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Harald Sigurdsson (Old Norse: Haraldr Sigurðarson; c. 1015 – 25 September 1066), given the epithet Hardrada (Old Norse: harðráði, modern Norwegian Hardråde, roughly translated as "stern counsel" or "hard ruler") in the sagas,[2] was King of Norway
Norway
(as Harald III) from 1046 to 1066. In addition, he unsuccessfully claimed the Danish throne until 1064 and the English throne in 1066. Before becoming king, Harald had spent around fifteen years in exile as a mercenary and military commander in Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and of the Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
in the Byzantine Empire. When he was fifteen years old, in 1030, Harald fought in the Battle of Stiklestad together with his half-brother Olaf Haraldsson (later Saint Olaf). Olaf sought to reclaim the Norwegian throne, which he had lost to the Danish king Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
two years prior. In the battle, Olaf and Harald were defeated by forces loyal to Cnut, and Harald was forced into exile to Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
(the sagas' Garðaríki). He thereafter spent some time in the army of Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise, eventually obtaining rank as a captain, until he moved on to Constantinople
Constantinople
with his companions around 1034. In Constantinople, he soon rose to become the commander of the Byzantine Varangian Guard, and saw action on the Mediterranean Sea, in Asia Minor, Sicily, possibly in the Holy Land, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and in Constantinople
Constantinople
itself, where he became involved in the imperial dynastic disputes. Harald amassed considerable wealth during his time in the Byzantine Empire, which he shipped to Yaroslav in Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
for safekeeping. He finally left the Byzantines in 1042, and arrived back in Kievan Rus' in order to prepare his campaign of reclaiming the Norwegian throne. Possibly to Harald's knowledge, in his absence the Norwegian throne had been restored from the Danes to Olaf's illegitimate son Magnus the Good. In 1046, Harald joined forces with Magnus's rival in Denmark (Magnus had also become king of Denmark), the pretender Sweyn II of Denmark, and started raiding the Danish coast. Magnus, unwilling to fight his uncle, agreed to share the kingship with Harald, since Harald in turn would share his wealth with him. The co-rule ended abruptly the next year as Magnus died, and Harald thus became the sole ruler of Norway. Domestically, Harald crushed all local and regional opposition, and outlined the territorial unification of Norway
Norway
under a national governance. Harald's reign was probably one of relative peace and stability, and he instituted a viable coin economy and foreign trade. Probably seeking to restore Cnut's "North Sea Empire", Harald also claimed the Danish throne, and spent nearly every year until 1064 raiding the Danish coast and fighting his former ally, Sweyn. Although the campaigns were successful, he was never able to conquer Denmark. Not long after Harald had renounced his claim to Denmark, the former Earl of Northumbria, Tostig Godwinson, brother of the newly chosen English king Harold Godwinson, pledged his allegiance to Harald and invited him to claim the English throne. Harald went along and entered Northern England in September 1066, raided the coast and defeated English regional forces in the Battle of Fulford
Battle of Fulford
near York. Although initially successful, Harald was defeated and killed in an attack by Harold Godwinson's forces in the Battle of Stamford Bridge. Modern historians have often considered Harald's death, which brought an end to his invasion, as the end of the Viking Age. Harald is also commonly held to have been the last great Viking king, or even the last great Viking.[3] (The Danes had become Christians under Harald Bluetooth some twenty years before the Second Millennium.)

Contents

1 Early life 2 Exile in the East

2.1 To Kievan Rus' 2.2 In Byzantine service 2.3 Back to Kievan Rus'

3 King of Norway

3.1 Return to Scandinavia 3.2 Invasions of Denmark 3.3 Domestic opposition 3.4 Policies 3.5 Northern explorations

4 Invasion of England

4.1 Background and preparations 4.2 Invasion and the Battle of Stamford Bridge

5 Personal life 6 Issue 7 Legacy

7.1 Burial 7.2 In popular culture 7.3 Modern memorials

8 Footnotes 9 References 10 Bibliography 11 External links

Early life[edit]

Harald's ancestry according to the younger sagas. Individuals whose existence is disputed by modern historians are in italics.[4]

Harald was born in Ringerike, Norway[5] in 1015 (or possibly 1016)[a][6] to Åsta Gudbrandsdatter
Åsta Gudbrandsdatter
and her second husband Sigurd Syr. Sigurd was a petty king of Ringerike, and among the strongest and wealthiest chieftains in the Uplands.[7] Through his mother Åsta, Harald was the youngest of King Olaf Haraldsson's (later Saint Olaf) three half-brothers.[3] In his youth, Harald displayed traits of a typical rebel with big ambitions, and admired Olaf as his role model. He thus differed from his two older brothers, who were more similar to their father, down-to-earth and mostly concerned with maintaining the farm.[8] The Icelandic sagas, in particular Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson
in Heimskringla, claim that Sigurd, like Olaf's father, was a great-grandson of King Harald Fairhair
Harald Fairhair
in the male line. Most modern scholars believe that the ancestors attributed to Harald Hardrada's father, along with other parts of the Fairhair genealogy, are inventions reflecting the political and social expectations of the time of the authors (around two centuries after Harald Hardrada's lifetime) rather than historical reality.[3][9] Harald Hardrada's alleged descent from Harald Fairhair is not mentioned and played no part during Harald Hardrada's own time, which seems odd considering that it would have provided significant legitimacy in connection with his claim to the Norwegian throne.[3] Following a revolt in 1028, Harald's brother Olaf was forced into exile until he returned to Norway
Norway
in early 1030. On hearing news of Olaf's planned return, Harald gathered 600 men from the Uplands to meet Olaf and his men upon their arrival in the east of Norway. After a friendly welcome, Olaf went on to gather an army and eventually fight in the Battle of Stiklestad
Battle of Stiklestad
on 29 July 1030, in which Harald took part on his brother's side.[10] The battle was part of an attempt to restore Olaf to the Norwegian throne, which had been captured by the Danish king Cnut the Great. The battle resulted in defeat for the brothers at the hands of those Norwegians who were loyal to Cnut, and Olaf was killed while Harald was badly wounded.[11] Harald was nonetheless remarked to have shown considerable military talent during the battle.[12] Exile in the East[edit] To Kievan Rus'[edit] After the defeat at the Battle of Stiklestad, Harald managed to escape with the aid of Rögnvald Brusason
Rögnvald Brusason
(later Earl of Orkney) to a remote farm in Eastern Norway. He stayed there for some time to heal his wounds, and thereafter (possibly up to a month later) journeyed north over the mountains to Sweden. A year after the Battle of Stiklestad, Harald arrived in Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
(referred to in the sagas as Garðaríki or Svíþjóð hin mikla). He likely spent at least part of his time in the town of Staraya Ladoga
Staraya Ladoga
(Aldeigjuborg), arriving there in the first half of 1031. Harald and his men were welcomed by Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise, whose wife Ingegerd was a distant relative of Harald.[13][14] Badly in need of military leaders, Yaroslav recognised a military potential in Harald and made him a captain of his forces.[15] Harald's brother Olaf Haraldsson had previously been in exile to Yaroslav following the revolt in 1028,[16] and Morkinskinna says that Yaroslav embraced Harald first and foremost because he was the brother of Olaf.[17] Harald took part in Yaroslav's campaign against the Poles
Poles
in 1031, and possibly also fought against other 1030s Kievan enemies and rivals such as the Chudes in Estonia, the Byzantines, as well as the Pechenegs
Pechenegs
and other steppe nomad people.[18] In Byzantine service[edit] After a few years in Kievan Rus', Harald and his force of around 500 men[5] moved on south to Constantinople
Constantinople
(Miklagard), the capital of the Byzantine Empire, probably in 1033 or 1034,[19] where they joined the Varangian Guard. Although the Flateyjarbók
Flateyjarbók
maintains that Harald at first sought to keep his royal identity a secret, most sources agree that Harald and his men's reputation was well known in the east at the time. While the Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
was primarily meant to function as the emperor's bodyguard, Harald was found fighting on "nearly every frontier" of the empire.[20] He first saw action in campaigns against Arab pirates in the Mediterranean, and then in inland towns in Asia Minor that had supported the pirates. By this time, he had according to Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson
become the "leader over all the Varangians". By 1035, the Byzantines had pushed the Arabs out of Asia Minor, and Harald took part in campaigns that went as far east as the Euphrates, where according to his skald (poet) Þjóðólfr Arnórsson (recounted in the sagas) he participated in the capture of eighty Arab strongholds, a number which historians Sigfus Blöndal and Benedikt Benedikz see no particular reason to question. Although not holding independent command of an army as the sagas imply, it is not unlikely that Harald and the Varangians at times could have been sent off to capture a castle or town.[21][22] During the first four years of the reign of Byzantine Emperor Michael IV, Harald probably also fought in campaigns against the Pechenegs.[23]

Near-contemporary depiction of Byzantine Varangian Guardsmen, in an illumination from the Skylitzis Chronicle.

Thereafter, Harald is reported in the sagas to have gone to Jerusalem and fought in battles in the area. Although the sagas place this after his expedition to Sicily, historian Kelly DeVries has questioned that chronology.[24] Whether his trip was of a military or peaceful nature would depend on whether it took place before or after the 1036 peace treaty between Michael IV and the Fatimid Caliph Ma'ad al-Mustansir Billah[24] (in reality the Caliph's mother, originally a Byzantine Christian, since the Caliph was a minor), although it is considered unlikely to have been made before. Modern historians have speculated that Harald may have been in a party sent to escort pilgrims to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(possibly including members of the Imperial family) following the peace agreement, as it was also agreed that the Byzantines were allowed to repair the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Furthermore, this may in turn have presented Harald with opportunities to fight against bandits who preyed on Christian pilgrims.[25][26] In 1038, Harald joined the Byzantines in their expedition to Sicily,[27][28] in George Maniakes's (the sagas' "Gyrge") attempt to reconquer the island from the Saracens, who had established the Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
on the island. During the campaign, Harald fought alongside Norman mercenaries such as William Iron Arm.[27] According to Snorri Sturluson, Harald captured four towns on Sicily.[28] In 1041, when the Byzantine expedition to Sicily
Sicily
was over, a Lombard-Norman revolt erupted in southern Italy, and Harald led the Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
in multiple battles.[29] Harald fought with the Catepan of Italy, Michael Dokeianos
Michael Dokeianos
with initial success, but the Normans, led by their former ally William Iron Arm, defeated the Byzantines in the Battle of Olivento in March,[30] and in the Battle of Montemaggiore in May.[31] After the defeat, Harald and the Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
were called back to Constantinople, following Maniakes' imprisonment by the emperor and the onset of other more pressing issues.[32] Harald and the Varangians were thereafter sent to fight in Bulgaria, where they arrived in late 1041.[23] There, he fought in the army of Michael IV in the 1041 campaign against the Bulgarian uprising led by Peter Delyan, which later gained Harald the nickname the "Bulgar-burner" (Bolgara brennir) by his skald.[33][34]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
in the Strategikon of Kekaumenos

Harald was not affected by Maniakes' conflict with Michael IV, and received honours and respect upon his return to Constantinople. In a Greek book written in the 1070s, the Strategikon of Kekaumenos, Araltes (i.e. Harald) is said to have won the favour of the emperor.[35][36][37] The book says that the Byzantine emperor first appointed him manglabites (possibly identified with the title protospatharios), a soldier of the imperial guard, after the Sicilian campaign.[33][38] Following the campaign against the Bulgarians, in which Harald again served with distinction, he received the rank while at Mosynopolis[39] of spatharokandidatos, identified by DeVries as a promotion to the possibly third highest Byzantine rank, but by Mikhail Bibikov as a lesser rank than protospatharios that was ordinarily awarded to foreign allies to the emperor.[33] The Strategikon indicates that the ranks awarded to Harald were rather low, since Harald reportedly was "not angry for just having been appointed to manglabites or spatharokandidatos".[40] According to his skald Tjodolv Arnorsson, Harald had participated in eighteen greater battles during his Byzantine service.[3] Harald's favour at the imperial court quickly declined after the death of Michael IV in December 1041, which was followed by conflicts between the new emperor Michael V and the powerful empress Zoe.[41] During the turmoil, Harald was arrested and imprisoned, but the sources disagree on the grounds.[42] The sagas state that Harald was arrested for defrauding the emperor of his treasure, as well as for requesting marriage[43] with an apparently fictional niece or granddaughter[3] of Zoe, called Maria (his suit supposedly being turned down by the empress because she wanted to marry Harald herself). William of Malmesbury
William of Malmesbury
states that Harald was arrested for defiling a noble woman, while according to Saxo Grammaticus
Saxo Grammaticus
he was imprisoned for murder. DeVries suggests that the new emperor may have feared Harald because of his loyalty to the previous emperor.[43] The sources also disagree on how Harald got out of prison, but he may have been helped by someone outside to escape in the midst of the revolt that had begun against the new emperor. While some of the Varangians helped guard the emperor, Harald became the leader of the Varangians who supported the revolt. The emperor was in the end dragged out of his sanctuary, blinded and exiled to a monastery, and the sagas claim that it was Harald himself who blinded Michael V (or at least claimed to have done so).[44] Back to Kievan Rus'[edit]

Harald's wife Elisiv of Kiev, daughter of Yaroslav the Wise

Harald became extremely rich during his time in the east, and secured the wealth collected in Constantinople
Constantinople
by shipments to Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
for safekeeping (with Yaroslav the Wise
Yaroslav the Wise
acting as safekeeper for his fortune).[45] The sagas note that aside from the significant spoils of battle he had retained, he had participated three times in polutasvarf (loosely translated as "palace-plunder"),[46] a term which implies either the pillaging of the palace exchequer on the death of the emperor, or perhaps the disbursement of funds to the Varangians by the new emperor in order to ensure their loyalty.[47] It is likely that the money Harald made while serving in Constantinople
Constantinople
allowed him to fund his claim for the crown of Norway.[46] If he participated in polutasvarf three times, these occasions must have been the deaths of Romanos III, Michael IV, and Michael V, in which Harald would have opportunities, beyond his legitimate revenues, to carry off immense wealth.[48] After Zoe had been restored to the throne in June 1042 together with Constantine IX, Harald requested to be allowed to return to Norway. Although Zoe refused to allow this, Harald managed to escape into the Bosphorus
Bosphorus
with two ships and some loyal followers. Although the second ship was destroyed by the Byzantine cross-strait iron chains, Harald's ship sailed safely into the Black Sea
Black Sea
after successfully manoeuvring over the barrier.[44] Despite this, Kekaumenos lauds the "loyalty and love" Harald had for the empire, which he reportedly maintained even after he returned to Norway
Norway
and became king.[49] Following his escape from Constantinople, Harald arrived back in Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
later in 1042.[50] During his second stay there, he married Elisabeth (referred to in Scandinavian sources as Ellisif), daughter of Yaroslav the Wise and granddaughter of the Swedish king Olof Skötkonung.[46] Shortly after Harald's arrival in Kiev, Yaroslav attacked Constantinople, and it is considered likely that Harald provided him with valuable information about the state of the empire.[51] It is possible that the marriage with Elisiv had been agreed to already during Harald's first time in Rus', or that they at least had been acquainted. During his service in the Byzantine Empire, Harald composed a love poem which included the verse "Yet the goddess in Gardarike / will not accept my gold rings"[52] (whom Snorri Sturluson identifies with Elisiv), although Morkinskinna
Morkinskinna
claims that Harald had to remind Yaroslav of the promised marriage when he returned to Kiev.[53] According to the same source, Harald had spoken with Yaroslav during his first time in Rus', requesting to marry Elisiv, only to be rejected because he was not yet wealthy enough.[54] It is in any case significant that Harald was allowed to marry the daughter of Yaroslav, since his other children were married to figures such as Henry I of France, Andrew I of Hungary
Andrew I of Hungary
and the daughter of Constantine IX.[51] King of Norway[edit] Return to Scandinavia[edit] Seeking to regain for himself the kingdom lost by his half-brother Olaf Haraldsson,[46] Harald began his journey westwards in early 1045, departing from Novgorod
Novgorod
(Holmgard) to Staraya Ladoga
Staraya Ladoga
(Aldeigjuborg) where he obtained a ship. His journey went through Lake Ladoga, down the Neva River, and then into the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
and the Baltic Sea. He arrived in Sigtuna
Sigtuna
in Sweden, probably at the end of 1045[55] or in early 1046.[46] When he arrived in Sweden, according to the skald Tjodolv Arnorsson, his ship was unbalanced by its heavy load of gold.[3] In Harald's absence, the throne of Norway
Norway
had been restored to Magnus the Good, an illegitimate son of Olaf. Harald may actually have known this, and it could have been the reason why Harald wanted to return to Norway
Norway
in the first place.[56] Since Cnut the Great's sons had chosen to abandon Norway
Norway
and instead fight over England, and his sons and successors Harold Harefoot
Harold Harefoot
and Harthacnut
Harthacnut
had died young, Magnus's position as king had been secured. No domestic threats or insurrections are recorded to have occurred during his eleven-year reign.[57] After the death of Harthacnut, which had left the Danish throne vacant, Magnus had in addition been selected to be the king of Denmark, and managed to defeat the Danish royal pretender Sweyn Estridsson.[58]

Coin with the legend "MAHNUS ARALD REX". Generally held to date from Magnus and Harald's short co-rule,[59] depicting Magnus who had precedence,[60] but also speculated as Harald's alone, with Magnus an epithet adopted after his death.[61]

Having heard of Sweyn's defeat by Magnus, Harald met up with his fellow exile in Sweden
Sweden
(who was also his nephew), as well as with the Swedish king Anund Jacob,[3] and the three joined forces against Magnus. Their first military exploit consisted of raiding the Danish coast, in an effort to impress the natives by demonstrating that Magnus offered them no protection, and thus leading them to submit to Harald and Sweyn. Learning about their actions, Magnus knew that their next target would be Norway.[62] Harald may have planned to be taken as king of his father's petty kingdom, and thereafter claim the rest of the country.[63] In any case, the people were unwilling to turn against Magnus, and on hearing news of Harald's schemes, Magnus (abroad at the time) went home to Norway
Norway
with his entire army.[63] Instead of going to war, Magnus's advisors recommended the young king not fight his uncle, and a compromise was reached in 1046 in which Harald would rule Norway
Norway
(not Denmark) jointly with Magnus (although Magnus would have precedence). Notably, Harald also had to agree to share half of his wealth with Magnus, who at the time was effectively bankrupt and badly in need of funds. During their short co-rule, Harald and Magnus had separate courts and kept to themselves, and their only recorded meetings nearly ended in physical clashes.[64][65] In 1047, Magnus and Harald went to Denmark with their leidang forces. Later that year in Jylland, less than a year into their co-rule, Magnus died without an heir. Before his death, he had decided that Sweyn was to inherit Denmark and Harald to inherit Norway.[66] On hearing the news of Magnus's death, Harald quickly gathered the local leaders in Norway
Norway
and declared himself king of Norway
Norway
as well as of Denmark.[67] Although Magnus had appointed Sweyn his successor as king of Denmark, Harald immediately announced his plans to gather an army and oust his former ally from the country. In response, the army and the chieftains, headed by Einar Thambarskelfir, opposed any plans of invading Denmark. Although Harald himself objected to bringing the body of Magnus back to Norway, the Norwegian army prepared to transport his body to Nidaros
Nidaros
(now Trondheim), where they buried him next to Saint Olaf in late 1047.[68][69] Einar, an opponent of Harald, claimed that "to follow Magnus dead was better than to follow any other king alive".[68] Invasions of Denmark[edit] Harald also wanted to re-establish Magnus's rule over Denmark,[3] and in the long term probably sought to restore Cnut the Great's "North Sea Empire" in its entirety.[70] While his first proposal to invade Denmark fell through, the next year Harald embarked on what would turn into constant warfare against Sweyn, from 1048 almost yearly until 1064. Similar to his campaigns (then together with Sweyn) against Magnus's rule in Denmark, most of his campaigns against Sweyn consisted of swift and violent raids on the Danish coasts. In 1048, he plundered Jutland, and in 1049 he pillaged and burned Hedeby, at the time the most important Danish trade center, and one of the best protected and most populous towns in Scandinavia.[71] Hedeby
Hedeby
as a civil town never recovered from Harald's destruction, and was left completely desolate when what remained was looted by Slavic tribes in 1066.[72] One of two conventional battles was set to be fought between the two kings later the same year, but according to Saxo Grammaticus, Sweyn's smaller army was so frightened when approached by the Norwegians that they chose to jump in the water trying to escape; most drowned. Although Harald was victorious in most of the engagements, he was never successful in occupying Denmark.[73]

Penny
Penny
minted by Harald, with a triquetra on the obverse, used both by Christians and in Norse paganism.[59] It was used on coins in Denmark by Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
and his sons,[b] and Harald probably adopted it as part of his claim to the Danish throne.[74][75]

The second, more significant battle, a naval encounter, was the Battle of Niså on 9 August 1062. As Harald had not been able to conquer Denmark despite his raids, he wanted to win a decisive victory over Sweyn. He eventually set out from Norway
Norway
with a great army and a fleet of around 300 ships. Sweyn had also prepared for the battle, which had been preassigned a time and place. Sweyn, did not appear at the agreed time, and Harald thus sent home his non-professional soldiers (bóndaherrin), which had made up half of his forces. When the dismissed ships were out of reach, Sweyn's fleet finally appeared, possibly also with 300 ships. The battle resulted in great bloodshed as Harald defeated the Danes (70 Danish ships were reportedly left "empty"), but many ships and men managed to escape, including Sweyn.[76] During the battle, Harald actively used his bow as an archer, like most others in the early phase of the battle.[77] Fatigue and the huge cost of the indecisive battles eventually led Harald to seek peace with Sweyn, and in 1064 (or 1065 according to Morkinskinna) the two kings agreed on an unconditional peace agreement.[78] By the agreement, they retained their respective kingdoms with the former boundaries, and there would be no payments of reparations. In the subsequent winter of 1065, Harald travelled through his realm and accused the farmers of withholding taxes from him. In response, he acted with brutality, and had peopled maimed and killed as a warning to those who disobeyed him.[79] Harald maintained control of his nation through the use of his hird, a private standing army maintained by Norwegian lords. Harald's contribution to the strengthening of Norway's monarchy was the enforcement of a policy that only the king could retain a hird, thus centralising power away from local warlords.[80] Domestic opposition[edit] According to historian Knut Helle, Harald completed the first phase of what he has termed the "national territorial unification of Norway".[81] Having forced his way to the kingship, Harald would have to convince the aristocracy that he was the right person to rule Norway
Norway
alone. To establish domestic alliances, he married Tora Torbergsdatter of one of the most powerful Norwegian families.[82] The primary opposition to Harald's rule would be the descendants of Haakon Sigurdsson, from the powerful dynasty of Earls of Lade
Earls of Lade
who had controlled Northern Norway
Norway
and Trøndelag
Trøndelag
with much autonomy under the Norwegian king. Haakon had even ruled the whole of Norway
Norway
(nominally under the Danish king) from 975 until 995, when he was killed during the takeover by Olaf Tryggvasson. Even after Haakon's death, his offspring held a certain degree of sovereignty in the north, and by Harald's early reign the family was headed by Einar Thambarskelfir, who was married to Haakon's daughter. While the family had maintained good relations with Magnus, Harald's absolutism and consolidation of the kingship soon led to conflict with Einar.[83][84] It was from his power-struggle with the Norwegian aristocracy that Harald got himself the reputation that gave him the nickname "Hardrada", or "the hard ruler".[85] Although the relationship between Harald and Einar was poor from the start, confrontation did not occur before Harald went north to his court in Nidaros. One time in Nidaros, Einar arrived at Harald's court, and in a display of power was accompanied by "eight or nine longships and almost five hundred men", obviously seeking confrontation. Harald was not provoked by the incident. Although the sources differ on the circumstances, the next event nonetheless led to the murder of Einar by Harald's men, which threatened to throw Norway
Norway
into a state of civil war. Although the remaining descendants of Haakon Sigurdsson
Haakon Sigurdsson
considered rebellion against the king, Harald eventually managed to negotiate peace with them, and secured the family's submission for the remainder of his reign.[86][87] By the death of Einar and his son around 1050, the Earls of Lade
Earls of Lade
had outplayed their role as a base of opposition, and Trøndelag
Trøndelag
was definitely subordinated to Harald's national kingdom.[81] Before the Battle of Niså, Harald had been joined by Haakon Ivarsson, who distinguished himself in the battle and gained Harald's favour. Reportedly even considering to give him the title of Earl, Haakon was greatly upset when Harald later backed down from his promise. With a strong hold over the Uplands, Haakon was additionally given the earldom of Värmland
Värmland
by the Swedish king Stenkil. In early 1064, Haakon entered the Uplands and collected their taxes, the region thus effectively threatening to renounce their loyalty to Harald. The revolt of Haakon and the farmers in the Uplands may have been the main reason why Harald finally had been willing to enter a peace agreement with Sweyn Estridsson. After the agreement, Harald went to Oslo
Oslo
and sent tax collectors to the Uplands, only to find that the farmers would withhold their taxes until Haakon arrived. In response, Harald entered Sweden
Sweden
with an army and quickly defeated Haakon.[88] Still facing opposition from the farmers, Harald embarked on a campaign to crush the areas that had withheld their taxes. Due to the remote location of the region in the interior of the country, the Uplands had never been an integrated part of the Norwegian king's realm. Using harsh measures, Harald burned down farms and small villages, and had people maimed and killed. Starting in Romerike, his campaign continued into Hedmark, Hadeland
Hadeland
and Ringerike. Since the regions contained several rich rural communities, Harald strengthened his economic position by confiscating farming estates.[81][89] By the end of 1065 there was probably peace in Norway, as any opposition had either been killed, chased into exile or silenced.[90] Policies[edit] Harald's reign was marked by his background as a military commander, as he often solved disputes with harsh force. One of his skalds even boasted about how Harald broke settlements he had made, in his battles in the Mediterranean.[3] While the sagas largely focus on Harald's war with Sweyn and the invasion of England, little is said about his domestic policies. Modern historians have taken this as a sign that, despite his absolutism, his reign was one of peace and progress for Norway. Harald is considered to have instituted good economic policies, as he developed a Norwegian currency and a viable coin economy, which in turn allowed Norway
Norway
to participate in international trade. He initiated trade with Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and the Byzantine Empire through his connections, as well as with Scotland and Ireland.[91] According to the later sagas, Harald founded Oslo, where he spent much time.[3] Harald also continued to advance Christianity in Norway, and archaeological excavations show that churches were built and improved during his reign. He also imported bishops, priests and monks from abroad, especially from Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and the Byzantine Empire. A slightly different form of Christianity was thus introduced in Norway from the rest of northern Europe, although it should be noted that the East–West Schism
East–West Schism
had not yet taken place.[92] Since the clergy was not ordained in England or France, it nonetheless caused controversy when Harald was visited by papal legates. The protests by the legates led Harald to throw the Catholic clergy out of his court, and he reportedly stated to the legates that "he did not know of any other archbishop or lord of Norway
Norway
than the king himself".[3][93] Norwegian historian Halvdan Koht
Halvdan Koht
has remarked that the "words seemed as if spoken by a Byzantine despot".[3] It is possible that Harald maintained contacts with Byzantine emperors after he became king, which could suggest a background for his church policies.[94] Northern explorations[edit] Once he had returned to Norway, Harald seems to have displayed an interest in exploring his own realm, as for instance the Morkinskinna recounts Harald's trip into the Uplands. Harald is also said to have explored the seas beyond his kingdom, as the contemporary Adam of Bremen reports of such naval expeditions conducted by Harald:[95]

“ The most enterprising Prince Haraldr of the Norwegians lately attempted this [sea]. Who, having searched thoroughly the length of the northern ocean in ships, finally had before his eyes the dark failing boundaries of the savage world, and, by retracing his steps, with difficulty barely escaped the deep abyss in safety. ”

— Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum, 4. XXXIX

Kelly DeVries has suggested that Harald "may even have known of and sought out the legendary land called Vinland, which Viking sailors had discovered only a short time before", which Adam mentions earlier in the same passage to have been widely reported in Denmark and Norway.[95] H. H. Lamb has on the other hand proposed that the land he reached may have been either Spitsbergen
Spitsbergen
or Novaya Zemlya.[96] Invasion of England[edit] Background and preparations[edit] With the truce and the recognition that he would not conquer Denmark, Harald turned his attention to England. England had belonged to Harthacnut, the son of Cnut the Great, until he died childless in 1042. Harald based his claim to the throne of England on an agreement made between Magnus and Harthacnut
Harthacnut
in 1038, which stated that if either died, the other would inherit the throne and lands of the deceased. When Harthacnut
Harthacnut
died, Magnus assumed the crown of Denmark and considered himself the lawful heir to Harthacnut. While Edward the Confessor had himself crowned English king in his absence, Magnus had planned to invade England in 1045, only to be forced to turn his fleet towards Denmark due to an uprising by Sweyn Estridsson. Although the threat was temporarily averted by Magnus's death in 1047, Edward's negotiations with his enemies throughout the 1050s gave Harald (as well as Sweyn Estridsson and William of Normandy) an impression that he was a possible heir to Edward. When Edward died in January 1066, he was to Harald's dismay succeeded by Harold Godwinson, a son of one of Edward's advisors.[97]

13th-century portrayal of Harald Hardrada, from The Life of King Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
by the English chronicler Matthew Paris

Harald's son Magnus had previously been involved in Gruffydd ap Llywelyn's 1058 war against the English king with a Norwegian fleet, possibly indicating that Harald had tested the situation in England long before his 1066 invasion, only to find that he could not simultaneously be at war with Denmark and England.[98] After Edward's death, Harald allied himself with Tostig Godwinson, Harold's brother, who had been deprived of the earldom of Northumbria by Edward in 1065.[5] According to various sources, Tostig may have asked both or either of William of Normandy and Sweyn Estridsson to assist him in invading England before turning to Harald. According to the sagas, Tostig finally pledged his support for Harald, including that of the "majority of the chieftains", at a meeting in Norway. Some historians doubt that this meeting took place, as William of Malmesbury
William of Malmesbury
claims that Tostig did not pledge his support for Harald until they met at the Humber. This would indicate that the invasion originally was Harald's plan alone, and that his joining of forces with Tostig was merely a later agreement when the two met for the first time in Scotland or Northumbria. Another proposal by historians is that a meeting did indeed take place in Norway, but instead with Copsig, one of Tostig's early supporters and a fellow exile, as Tostig's mediator. If this is correct, it would both allow an agreement to have been made in Norway, and the first personal meeting between Harald and Tostig to have taken place in Britain.[99] Indeed, Morkinskinna
Morkinskinna
mentions that "some men" claimed that Tostig only had sent an emissary to Norway, while he still remained in France.[100]

Harald landing near York
York
(left), and defeating the Northumbrian army (right), from the 13th century chronicle The Life of King Edward the Confessor by Matthew Paris. Harald had a huge ship built around 1060, called Ormen ("The Serpent").[101]

The plans for the invasion were in any case completed by the start of September 1066, and had possibly begun already in March or April.[102] While he brought with him Elisiv, his daughters, and his son Olaf, he left behind Tora and made sure to have his oldest son Magnus hailed as king.[103] Gathering his fleet at Solund
Solund
in the Sognefjord,[104] Harald departed Norway
Norway
in August, and landed first in Shetland
Shetland
and thereafter in Orkney
Orkney
(both under Norwegian control). In both places he was joined by several important lords, chieftains, and soldiers, including the Earls of Orkney, Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson. He next went to Dunfermline, where he met with Tostig's ally Malcolm III of Scotland (and according to some sources, with Tostig)[105] who allocated him a couple thousand Scottish soldiers.[106] According to most contemporary sources, Harald and Tostig met at Tynemouth
Tynemouth
on 8 September, Harald with a total force of, at the most, around 10–15,000 men on 240–300 longships,[107][108] and Tostig with a mere 12 ships with soldiers.[109] Not mentioned in the sagas, but accounted for by John of Worcester, Tostig had departed from his exile in Flanders
Flanders
already in May or June. He had then raided villages along the southern coast of Britain from the Isle of Wight
Isle of Wight
to Sandwich. As Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
gathered a large army in response, Tostig sailed north to meet with Harald, while Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
remained in the south in expectation of invasion by William of Normandy,[110] who for a long time had openly claimed the English throne.[111] Invasion and the Battle of Stamford Bridge[edit] After embarking from Tynemouth, Harald and Tostig probably landed at the River Tees.[112] They then entered Cleveland,[113] and started plundering the coast. They encountered the first resistance at Scarborough, where Harald's demand for surrender was opposed. In the end, Harald resorted to burning down the town and this action led to other Northumbrian towns surrendering to him. After further raiding, Harald and Tostig sailed down the Humber, disembarking at Riccall. News of the invasion soon reached the earls Morcar of Northumbria and Edwin of Mercia, and they fought against Harald's invading army two miles (3 km) south of York
York
at the Battle of Fulford
Battle of Fulford
on 20 September. The battle was a decisive victory for Harald and Tostig, and led York
York
to surrender to their forces on 24 September.[114] This would be the last time a Scandinavian army defeated English forces.[115] The same day as York
York
surrendered to Harald and Tostig, Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
arrived with his army in Tadcaster, just seven miles from the anchored Norwegian fleet at Riccall. From there, he probably scouted the Norwegian fleet, preparing a surprise attack. As Harald had left no forces in York, Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
marched right through the town to Stamford Bridge.[116]

Harald at Stamford Bridge. Matthew Paris
Matthew Paris
may have attributed the axe to Harald due to its general Norse association, or the royal iconography around St. Olaf.[117] According to the sagas, Harald wore a blue tunic and helmet, wielded a sword, and Landøyðan as his royal standard, but not his mail-shirt ("Emma") and shield, which was left at Riccall.[118]

Early on 25 September, Harald and Tostig departed their landing place at Riccall
Riccall
with most of their forces, but left a third of their forces behind. They brought only light armour, as they expected to just meet the citizens of York, as they had agreed the day before, at Stamford Bridge to decide on who should manage the town under Harald.[119] Once there Harald saw Godwinson's forces approaching, heavily armed and armoured, and greatly outnumbering Harald's. Although (according to non-saga sources) the English forces were held up at the bridge for some time by a single gigantic Norwegian, allowing Harald and Tostig to regroup into a shield-wall formation, Harald's army was in the end heavily beaten. Harald was struck in the throat by an arrow and killed early in the battle in a state of berserkergang, having worn no body armour and fought aggressively with both hands around his sword.[120][121] When the battle was almost over, some reserve forces from Riccall
Riccall
led by Eystein Orre
Eystein Orre
finally appeared, but they were exhausted as they had run all the way. Eystein picked up Harald's fallen banner, the "Landwaster" (Landøyðan), and initiated a final counter-attack. Although they for a moment appeared to almost breach the English line, Eystein was suddenly killed, which left the rest of the men to flee from the battlefield.[122] Among those left at Riccall
Riccall
after the battle, who were allowed to return home peacefully by the English forces, was Harald's son Olaf.[123][124] Although sources state that Harald's remaining army only filled 20–25 ships on the return to Norway, it is likely that this number only accounts for the Norwegian forces. Most of the forces from Scotland and Orkney
Orkney
probably remained at Riccall
Riccall
throughout the battle (the earls Paul and Erlend Thorfinnsson are certainly known to have been stationed there the entire time), and has not been counted in the traditional figure.[122] Harold Godwinson's victory was short-lived, as only a few weeks later he was defeated by William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror
at the Battle of Hastings. The fact that Harold had to make a forced march to fight Hardrada at Stamford Bridge and then move at utmost speed south to meet the Norman invasion, all in less than three weeks, is widely seen as a primary factor in William's victory at Hastings.[125] Personal life[edit] Harald is described by Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson
to have been physically "larger than other men and stronger".[57] He is said to have had light hair and beard, a long "upper beard" (moustache), and that one of his eyebrows was somewhat higher situated than the other. He also reportedly had big hands and feet, and could measure five ells in height. It is not known whether Snorri's description of Harald's physical appearance actually represents historical facts.[126] The tall stature of Harald is also substantiated by a story that relates that before the Battle of Stamford Bridge, Harold Godwinson
Harold Godwinson
offered Tostig back the earldom of Northumbria, and Harald "six feet of the ground of England, or perhaps more seeing that he is taller than most men" (according to Henry of Huntingdon)[127] or "six feet of English ground, or seven feet as he was taller than other men" (according to Snorri Sturluson).[128] Harald himself composed skaldic poetry. According to Lee M. Hollander, composing poetry was normal for Norwegian kings, but Harald was the only one who "showed a decided talent."[129] According to one poem, Harald had mastered a number of activities that were considered sports in the Viking Age, in addition to poetry, brewing, horse riding, swimming, skiing, shooting, rowing and playing the harp.[130][131] The sagas state that Harald and his Varangians at least once took a break during the siege of a town to enjoy sports.[132] With regards to religion, Harald had, according to DeVries, a "religious inclination towards Christianity" and was "publicly close to the Christian Church", although he was influenced by the Eastern Christian culture of Kyivan Rus' (Garderike) and the Byzantine Empire, having spent most of his life there. He was clearly interested in advancing Christianity in Norway, which can be seen by the continued building and improvement of churches throughout his reign. Despite this, DeVries notes that Harald's "personal morality appears not to have matched the Christian ideal", citing his marriage arrangements.[93] Issue[edit] Harald married Elisiv of Kiev
Elisiv of Kiev
(c. 1025 – after 1066) around 1044/45,[133] and they had an unknown number, possibly several children. According to Snorri Sturluson, they had two daughters:[134]

Ingegerd (c. 1050 – 1120). Married first to the future Olaf I of Denmark, and after his death, to the future Philip of Sweden.[135] Maria (died 25 September 1066). Promised away for marriage to Eystein Orre (brother of Tora Torbergsdatter), but reportedly died on Orkney the same day that Harald (and Eystein) died at Stamford Bridge.

According to the sagas, Harald married Tora Torbergsdatter (c. 1025 – after 1066) around 1048.[136] Some modern historians have disputed this, since Harald in that case would be in a bigamous marriage, as he was still married to Elisiv.[137] It is nonetheless possible that such a marriage could take place in Norway
Norway
in the 11th century, and although Harald had two wives, only Elisiv is noted to have held the title of Queen.[138] Harald and Tora had at least two children:[3][134]

Magnus II (c. 1049 – 1069). Reigned as king of Norway
Norway
from 1066 to 1069. Olaf III (c. 1050 – 1093). Reigned as king of Norway
Norway
from 1067 to 1093.

Legacy[edit] Burial[edit]

The present Klostergata in Trondheim, site of the former Helgeseter Priory

A year after his death at Stamford Bridge, Harald's body was moved to Norway
Norway
and buried at the Mary Church in Nidaros
Nidaros
(Trondheim). About a hundred years after his burial, his body was reinterred at the Helgeseter Priory, which was demolished in the 17th century.[139] On 25 September 2006, the 940th anniversary of Harald's death, the newspaper Aftenposten
Aftenposten
published an article on the poor state of Norway's ancient royal burial sites, including that of Harald, which is reportedly located underneath a road built across the monastery site.[139] In a follow-up article on 26 September, the Municipality of Trondheim
Trondheim
revealed they would be examining the possibility of exhuming the king and reinterring him in Nidaros
Nidaros
Cathedral, currently the burial place of nine Norwegian kings, among them Magnus the Good and Magnus Haraldsson, Harald's predecessor and successor respectively.[140] A month later it was reported that the proposal to exhume the king had been scrapped.[141] In popular culture[edit] Harald appears in a number of historical fiction books. Justin Hill's Viking Fire is the second in his Conquest Trilogy, and tells the life of Harald in his own voice. He serves as the protagonist in two children's books by Henry Treece, The Last of the Vikings/The Last Viking (1964) and Swords from the North/The Northern Brothers (1967).[142] He also appears as the protagonist in the trilogy The Last Viking (1980) by Poul Anderson, and in Byzantium (1989) by Michael Ennis, which chronicles Harald's career in the Byzantine Empire.[143] The alternative history book Crusader Gold (2007) by marine archeologist David Gibbins
David Gibbins
features Harald as a key figure, as it follows him in acquiring the lost Menorah among his treasures during his service in the Byzantine Varangian Guard.[144] Harald also makes an appearance in Meadowland (2005) by Tom Holt.[145] In film, Harald was portrayed by Richard Long in the first episode of the BBC
BBC
series Historyonics (2004), titled "1066", which explores the background of the Battle of Hastings.[146] Harald's unorthodox departure from Constantinople
Constantinople
is featured in music by the Finnish folk metal band Turisas
Turisas
in the song "The Great Escape"; in addition, he is followed loosely throughout the story of the albums The Varangian Way
The Varangian Way
(2007) and Stand Up and Fight (2011).[147] Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
leads the Norwegian civilization in the 2016 4X video game Civilization VI
Civilization VI
developed by Firaxis Games.[148] In Paradox Interactive's 2012 grand strategy video game Crusader Kings II, Harald is playable as King of Norway
Norway
in the two 1066 "High Middle Ages" bookmarks. The game offers a Steam achievement for successfully conquering England as Harald in Ironman mode.[149] Modern memorials[edit] Two monuments have been raised in honour of Harald in Oslo, the city which he is traditionally held to have founded. A bronze relief on granite by Lars Utne depicting Harald on horseback was raised on the eponymously named square Harald Hardrådes plass in 1905. In 1950, a large relief by Anne Grimdalen, also of Harald on horseback, was unveiled on the western façade of the Oslo
Oslo
City Hall.[150]

Oslo
Oslo
City Hall (centre of image) with relief depicting Harald on the western façade

Monument to Harald at Harald Hardrådes plass in Gamlebyen

Window with portrait of Harald in Lerwick Town Hall, Shetland

Footnotes[edit]

^ The sagas mention that Harald was fifteen years old at the time of the Battle of Stiklestad
Battle of Stiklestad
(1030). ^ Cnut himself had adopted the triquetra from earlier Norse uses, viewing himself as a Scylding. His successors also used the symbol, and Harald in turn probably adopted it in order to claim his right to Denmark as heir to Magnus the Good and the Scyldings.

References[edit]

^ Schive (1865) p. 26 ^ "Det store norske leksikon" (The Great Norwegian Encyclopedia) [1] ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Krag, Claus. "Harald 3 Hardråde". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.  ^ Krag, Claus (1995). Vikingtid og rikssamling 800-1130. Aschehougs norgeshistorie. 2. Oslo: Aschehoug. pp. 92–93 & 171.  ^ a b c Hjardar & Vike (2011) p. 284 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 13 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 14 ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 15–16 ^ See, for example, Joan Turville-Petre, "The Genealogist and History: Ari to Snorri", Saga-Book 20 (1978–81), pp. 7–23 (pdf), Claus Krag, Ynglingatal og Ynglingasaga: en studie i historiske kilder, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget 1991, OCLC
OCLC
256562288 (in Norwegian), and Knut Helle, Cambridge History of Scandinavia, Volume I, Prehistory to 1520, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-47299-7, pp. 185, 191. ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 17–18 ^ Blöndal & Benedikz (2007) p. 54 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 25 ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 21–22 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 25–26 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 26 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 16 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 25 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 27 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 28 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 29 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 29–30 ^ Blöndal & Benedikz (2007) pp. 60–62 ^ a b Blöndal & Benedikz (2007) p. 63 ^ a b DeVries (1999) p. 30 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 30–31 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 43 ^ a b DeVries (1999) p. 31 ^ a b Tjønn (2010) p. 47 ^ Beeler (1971) p. 68 ^ Blöndal & Benedikz (2007) p. 70 ^ Gravett, Nicolle (2007) p. 102 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 31–32 ^ a b c Bibikov (2004) p. 21 ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 55–56 ^ Blöndal & Benedikz (2007) p. 57 ^ Bibikov (2004) p. 20 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 32 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 33 ^ Raffaele D'Amato, page 8 "The Varangian Guard
Varangian Guard
988 - 1453, ISBN 978-1-84908-179-5 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 41 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 33–34 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 34 ^ a b DeVries (1999) pp. 34–35 ^ a b DeVries (1999) pp. 35–38 ^ Thenrik Bimbaum, "Yaroslav's Varangian Connection" in Scando-Slavica, 1600–082X, Volume 24, Issue 1, 1978, Pages 5–25 ^ a b c d e DeVries (1999) p. 39 ^ Blöndal & Benedikz (2007) pp. 80–83. ^ Skaare (1995) p. 45 ^ Bagge (1990) p. 175 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 74 ^ a b Tjønn (2010) p. 77 ^ Henriksen (2011) ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 26–27 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 27 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 83 ^ Blöndal & Benedikz (2007) p. 96 ^ a b DeVries (1999) p. 40 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 40–41 ^ a b Vogt, Yngve (6 December 2007). "Omfattende myntindustri på 1000-tallet". Forskningsmagasinet Apollon (in Norwegian). University of Oslo. Retrieved 18 September 2012.  ^ Schive (1865) p. 24 ^ Skaare (1995) p. 46 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 42 ^ a b Tjønn (2010) p. 94 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 43–45 ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 95–102 ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 102–103 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 45–46 ^ a b Tjønn (2010) p. 103 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 57 ^ Moseng et al. (1999) p. 81 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 56–58 ^ Hjardar & Vike (2011) p. 118 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 59–60 ^ Skaare (1995) pp. 47–48 ^ Hertzberg, Ebbe; Bugge, Alexander (1915). Norges historie: andet binds første del tidsrummet 1030–1103. Kristiania: Aschehoug. p. 280.  ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 61–65 ^ Hjardar & Vike (2011) p. 83 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 66 ^ Sprague, Martina (2007). Norse Warfare: The Unconventional Battle Strategies of the Ancient Vikings. Hippocrene Books. p. 302. ISBN 978-0-7818-1176-7.  ^ Popperwell, Ronald G., Norway
Norway
(New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972), 79. ^ a b c Moseng et al. (1999) p. 79 ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 104–106 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 51–52 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 115 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 114 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 52–56 ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 115–120 ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 144–153 ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 153–155 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 155 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 46–47 ^ Jakobsson (2008) ^ a b DeVries (1999) pp. 47–48 ^ Bagge (1990) pp. 176–177 ^ a b DeVries (1999) p. 49 ^ Lamb, H. H. (1982). Climate, History, and the Modern World. Taylor & Francis. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-416-33440-1.  ^ Hjardar & Vike (2011) pp. 283–284 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 66–67 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 231–240 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 163 ^ Hjardar & Vike (2011) pp. 141, 143 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 230 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 169 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 168 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 250–251 ^ Hjardar & Vike (2011) pp. 284–285 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 167 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 264–265 & 269 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 251–252 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 242–243 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 165 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 252 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 170 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 250–261 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 172 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 267–270 ^ Fuglesang, Signe Horn (1997). Bilder og bilders bruk i vikingtid og middelalder (in Norwegian). Norges forskningsråd. p. 77.  ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 199 & 276–278 & 284 & 290 ^ Tjønn (2010) pp. 172–174 ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 276–296 ^ Hjardar & Vike (2011) pp. 289–291 ^ a b Hjardar & Vike (2011) p. 291 ^ DeVries (1999) p. 296 ^ Stenton (1971) p. 590 ^ Stenton (1971) p. 592 ^ Bagge (1990) pp. 187–189 ^ Barclay, Cyril Nelson (1966). Battle 1066. University of Michigan. p. 35.  ^ Carrington, C. E.; Jackson, J. Hampden (2011) [1932]. A History of England. Cambridge University. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-107-64803-6.  ^ Lee M. Hollander, The Skalds: A Selection of Their Poems, With Introductions and Notes, The American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1945, repr. Princeton: Princeton University, 1947, OCLC 213834959, p. 197. ^ Hjardar & Vike (2011) p. 60 ^ Translated in Hollander, p. 200. ^ DeVries (1999) p. 32 ^ Krag, Claus. "Ellisiv". Norsk biografisk leksikon
Norsk biografisk leksikon
(in Norwegian). Retrieved 9 October 2012.  ^ a b DeVries (1999) p. 48 ^ Lindqvist, Herman (2006). Historien om alla Sveriges drottningar: från myt och helgon till drottning i tiden. Volum 3 av Historien om Sverige. Norstedt. p. 41.  ^ Røskaft, Merete. "Tora Torbergsdatter". Norsk biografisk leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 9 October 2012.  ^ DeVries (1999) pp. 48–49 ^ Tjønn (2010) p. 106 ^ a b Guhnfeldt, Cato (25 September 2006). "En norsk kongegrav". Aftenposten
Aftenposten
(in Norwegian). Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Guhnfeldt, Cato (26 September 2006). "Kan bli gravd opp". Aftenposten
Aftenposten
(in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Agerlie, Kristin (25 October 2006). "Hardråde får ligge i fred". NRK Trøndelag
Trøndelag
(in Norwegian). Retrieved 20 September 2012.  ^ Barnhouse, Rebecca (2004). The Middle Ages in Literature for Youth: A Guide and Resource Book. Scarecrow Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8108-4916-7.  ^ Halsall, Paul (1996). "A Guide to "Byzantine" Literature". Fordham University. Retrieved 15 November 2012.  ^ Quinn, Colleen (7 January 2011). "Review: Crusader Gold". Bookreporter.com. Retrieved 15 November 2012.  ^ Walker, Lars (25 February 2011). "Meadowland, by Thomas Holt". Brandywine Books. Retrieved 15 November 2012.  ^ "Historyonics, 1066". BBC
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One. Retrieved 15 November 2012.  ^ D., Chris (17 February 2011). "STREAMING: Turisas
Turisas
"The Great Escape"". Decibel magazine. Retrieved 15 November 2012.  ^ "Civilization VI: Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
Leads Norway". Official Civilization Website. September 7, 2016. Retrieved September 10, 2016.  ^ "Steam Community :: Crusader Kings II :: Achievements". Valve Software. Retrieved 14 April 2017.  ^ Norseng, Per G. "Harald 3 Hardråde". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Retrieved 20 September 2012. 

Bibliography[edit]

Beeler, John (1971). Warfare in Feudal Europe: 730-1200. Cornell University. ISBN 978-0-8014-9120-7.  Bibikov, Mikhail (2004). "Byzantine Sources for the History of Balticum and Scandinavia". In Volt, Ivo; Päll, Janika. Byzanto-Nordica 2004. Tartu, Estonia: Tartu University. ISBN 9949-11-266-4.  Blöndal, Sigfús (2007). Benedikz, Benedikt S., ed. The Varangians of Byzantium. Cambridge University. ISBN 978-0-521-21745-3.  DeVries, Kelly (1999). The Norwegian Invasion of England in 1066. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. ISBN 978-0-85115-763-4.  DeVries, Kelly (2008). "Medieval mercenaries: methodology, definitions and problems". In France, John. Mercenaries and paid men: the mercenary identity in the middle ages: proceedings of Conference held at University of Wales, Swansea, 7th-9th july 2005. BRILL. p. 58. ISBN 978-90-04-16447-5.  Gravett, Christopher; Nicolle, David (2007). The Normans: Warrior Knights and Their Castles. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-84603-218-9.  Henriksen, Vera (2011). Dronningsagaen ; Kongespeil [Queen's Day; King's Mirror] (in Norwegian). Aschehoug. ISBN 9788203350788.  Hjardar, Kim; Vike, Vegard (2011). Vikinger i krig (in Norwegian). Spartacus. ISBN 978-82-430-0475-7.  Jakobsson, Sverrir (2008). "The Schism that never was: Old Norse views on Byzantium and Russia". Byzantinoslavica. Slovanský ústav Akademie věd ČR, v. v. i. and Euroslavica. pp. 173–88.  Moseng, Ole Georg; et al. (1999). Norsk historie: 750-1537 (in Norwegian). I. Aschehoug. ISBN 978-82-518-3739-2.  van Nahl, Jan Alexander (2016). "The Medieval Mood of Contingency. Chance as a Shaping Factor in Hákonar saga góða and Haralds saga Sigurðarsonar". Mediaevistik, International Journal of Interdisciplinary Medieval Research 29. pp. 81–97.  Schive, C. I. (1865). Norges Mynter i Middelalderen (in Norwegian). Christiania: H. Tønsberg.  Skaare, Kolbjørn (1995). Norges mynthistorie: mynter og utmyntning i 1000 år, pengesedler i 300 år, numismatikk i Norge (in Norwegian). 1. Universitetsforlaget. ISBN 82-00-22666-2.  Stenton, F. M. (1971). Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford History of England. II (3rd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press-Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-821716-9.  Sverre, Bagge (1990). "Harald Hardråde i Bysants. To fortellinger, to kulturer". In Andersen; Øivind; Hägg, Tomas. Hellas og Norge: kontakt, komparasjon, kontrast : en artikkelsamling (in Norwegian). University of Bergen. pp. 169–92. ISBN 82-991411-3-3.  Tjønn, Halvor (2010). Harald Hardråde. Sagakongene (in Norwegian). Saga
Saga
Bok/Spartacus. ISBN 978-82-430-0558-7. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Harald III of Norway.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Harald.

Saga
Saga
of Harald Hardrade by Snorri Sturluson
Snorri Sturluson
(c. 1230), English translation Ágrip (af Nóregskonungasögum) (c. 1180s), in Old Norse with English translation An Account of the Ancient History of the Norwegian Kings by Theodoric the Monk (c. 1180), English translation Morkinskinna
Morkinskinna
(c. 1220s), in Old Norse Fagrskinna (c. 1220s), in Old Norse Flateyjarbók
Flateyjarbók
(14th/15th century), in Icelandic

Harald Hardrada House of Hardrada Cadet branch of the Fairhair dynasty Born: c. 1015 Died: 25 September 1066

Regnal titles

Preceded by Magnus I King of Norway 1046–1066 with Magnus I (1046–1047) Succeeded by Magnus II

Titles in pretence

Preceded by Magnus I — TITULAR — King of Denmark 1047–1064 Reason for succession failure: House of Estridsson Claim abandoned

Preceded by Edward the Confessor — TITULAR — King of England 1066 Reason for succession failure: Battle of Stamford Bridge

v t e

Monarchs of Norway

I. Independent Norway

Foreign and non-royal rulers in italics, disputed monarchs in brackets

872–1387

Harald I Fairhair Eric I Bloodaxe Haakon I the Good Harald II Greycloak Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth
d & Haakon Sigurdsson
Haakon Sigurdsson
r Olaf I Tryggvason Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard
de & Eric Haakonsson
Eric Haakonsson
r & Sweyn Haakonsson
Sweyn Haakonsson
r Olaf II the Saint Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
de & Haakon Ericsson
Haakon Ericsson
r & Sweyn Knutsson r (Ælfgifu r) Magnus I the Good d Harald III Hardrada Magnus II Haraldsson Olaf III Kyrre Haakon Magnusson Magnus III Barefoot Olav Magnusson Eystein I Magnusson Sigurd I the Crusader Harald IV Gille Magnus IV the Blind Sigurd II Munn Inge I Haraldsson Eystein II Haraldsson (Magnus Haraldsson) Haakon II Broadshoulder Magnus V Erlingsson Sverre Sigurdsson Haakon III Sverresson (Guttorm Sigurdsson) Inge II Bårdsson Haakon IV Haakonsson (Haakon the Young) Magnus VI the Law-mender Eric II Magnusson Haakon V Magnusson Magnus VII Ericsson s Haakon VI Magnusson s Olaf IV Haakonsson d

Kalmar Union

1387–1523

Margaret ds Eric III ds Christopher ds Charles I s Christian I ds John ds Christian II ds

Denmark–Norway

1524–1814

Frederick I d Christian III d Frederick II d Christian IV d Frederick III d Christian V d Frederick IV d Christian VI d Frederick V d Christian VII d Frederick VI d

II. Independent Norway

Only 1814

Christian Frederick

Union with Sweden

1814–1905

Charles II s Charles III John s Oscar I s Charles IV s Oscar II s

III. Independent Norway

Since 1905

Haakon VII Olav V Harald V

r Regent d Also Danish monarch e Also English monarch s Also Swedish monarch

v t e

Norman conquest of England

Leaders

William the Conqueror Harold Godwinson Harald Hardrada Sweyn II of Denmark

Battles

Battle of Fulford Battle of Stamford Bridge Battle of Hastings

Combatants

Gyrth Godwinson Odo of Bayeux Leofwine Godwinson Hereward the Wake Edwin Morcar Tostig Waltheof Eustace of Boulogne Eadric the Wild Robert of Mortain Ralph de Gael Roger de Breteuil Companions of William the Conqueror

Associated people

Edward the Confessor Stigand Edith the Fair Edgar Ætheling Ealdred Malcolm III of Scotland Matilda of Flanders

Locations

Battle Abbey Battle, East Sussex Pevensey Tower of London

Events

Harrying of the North Revolt of the Earls Council of London Trial of Penenden Heath

Miscellaneous

Bayeux Tapestry Domesday Book Carmen de Hastingae Proelio William of Poitiers

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 288239425 LCCN: n92032656 GND: 118701487 SUDOC: 05252969X BIBS

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