa, where she studied law for several years and wrote for the university newspaper, but did not complete a degree.[8] In the summer of 1948, Lee attended a summer school in European civilization at Oxford University in England, financed by her father, who hoped – in vain, as it turned out – that the experience would make her more interested in her legal studies in Tuscaloosa.[14] To Kill a Mockingbird

I never expected any sort of success with Mockingbird. I was hoping for a quick and merciful death at the hands of the reviewers, but at the same time I sort of hoped someone would like it enough to give me encouragement. Public encouragement. I hoped for a little, as I said, but I got rather a whole lot, and in some ways this was just about as frightening as the quick, merciful death I'd expected. — Harper Lee, quoted in Newquist, 1964[15]

In 1949, Lee moved to New York City
New York City
and took a job as an airline reservation agent, writing fiction in her spare time.[8] Having written several long stories, Lee found an agent in November 1956. The following month, at Michael Brown's East 50th Street townhouse, she received a gift of a year's wages from friends with a note: "You have one year off from your job to write whatever you please. Merry Christmas."[16] Origin In the spring of 1957, a 31-year-old Lee delivered the manuscript for Go Set a Watchman to her agent to send out to publishers, including the now-defunct J. B. Lippincott Company, which eventually bought it.[17] At Lippincott, the novel fell into the hands of Therese von Hohoff Torrey—known professionally as Tay Hohoff. Hohoff was impressed. "[T]he spark of the true writer flashed in every line", she would later recount in a corporate history of Lippincott.[17] But as Hohoff saw it, the manuscript was by no means fit for publication. It was, as she described it, "more a series of anecdotes than a fully conceived novel".[17] During the next couple of years, she led Lee from one draft to the next until the book finally achieved its finished form and was retitled To Kill a Mockingbird.[17] Like many unpublished authors, Lee was unsure of her talents. "I was a first-time writer, so I did as I was told," Lee said in a statement in 2015 about the evolution from Watchman to Mockingbird.[17] Hohoff offers a more detailed characterization of the process in the Lippincott corporate history: "After a couple of false starts, the story-line, interplay of characters, and fall of emphasis grew clearer, and with each revision—there were many minor changes as the story grew in strength and in her own vision of it—the true stature of the novel became evident." (In 1978, Lippincott was acquired by Harper & Row, which became HarperCollins, publisher of Watchman.)[17] There appeared to be a natural give and take between author and editor. "When she disagreed with a suggestion, we talked it out, sometimes for hours," Hohoff wrote. "And sometimes she came around to my way of thinking, sometimes I to hers, sometimes the discussion would open up an entirely new line of country."[17]

External video

After Words interview with Shields on Mockingbird: A Portrait of Harper Lee, July 11, 2015, C-SPAN

As for her relationship with Lee, it's clear that Hohoff provided more than just editorial guidance. One winter night, as Charles J. Shields recounts in Mockingbird: A Portrait of Harper Lee, Lee threw her manuscript out her window and into the snow, before calling Hohoff in tears. "Tay told her to march outside immediately and pick up the pages," Shields wrote.[17] When the novel was finally ready, the author opted to use the name "Harper Lee", rather than risk having her first name Nelle be misidentified as "Nellie".[18] Published July 11, 1960, To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
was an immediate bestseller and won great critical acclaim, including the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1961. It remains a bestseller, with more than 30 million copies in print. In 1999, it was voted "Best Novel of the Century" in a poll by the Library Journal.[19] Autobiographical details in the novel Like Lee, the tomboy Scout of the novel is the daughter of a respected small-town Alabama
Alabama
attorney. Scout's friend, Dill, was inspired by Lee's childhood friend and neighbor, Truman Capote;[11] Lee, in turn, is the model for a character in Capote's first novel, Other Voices, Other Rooms, published in 1948. Although the plot of Lee's novel involves an unsuccessful legal defense similar to one undertaken by her attorney father, the 1931 landmark Scottsboro Boys
Scottsboro Boys
interracial rape case may also have helped to shape Lee's social conscience.[20] While Lee herself downplayed autobiographical parallels in the book, Truman Capote, mentioning the character Boo Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird, described details he considered autobiographical: "In my original version of Other Voices, Other Rooms I had that same man living in the house that used to leave things in the trees, and then I took that out. He was a real man, and he lived just down the road from us. We used to go and get those things out of the trees. Everything she wrote about it is absolutely true. But you see, I take the same thing and transfer it into some Gothic dream, done in an entirely different way."[21]

After To Kill a Mockingbird Middle years After completing To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee accompanied Capote to Holcomb, Kansas, to assist him in researching what they thought would be an article on a small town's response to the murder of a farmer and his family. Capote expanded the material into his best-selling book, In Cold Blood, published in 1966. From the time of the publication of To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
until her death in 2016, Lee granted almost no requests for interviews or public appearances and, with the exception of a few short essays, published nothing further, until 2015. She did work on a follow-up novel—The Long Goodbye—but eventually filed it away unfinished.[22] During the mid-1980s, she began a factual book about an Alabama
Alabama
serial murderer, but also put it aside when she was not satisfied.[22] Her withdrawal from public life prompted unfounded speculation that new publications were in the works.

Film producer Alan J. Pakula
Alan J. Pakula
with Lee, who spent three weeks watching the filming of To Kill a Mockingbird in 1962.[23]

Lee said of the 1962 Academy Award–winning screenplay adaptation of To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
by Horton Foote: "I think it is one of the best translations of a book to film ever made."[24] She became a friend of Gregory Peck, and after his death remained close to the actor's family; Peck's grandson, Harper Peck Voll, is named after her.[25] Peck won an Oscar for his portrayal of Atticus Finch, the father of the novel's narrator, Scout. In January 1966, President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
appointed Lee to the National Council on the Arts.[26] In 1966, Lee wrote a letter to the editor in response to the attempts of a Richmond, Virginia, area school board to ban To Kill a Mockingbird as "immoral literature":

“ Recently I have received echoes down this way of the Hanover County School Board's activities, and what I've heard makes me wonder if any of its members can read. Surely it is plain to the simplest intelligence that To Kill a Mockingbird spells out in words of seldom more than two syllables a code of honor and conduct, Christian in its ethic, that is the heritage of all Southerners. To hear that the novel is 'immoral' has made me count the years between now and 1984, for I have yet to come across a better example of doublethink. I feel, however, that the problem is one of illiteracy, not Marxism. Therefore I enclose a small contribution to the Beadle Bumble Fund that I hope will be used to enroll the Hanover County School Board in any first grade of its choice.[11]

James J. Kilpatrick, the editor of The Richmond News Leader, started the Beadle Bumble fund to pay fines for victims of what he termed "despots on the bench". He built the fund using contributions from readers and later used it to defend books as well as people. After the board in Richmond ordered schools to dispose of all copies of To Kill a Mockingbird, Kilpatrick wrote, "A more moral novel scarcely could be imagined." In the name of the Beadle Bumble fund, he then offered free copies to children who wrote in, and by the end of the first week, he had given away 81 copies.[27] When Lee attended the 1983 Alabama
Alabama
History and Heritage Festival in Eufaula, Alabama, she presented the essay "Romance and High Adventure".[28] Late in 1978, Lee spent some time in Alexander City, Alabama, researching a true-crime book called The Reverend.[29] Lee lived for 40 years at 433 East 82nd Street in Manhattan.[30] 2005–2014 In March 2005, Lee arrived in Philadelphia – her first trip to the city since signing with publisher Lippincott in 1960 – to receive the inaugural ATTY Award for positive depictions of attorneys in the arts from the Spector Gadon & Rosen Foundation.[31] At the urging of Peck's widow, Veronique Peck, Lee traveled by train from Monroeville to Los Angeles in 2005 to accept the Los Angeles Public Library Literary Award.[32] She also attended luncheons for students who have written essays based on her work, held annually at the University of Alabama.[24][33] On May 21, 2006, she accepted an honorary degree from the University of Notre Dame, where graduating seniors saluted her with copies of To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
during the ceremony.[34] On May 7, 2006, Lee wrote a letter to Oprah Winfrey
Oprah Winfrey
(published in O, The Oprah Magazine in July 2006) about her love of books as a child and her dedication to the written word: "Now, 75 years later in an abundant society where people have laptops, cell phones, iPods and minds like empty rooms, I still plod along with books."[35] While attending an August 20, 2007, ceremony inducting four members into the Alabama
Alabama
Academy of Honor, Lee declined an invitation to address the audience, saying: "Well, it's better to be silent than to be a fool."[36][37]

Lee being awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, November 5, 2007

On November 5, 2007, George W. Bush
George W. Bush
presented Lee with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. This is the highest civilian award in the United States and recognizes individuals who have made "an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors".[38][39] In 2010, President Barack Obama
Barack Obama
awarded Lee the National Medal of Arts, the highest award given by the United States government for "outstanding contributions to the excellence, growth, support and availability of the arts".[40] In a 2011 interview with an Australian newspaper, Rev. Dr. Thomas Lane Butts said Lee now lived in an assisted-living facility, wheelchair-bound, partially blind and deaf, and suffering from memory loss. Butts also shared that Lee told him why she never wrote again: "Two reasons: one, I wouldn't go through the pressure and publicity I went through with To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
for any amount of money. Second, I have said what I wanted to say, and I will not say it again."[41] On May 3, 2013, Lee had filed a lawsuit in the United States District Court to regain the copyright to To Kill a Mockingbird, seeking unspecified damages from a son-in-law of her former literary agent and related entities. Lee claimed that the man "engaged in a scheme to dupe" her into assigning him the copyright on the book in 2007 when her hearing and eyesight were in decline, and she was residing in an assisted-living facility after having suffered a stroke.[42][43][44] In September 2013, attorneys for both sides announced a settlement of the lawsuit.[45] In February 2014, Lee settled a lawsuit against the Monroe County Heritage Museum for an undisclosed amount. The suit alleged that the museum had used her name and the title To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
to promote itself and to sell souvenirs without her consent.[46][47] Lee's attorneys had filed a trademark application on August 19, 2013, to which the museum filed an opposition. This prompted Lee's attorney to file a lawsuit on October 15 that same year, "which takes issue the museum's website and gift shop, which it accuses of 'palming off its goods', including T-shirts, coffee mugs other various trinkets with Mockingbird brands."[48] 2015: Go Set a Watchman According to Lee's lawyer Tonja Carter, following an initial meeting to appraise Lee's assets in 2011, she re-examined Lee's safe-deposit box in 2014 and found the manuscript for Go Set a Watchman. After contacting Lee and reading the manuscript, she passed it on to Lee's agent Andrew Nurnberg.[49][50] On February 3, 2015, it was announced that HarperCollins
HarperCollins
would publish Go Set a Watchman,[51] which includes versions of many of the characters in To Kill a Mockingbird. According to a HarperCollins press release, it was originally thought that the Watchman manuscript was lost.[52] According to Nurnberg, Mockingbird was originally intended to be the first book of a trilogy: "They discussed publishing Mockingbird first, Watchman last, and a shorter connecting novel between the two."[53] Jonathan Mahler's account in The New York Times
The New York Times
of how Watchman was only ever really considered to be the first draft of Mockingbird makes this assertion seem unlikely.[17] Evidence where the same passages exist in both books, in many cases word for word, also further refutes this assertion.[54] The book was controversially[4] published in July 2015 as a sequel to To Kill a Mockingbird, though it has been confirmed to be the first draft of the latter, with many narrative incongruities, repackaged and released as a completely separate work.[4] The book is set some 20 years after the time period depicted in Mockingbird, when Scout returns as an adult from New York to visit her father in Maycomb, Alabama.[55] It alludes to Scout's view of her father, Atticus Finch, as the moral compass ("watchman") of Maycomb,[56] and, according to the publisher, how she finds upon her return to Maycomb, that she "is forced to grapple with issues both personal and political as she tries to understand her father's attitude toward society and her own feelings about the place where she was born and spent her childhood."[57] Not all reviewers have such a harsh opinion about the publication of the sequel book. Michiko Kakutani in Books of The Times article[58] finds that the book "makes for disturbing reading" when Scout is shocked to find... that her beloved father... has been affiliating with raving anti-integration, anti-black crazies, and the reader shares her horror and confusion... Though it lacks the lyricism... the portions of "Watchman" dealing with Scout's childhood and her adult romance with Henry capture the daily rhythms of life in a small town and are peppered with portraits of minor characters" and she mentions that "Students of writing will find 'Watchman' fascinating." While not fully praising the book she finds the publication of "Watchman" an important step stone in understanding Harper Lee's work.[58] The publication of the novel (announced by her lawyer) raised concerns over why Lee, who for 55 years had maintained that she would never write another book, would suddenly choose to publish again. In February 2015, the State of Alabama, through its Human Resources Department, launched an investigation into whether Lee was competent enough to consent to the publishing of Go Set a Watchman.[10] The investigation found that the claims of coercion and elder abuse were unfounded,[59] and, according to Lee's lawyer, Lee was "happy as hell" with the publication.[60]

External video

Discussion with Marja Mills on The Mockingbird Next Door, July 23, 2014, C-SPAN

This characterization, however, was contested by many of Lee's friends.[4][61][62] Marja Mills, author of The Mockingbird Next Door: Life with Harper Lee, a friend and former neighbor, painted a very different picture.[63] In her piece for The Washington Post, "The Harper Lee
Harper Lee
I knew",[61] she quoted Alice—Lee's sister, whom she described as "gatekeeper, advisor, protector" for most of Lee's adult life—as saying, "Poor Nelle Harper can't see and can't hear and will sign anything put before her by anyone in whom she has confidence." She made note that Watchman was announced just two and a half months after Alice's death and that all correspondence to and from Lee went through her new attorney. She described Lee as "in a wheelchair in an assisted living center, nearly deaf and blind, with a uniformed guard posted at the door" and her visitors "restricted to those on an approved list."[61] New York Times
New York Times
columnist Joe Nocera continued this argument.[4] He also took issue with how the book was promoted by the 'Murdoch Empire' as a "newly discovered" novel, attesting that the other people in the Sothebys meeting insisted that Lee's attorney was present in 2011, when Lee's former agent (who was subsequently fired) and the Sotheby's specialist found the manuscript. They said she knew full well that it was the same one submitted to Tay Hohoff in the 1950s that was reworked into Mockingbird, and that Lee's lawyer Tonja Carter had been sitting on the discovery, waiting for the moment when she, and not Alice, would be in charge of Harper Lee's affairs.[4] Stephen Peck, son of actor Gregory Peck, also expressed concern. Responding to the question of how he thought his father would have reacted to the book, he said that he "would have appreciated the discussion the book has prompted, but would have been troubled by the decision to publish it."[62] Peck noted that his father considered Lee a dear friend. She gave him the pocket watch that had belonged to her father, on whom she modeled Atticus and that Gregory wore it the night he won an Oscar for the role.[62] Stephen, who is president and chief executive of the United States Veterans Initiative, went on to say "I think he would have felt very protective of her," and that his father would have counseled Lee not to publish Watchman because it could taint Mockingbird, one of the most beloved novels (in) American history.[62] "Not to protect himself, but to protect her," Peck said, also noting that the decision to publish it was made not long after the death of Alice Lee, who had long handled Harper Lee's affairs. "You just don't know how that decision was made. ... If he had to, he would have flown down to talk to her. I have no doubt." Later in the article, which was posted in The Wall Street Journal, he said, "To me, it was an unedited draft. Do you want to put that early version out there or do you want to put it in the University of Alabama
University of Alabama
archives for scholars to look at?"[62] Death Lee died in her sleep on the morning of February 19, 2016, aged 89.[64][65] Prior to her death, she lived in Monroeville, Alabama.[66] On February 20, her funeral was held at First United Methodist Church in Monroeville.[67] The service was attended by close family and friends, and the eulogy was given by Wayne Flynt.[68] Fictional portrayals Harper Lee
Harper Lee
was portrayed by Catherine Keener
Catherine Keener
in the film Capote (2005), by Sandra Bullock
Sandra Bullock
in the film Infamous (2006), and by Tracey Hoyt in the TV movie Scandalous Me: The Jacqueline Susann
Jacqueline Susann
Story (1998).[69] In the adaptation of Truman Capote's novel Other Voices, Other Rooms (1995), the character of Idabel Thompkins, who was inspired by Capote's memories of Lee as a child, was played by Aubrey Dollar. Works Books

To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
(1960) Go Set a Watchman (2015)

Articles

"Love—In Other Words". Vogue. April 15, 1961. pp. 64–65.  "Christmas to Me". McCall's. December 1961.  "When Children Discover America". McCall's. August 1965.  "Romance and High Adventure". 1983.  A paper presented in Eufaula, Alabama, and collected in the anthology Clearings in the Thicket (1985). " Open letter
Open letter
to Oprah Winfrey". O: The Oprah Magazine. July 2006. 

See also

Alabama
Alabama
literature

References

^ "President Bush Honors Medal of Freedom Recipients" (Press release). The White House. November 5, 2007.  ^ Harris, Paul (May 4, 2013). " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
sues agent over copyright to To Kill A Mockingbird". The Guardian.  ^ Langer, Emily (February 19, 2016). "Harper Lee, elusive author of 'To Kill a Mockingbird,' is dead at 89". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved February 19, 2016.  ^ a b c d e f Nocera, Joe (July 24, 2015). "The Harper Lee
Harper Lee
'Go Set A Watchman' Fraud". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2015.  ^ Oldenburg, Ann (February 3, 2015). "New Harper Lee
Harper Lee
novel on the way!". USA Today. Retrieved February 3, 2015.  ^ Alter, Alexandra (February 3, 2015). "Harper Lee, Author of 'To Kill a Mockingbird,' Is to Publish a Second Novel". The New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2015.  ^ Grimes, William (February 19, 2016). "Harper Lee, Author of 'To Kill a Mockingbird,' Dies at 89". New York Times. Retrieved February 19, 2016.  ^ a b c d Anderson, Nancy G. (March 19, 2007). "Nelle Harper Lee". The Encyclopedia of Alabama. Auburn University at Montgomery. Retrieved November 3, 2010.  ^ Mills, Marja (2014). The Mockingbird Next Door: Life with Harper Lee. Penguin. p. 181. ISBN 9780698163836.  ^ a b c Kovaleski, Serge (March 11, 2015). "Harper Lee's Condition Debated by Friends, Fans and Now State of Alabama". New York Times. New York. Retrieved March 12, 2015.  ^ a b c Shields, Charles J. (2006). Mockingbird: A Portrait of Harper Lee. Henry Holt and Co. Retrieved February 19, 2016.  ^ Woo, Elaine (November 22, 2014). "Lawyer Alice Lee dies at 103; sister of 'To Kill a Mockingbird' author". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "Louise L. Conner Obituary". The Gainesville Sun.  ^ "Harper Lee's Oxford Summer," Department of Continuing Education, Oxford University: unsigned article is also undated, but written after publication of Go Set a Watchman; accessed 12 December 2016. ^ Newquist, Roy, ed. (1964). Counterpoint. Chicago: Rand McNally. ISBN 1-111-80499-0.  ^ "Harper Lee". NNDB.com. Retrieved May 7, 2007.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Mahler, Jonathan (July 12, 2015). "The Invisible Hand Behind Harper Lee's 'To Kill A Mockingbird'". The New York Times. Retrieved December 15, 2015.  ^ Maslin, Janet (June 8, 2006). "A Biography of Harper Lee, Author of 'To Kill a Mockingbird'". The New York Times. Retrieved November 30, 2014.  ^ "1960, To Kill a Mockingbird". PBS. Retrieved November 30, 2014.  ^ Johnson, Claudia Durst (1994). To Kill a Mockingbird: Threatening Boundaries. Twayne.  ^ Nance, William (1970). The Worlds of Truman Capote. New York: Stein & Day. p. 223.  ^ a b "A writer's story: The mockingbird mystery". The Independent. June 4, 2006. Retrieved August 3, 2008.  ^ Bellafante, Ginia (January 20, 2006). Harper Lee, Gregarious for a Day, The New York Times. Retrieved on November 13, 2007. ^ a b Bellafante, Ginia (January 30, 2006). "Harper Lee, Gregarious for a Day". The New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2008.  ^ Lacher, Irene (May 21, 2005). " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
raises her low profile for a friend". LA Times. Retrieved March 3, 2017.  ^ "26 to Be Advisory Board for National Endowment". The New York Times. January 28, 1966. Retrieved November 30, 2014. In a parallel development to- day, the President appointed Harper Lee, author of the Pulitzer Prize-winning "To Kill a Mockingbird." and Richard Diebenkorn, artist, to the National Council on the Arts.  ^ "Newspapers: Spoofing the Despots". Time. January 21, 1966. Retrieved April 29, 2011.  ^ Monroe County Heritage Museums (1999). Monroeville: The Search for Harper Lee's Maycomb. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-7385-0204-5. Retrieved June 15, 2015.  ^ Kemp, Kathy (November 10, 2010). "In search of Harper Lee". AL.com.  ^ Oleksinski, Johnny. Find out if New York’s greatest writers lived next door. The New York Post April 14, 2017, https://nypost.com/2017/04/14/find-out-if-new-yorks-greatest-writers-lived-next-door/ Accessed April 14, 2017 ^ Reynolds, Jennifer (February 11, 2015). "Meeting 'Mockingbird' author Harper Lee". Delaware County Daily Times. Retrieved March 5, 2015.  ^ Nelson, Valerie J. (August 19, 2012). " Veronique Peck dies at 80; Gregory Peck's widow was L.A. philanthropist". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 2, 2012.  ^ Lacher, Irene (May 21, 2005). " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
raises her low profile for a friend". Los Angeles Times.  ^ "Commencement 2006". Notre Dame Magazine. Retrieved November 30, 2014.  ^ " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
Writes Rare Item for O Magazine". The Washington Post. Associated Press. June 26, 2006.  ^ Paraphrase of a well-known American saying: "Better to remain silent and be thought a fool, than to speak and remove all doubt." The origin of the saying is uncertain; see Quote Investigator, 17 May 2010. ^ "Author has her say". The Boston Globe. August 21, 2007.  ^ Martin, Virginia (November 5, 2007). " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
given Presidential Medal of Freedom". The Birmingham News.  ^ "Author Lee receives top US honour". BBC News. November 6, 2007.  ^ "Harper Lee". National Endowment for the Arts. Retrieved February 4, 2015.  ^ Toohey, Paul (July 31, 2011). "Miss Nelle in Monroeville". The Daily Telegraph. Sydney, NSW, Australia. Retrieved August 8, 2011.  ^ Jeffrey, Don; Van Voris, Bob (May 3, 2013). " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
Sues Agent Over 'Mockingbird' Royalties". Bloomberg.  ^ "'Mockingbird' author Lee sues over copyright in NY". AP. Retrieved May 4, 2013.  ^ "'To Kill a Mockingbird' author Lee sues her agent over copyright". Reuters. May 4, 2013.  ^ Matthews, Cara (September 6, 2013). " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
settles 'To Kill a Mockingbird' suit". USA Today.  ^ " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
settles legal action against Alabama
Alabama
museum". BBC News. February 20, 2014.  ^ Gates, Verna Gates (November 2, 2013). "Town dependent on fame of Harper Lee
Harper Lee
book stung by museum lawsuit". Monroeville, Alabama. Reuters.  ^ Lewis, Paul (November 1, 2013). "Lawsuit divides town which inspired classic novel To Kill a Mockingbird". The Guardian.  ^ Carter, Tonja B. (July 12, 2015). "How I Found the Harper Lee Manuscript". The Wall Street Journal.  ^ Flood, Alison (July 13, 2015). " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
may have written a third novel, lawyer suggests". The Guardian.  ^ "Recently Discovered Novel From Harper Lee, Author of To Kill a Mockingbird".  ^ Alter, Alexandra (February 3, 2015). "Harper Lee, Author of 'To Kill a Mockingbird,' Is to Publish a Second Novel". The New York Times. Retrieved February 3, 2015.  ^ Alison Flood (February 5, 2015). "Harper Lee's 'lost' novel was intended to complete a trilogy, says agent". The Guardian.  ^ Collins, Keith; Sonnad, Nikhil (July 14, 2015). "See where 'Go Set A Watchman' overlaps with 'To Kill A Mockingbird' word for word". Quartz. Retrieved December 15, 2015.  ^ "Recently Discovered Novel from Harper Lee, Author of To Kill a Mockingbird". HarperCollins
HarperCollins
Publishers. February 3, 2015.  ^ Garrison, Greg. "'Go Set a Watchman': What does Harper Lee's book title mean?". AL.com. Retrieved February 6, 2015.  ^ "Second Harper Lee
Harper Lee
Novel to Be Published in July". ABC News. Retrieved February 3, 2015.  ^ a b Kakutani, Michiko (July 10, 2015). "Review: Harper Lee's 'Go Set a Watchman' Gives Atticus Finch
Atticus Finch
a Dark Side" – via NYTimes.com.  ^ "Review rejects claims author Harper Lee
Harper Lee
was coerced into publishing second book 'Go Set A Watchman'". Radio Australia. April 4, 2015. Retrieved December 15, 2015.  ^ Tucker, Neely (February 16, 2015). "To shill a mockingbird: How a manuscript's discovery became Harper Lee's 'new' novel". Washington Post. Retrieved July 18, 2015. Lee, in a statement released by Carter, said she was "happy as hell" that it was finally being published. The statement also quoted Lee as saying that she recently showed the manuscript to some unnamed friends, who verified its merit, thus convincing her to reverse her long-held decision about not publishing. In the statement, she said that she was young when she wrote it, so when an editor told her to reshape it, "I did as I was told."  ^ a b c Mills, Marja (July 20, 2015). "The Harper Lee
Harper Lee
I Knew". The Washington Post. Retrieved December 15, 2015.  ^ a b c d e Maloney, Jennifer (July 17, 2015). "What Would Gregory Peck Think Of 'Go Set A Watchman'? His Son Weights In". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved December 15, 2015.  ^ Mills, Marja. "The Mockingbird Next Door". Retrieved December 15, 2015.  ^ "Harper Lee, 'To Kill a Mockingbird' author, dead at 89". CNN. February 19, 2016.  ^ " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
dead at age of 89: ' To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
Author' passes away". AL.com. February 19, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.  ^ "US author Harper Lee
Harper Lee
dies aged 89". BBC News. February 19, 2016. Retrieved February 19, 2016.  ^ "Harper Lee: loved ones hold private funeral without pomp or fanfare". The Guardian. February 21, 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.  ^ "Harper Lee: Private funeral service held in author's Alabama hometown". ABC News. February 21, 2016. Retrieved 26 March 2016.  ^ "Scandalous Me: The Jacqueline Susann
Jacqueline Susann
Story". The New York Times. 1998. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harper Lee.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Harper Lee

Harper Lee
Harper Lee
at the Internet Book List Harper Lee
Harper Lee
on IMDb " Harper Lee
Harper Lee
collected news and commentary". The Guardian.  Works by or about Harper Lee
Harper Lee
in libraries ( WorldCat
WorldCat
catalog) Harper Lee
Harper Lee
at Find a Grave

v t e

Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
for Fiction

1918–1925

His Family
His Family
by Ernest Poole
Ernest Poole
(1918) The Magnificent Ambersons
The Magnificent Ambersons
by Booth Tarkington
Booth Tarkington
(1919) The Age of Innocence
The Age of Innocence
by Edith Wharton
Edith Wharton
(1921) Alice Adams by Booth Tarkington
Booth Tarkington
(1922) One of Ours
One of Ours
by Willa Cather
Willa Cather
(1923) The Able McLaughlins
The Able McLaughlins
by Margaret Wilson (1924) So Big by Edna Ferber
Edna Ferber
(1925)

1926–1950

Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis
Sinclair Lewis
(declined) (1926) Early Autumn
Early Autumn
by Louis Bromfield
Louis Bromfield
(1927) The Bridge of San Luis Rey
The Bridge of San Luis Rey
by Thornton Wilder
Thornton Wilder
(1928) Scarlet Sister Mary
Scarlet Sister Mary
by Julia Peterkin (1929) Laughing Boy by Oliver La Farge (1930) Years of Grace by Margaret Ayer Barnes (1931) The Good Earth
The Good Earth
by Pearl S. Buck
Pearl S. Buck
(1932) The Store
The Store
by Thomas Sigismund Stribling
Thomas Sigismund Stribling
(1933) Lamb in His Bosom
Lamb in His Bosom
by Caroline Pafford Miller
Caroline Pafford Miller
(1934) Now in November
Now in November
by Josephine Winslow Johnson (1935) Honey in the Horn
Honey in the Horn
by Harold L. Davis (1936) Gone with the Wind by Margaret Mitchell
Margaret Mitchell
(1937) The Late George Apley
The Late George Apley
by John Phillips Marquand (1938) The Yearling
The Yearling
by Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings
(1939) The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath
by John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
(1940) In This Our Life by Ellen Glasgow
Ellen Glasgow
(1942) Dragon's Teeth by Upton Sinclair
Upton Sinclair
(1943) Journey in the Dark
Journey in the Dark
by Martin Flavin (1944) A Bell for Adano by John Hersey
John Hersey
(1945) All the King's Men
All the King's Men
by Robert Penn Warren
Robert Penn Warren
(1947) Tales of the South Pacific
Tales of the South Pacific
by James A. Michener
James A. Michener
(1948) Guard of Honor
Guard of Honor
by James Gould Cozzens (1949) The Way West
The Way West
by A. B. Guthrie Jr. (1950)

1951–1975

The Town by Conrad Richter (1951) The Caine Mutiny
The Caine Mutiny
by Herman Wouk
Herman Wouk
(1952) The Old Man and the Sea
The Old Man and the Sea
by Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
(1953) A Fable
A Fable
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1955) Andersonville by MacKinlay Kantor
MacKinlay Kantor
(1956) A Death in the Family
A Death in the Family
by James Agee
James Agee
(1958) The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
The Travels of Jaimie McPheeters
by Robert Lewis Taylor (1959) Advise and Consent
Advise and Consent
by Allen Drury
Allen Drury
(1960) To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
by Harper Lee
Harper Lee
(1961) The Edge of Sadness
The Edge of Sadness
by Edwin O'Connor (1962) The Reivers
The Reivers
by William Faulkner
William Faulkner
(1963) The Keepers of the House
The Keepers of the House
by Shirley Ann Grau (1965) The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
The Collected Stories of Katherine Anne Porter
by Katherine Anne Porter (1966) The Fixer by Bernard Malamud
Bernard Malamud
(1967) The Confessions of Nat Turner
The Confessions of Nat Turner
by William Styron
William Styron
(1968) House Made of Dawn
House Made of Dawn
by N. Scott Momaday
N. Scott Momaday
(1969) The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
The Collected Stories of Jean Stafford
by Jean Stafford
Jean Stafford
(1970) Angle of Repose
Angle of Repose
by Wallace Stegner
Wallace Stegner
(1972) The Optimist's Daughter
The Optimist's Daughter
by Eudora Welty
Eudora Welty
(1973) The Killer Angels
The Killer Angels
by Michael Shaara (1975)

1976–2000

Humboldt's Gift
Humboldt's Gift
by Saul Bellow
Saul Bellow
(1976) Elbow Room by James Alan McPherson
James Alan McPherson
(1978) The Stories of John Cheever
The Stories of John Cheever
by John Cheever
John Cheever
(1979) The Executioner's Song
The Executioner's Song
by Norman Mailer
Norman Mailer
(1980) A Confederacy of Dunces
A Confederacy of Dunces
by John Kennedy Toole
John Kennedy Toole
(1981) Rabbit Is Rich
Rabbit Is Rich
by John Updike
John Updike
(1982) The Color Purple
The Color Purple
by Alice Walker
Alice Walker
(1983) Ironweed by William Kennedy (1984) Foreign Affairs by Alison Lurie (1985) Lonesome Dove
Lonesome Dove
by Larry McMurtry
Larry McMurtry
(1986) A Summons to Memphis
A Summons to Memphis
by Peter Taylor (1987) Beloved by Toni Morrison
Toni Morrison
(1988) Breathing Lessons
Breathing Lessons
by Anne Tyler (1989) The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love
by Oscar Hijuelos (1990) Rabbit at Rest by John Updike
John Updike
(1991) A Thousand Acres
A Thousand Acres
by Jane Smiley
Jane Smiley
(1992) A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
A Good Scent from a Strange Mountain
by Robert Olen Butler
Robert Olen Butler
(1993) The Shipping News
The Shipping News
by E. Annie Proulx
Annie Proulx
(1994) The Stone Diaries
The Stone Diaries
by Carol Shields (1995) Independence Day by Richard Ford
Richard Ford
(1996) Martin Dressler: The Tale of an American Dreamer by Steven Millhauser (1997) American Pastoral
American Pastoral
by Philip Roth
Philip Roth
(1998) The Hours by Michael Cunningham
Michael Cunningham
(1999) Interpreter of Maladies by Jhumpa Lahiri
Jhumpa Lahiri
(2000)

2001–present

The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay by Michael Chabon
Michael Chabon
(2001) Empire Falls
Empire Falls
by Richard Russo
Richard Russo
(2002) Middlesex by Jeffrey Eugenides
Jeffrey Eugenides
(2003) The Known World
The Known World
by Edward P. Jones (2004) Gilead by Marilynne Robinson
Marilynne Robinson
(2005) March by Geraldine Brooks (2006) The Road
The Road
by Cormac McCarthy
Cormac McCarthy
(2007) The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao
by Junot Díaz
Junot Díaz
(2008) Olive Kitteridge by Elizabeth Strout
Elizabeth Strout
(2009) Tinkers by Paul Harding (2010) A Visit from the Goon Squad by Jennifer Egan
Jennifer Egan
(2011) No award given (2012) The Orphan Master's Son
The Orphan Master's Son
by Adam Johnson (2013) The Goldfinch by Donna Tartt (2014) All the Light We Cannot See
All the Light We Cannot See
by Anthony Doerr
Anthony Doerr
(2015) The Sympathizer
The Sympathizer
by Viet Thanh Nguyen
Viet Thanh Nguyen
(2016) The Underground Railroad by Colson Whitehead
Colson Whitehead
(2017)

v t e

Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
(1960)

Characters

Atticus Finch

Film

To Kill a Mockingbird

Prequel

Go Set a Watchman

Other

To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird
in popular culture Broken

Authority control

WorldCat
WorldCat
Identities VIAF: 12431460 LCCN: n50038872 ISNI: 0000 0000 8091 8006 GND: 119102579 SELIBR: 336637 SUDOC: 05063187X BNF: cb12732943h (data) BIBSYS: 90302950 MusicBrainz: f682a68b-eb75-4993-bf8d-f246c36dda14 NLA: 36550491 NDL: 00523687 NKC: jn20000401618 ICCU: ITICCURAVV33165 BNE: XX1011975 SN

.

Warning: Invalid argument supplied for foreach() in D:\Bitnami\wampstack-7.1.16-0\apache2\htdocs\php\PeriodicService.php on line 61