Hans Wehr transliteration
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The Hans Wehr transliteration system is a system for
transliteration Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script Script may refer to: Writing systems * Script, a distinctive writing system, based on a repertoire of specific elements or symbols, or that repertoire * Script (styles of ha ...

transliteration
of the
Arabic alphabet The Arabic alphabet ( ar, الْأَبْجَدِيَّة الْعَرَبِيَّة, ' or , ', ), or Arabic abjad, is the as it is codified for writing . It is written from right to left in a style and includes 28 letters. Most letters hav ...

Arabic alphabet
into the
Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originally used by the ancient Romans In historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived ...

Latin alphabet
used in the Hans Wehr dictionary (1952; in English 1961). The system was modified somewhat in the English editions. It is printed in lowercase
italics In typography File:metal movable type.jpg, 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case shown below it Typography is the art and technique of typesetting, arranging type to make wri ...
. It marks some consonants using diacritics (
underdot When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the ''interpunct'' ( · ), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' ( ◌̇ ) and 'combining dot below' ( ◌̣ ) which may be combined with some Letter (alphabe ...
,
macron below Macron below, , is a combining diacritical mark In digital typography Desktop publishing (DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout software on a personal ("desktop") personal computer, computer. It was first used almost exclusive ...

macron below
, and
caron A caron (), háček or haček ( or ; plural ''háčeks'' or ''háčky'') also known as a hachek, wedge, check, kvačica, strešica, mäkčeň, paukščiukas, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, or flying bird, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed ...

caron
) rather than
digraphs Digraph may refer to: * Digraph (orthography) A digraph or digram (from the el, δίς ', "double" and ', "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a m ...
, and writes long vowels with macrons. The transliteration of the Arabic alphabet: *
Hamza Hamza ( ar, همزة ') () is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop . Hamza is one of the 28 "full" letters and owes its existence to historical inconsistencies in the orthography, standard writing system. It is derived ...
() is represented as ʼ in the middle and at the end of a word. At the beginning of a word, it is not represented. * The '' tāʼ marbūṭa'' () is normally not represented, and words ending in it simply have a final ''-a''. It is, however, represented with a ''t'' when it is the ending of the first noun of an ''iḍāfa'' and with an ''h'' when it appears after a long ''ā''. * Native Arabic long vowels: ''ā ī ū'' * Long vowels in borrowed words: ''ē ō'' * Short vowels: ''fatḥa'' is represented as ''a'', ''kasra'' as ''i'' and ''ḍamma'' as ''u''. (see short vowel marks) * ''Wāw'' and ''yāʼ'' are represented as ''u'' and ''i'' after ''fatḥa'': ''ʻain'' "eye", ''yaum'' "day". * Non-standard Arabic consonants: ''p'' (), ''ž'' (), ''g'' () * ''Alif maqṣūra'' (): ''ā'' * ''Madda'' (): ''ā'' at the beginning of a word, ''ʼā'' in the middle or at the end * A final ''yāʼ'' (), the ''nisba'' adjective ending, is represented as ''ī'' normally, but as ''īy'' when the ending contains the third consonant of the root. This difference is not written in the Arabic. * Capitalization: The transliteration uses no capitals, even for proper names. * Definite article: The Arabic definite article is represented as ''al-'' except where assimilation (linguistics), assimilation occurs: ''al-'' + ''šams'' is transliterated ''aš-šams'' (see sun and moon letters). The ''a'' in ''al-'' is omitted after a final ''a'' (as in ''lamma šamla l-qatīʻ'' "to round up the herd") or changed to ''i'' after a feminine third person singular perfect verb form (as in ''kašafat il-ḥarbu ʻan sāqin'' "war flared up").


See also

* Romanization of Arabic (compare other systems, such as ALA-LC or DIN 31635) * Arabic phonology * Help:IPA/Arabic


Notes


References

*Wehr, Hans. ''Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic''. {{DEFAULTSORT:Hans Wehr Transliteration Romanization of Arabic