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Hans Michael Frank (23 May 1900 – 16 October 1946) was a German war criminal and lawyer who worked for the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
during the 1920s and 1930s, and later became Adolf Hitler's personal lawyer. After the invasion of Poland, Frank became Nazi Germany's chief jurist in the occupied Poland
Poland
"General Government" territory. During his tenure throughout World War II
World War II
(1939–45), he instituted a reign of terror against the civilian population[1] and became directly involved in the mass murder of Jews. At the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials, he was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity and was executed.

Contents

1 Early years 2 Wartime career 3 Death camps 4 Capture and trial 5 Memoirs 6 Family 7 Quotations 8 In popular culture 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

Early years[edit] Frank, the middle child of three, was born in Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
to Karl Frank, a lawyer, and his wife, Magdalena (née Buchmaier), a daughter of a prosperous baker. He graduated from high school at the renowned Maximilians gymnasium in Munich, and right after, at seventeen, joined the German army fighting in World War I, barely reaching front-line combat.[citation needed] After the war, in 1919 and 1920, he was a member of the Thule völkisch society. He served also in the Freikorps
Freikorps
under Franz Ritter von Epp's command, taking part in the crackdown of the Münchner Räterepublik.[2] In 1919, as did other members of the Thule society, he joined the German Workers' Party
German Workers' Party
(DAP) at its beginning.[3] Although the DAP evolved quite soon into NSDAP (Nazi Party), Frank waited until September 1923 to become a member of the Sturmabteilung (SA), and in October he officially joined the NSDAP. In November of the same year, Frank took part in the Beer Hall Putsch, the failed coup attempt intended to parallel Mussolini's March on Rome. In the aftermath of the attempted putsch, Frank fled to Austria
Austria
returning in Munich
Munich
only in 1924, after the pending legal proceedings were stayed.[2] Frank studied law (he passed the final state examination in 1926) and rose to become Adolf Hitler's personal legal adviser. As the Nazis rose to power, Frank also served as the party's lawyer. He represented it in over 2,400 cases and spent over $10,000. This sometimes brought him into conflict with other lawyers. Once, a former teacher appealed to him: "I beg you to leave these people alone! No good will come of it! Political movements that begin in the criminal courts will end in the criminal courts!"[4] In September–October 1930, Frank served as the defence lawyer at the court-martial in Leipzig of Lieutenants Richard Scheringer, Hans Friedrich Wendt and Hanns Ludin, three Reichswehr
Reichswehr
officers charged with membership in the NSDAP.[5] The trial was a media sensation. Hitler himself testified and the defence successfully put the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
itself on trial. Many Army officers developed a sympathetic view of the National Socialist movement as a consequence.[5] Frank was elected to the Reichstag in 1930, and in 1933 he was made Minister of Justice for Bavaria. From 1933, he was also the head of the National Socialist Jurists Association and President of the Academy of German Law. Frank objected to extrajudicial killings as it weakened the power of the legal system (of which he himself was a prominent member), both at the Dachau concentration camp
Dachau concentration camp
and during the Night of the Long Knives.[6] Frank's view of what the judicial process required was that:

[The judge's] role is to safeguard the concrete order of the racial community, to eliminate dangerous elements, to prosecute all acts harmful to the community, and to arbitrate in disagreements between members of the community. The National Socialist ideology, especially as expressed in the Party programme and in the speeches of our Leader, is the basis for interpreting legal sources.[7]

Ruler of the General Government
General Government
in occupied Poland

Announcement of the execution of 50 Polish hostages as a reprisal for blowing up railway lines near Warsaw

Frank visiting Stanyslaviv (now Ivano-Frankivsk). Ukrainian nationalists parade in the streets of the city, October 1941

From 1934, Frank was Reich Minister Without Portfolio. On 7 April 1938, Frank addressed some 10,000 National Socialists at the Passau Nibelungenhalle.[8] Wartime career[edit]

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Main articles: General Government
General Government
and General Government administration In September 1939 Frank was assigned as Chief of Administration to Gerd von Rundstedt
Gerd von Rundstedt
in the German military administration in occupied Poland. Beginning 26 October 1939, following the end of the invasion of Poland, Frank was assigned Governor-General of the occupied Polish territories (Generalgouverneur für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete), controlling the General Government, the area of Poland
Poland
not directly incorporated into Germany (roughly 90,000 km2 out of the 187,000 km2 Germany had gained). Frank oversaw the segregation of the Jews into ghettos, especially the enormous Warsaw ghetto, and the use of Polish civilians as forced labour. In 1942 he lost his positions of authority outside the General Government after annoying Hitler with a series of speeches in Berlin, Vienna, Heidelberg, and Munich
Munich
and also as part of a power struggle with Friedrich Wilhelm Krüger, the State Secretary for Security – head of the SS and the police in the General Government. Krüger himself was ultimately replaced by Wilhelm Koppe. On 16 December 1941, Frank spelled out to his senior officials the approaching annihilation of the Jews:

A great Jewish migration will begin in any case. But what should we do with the Jews? Do you think they will be settled in Ostland, in villages? We were told in Berlin, 'Why all this bother? We can do nothing with them either in Ostland or in the Reichskommissariat. So liquidate them yourselves.' Gentlemen, I must ask you to rid yourself of all feelings of pity. We must annihilate the Jews wherever we find them and whenever it is possible.[9]

When this was read to him at the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials he said:

One has to take the diary as a whole. You can not go through 43 volumes and pick out single sentences and separate them from their context. I would like to say here that I do not want to argue or quibble about individual phrases. It was a wild and stormy period filled with terrible passions, and when a whole country is on fire and a life and death struggle is going on, such words may easily be used... Some of the words are terrible. I myself must admit that I was shocked at many of the words which I had used.[3]

Nazi death camps in occupied Poland
Poland
(marked with black and white skulls)

An assassination attempt by Polish Secret State
Polish Secret State
on 29/30 January 1944 (the night preceding the 11th anniversary of Hitler's appointment as Chancellor of Germany) in Szarów near Kraków
Kraków
failed. A special train with Frank travelling to Lviv
Lviv
was derailed after an explosive device discharged but no one was killed.[10][11] Hans Frank
Hans Frank
patronized the General Government
General Government
chess tournaments (1940–1944) which started in the context of a chess congress held in Kraków
Kraków
in 1940.[12] Death camps[edit]

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The General Government
General Government
was the location of four of the six extermination camps, namely, Bełżec, Treblinka, Majdanek and Sobibór. Chełmno and Birkenau
Birkenau
fell just outside the borders of the General Government. Frank later claimed that the extermination of Jews was entirely controlled by Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
and the SS and that he, Frank, was unaware of the extermination camps in the General Government
General Government
until early in 1944, a surprising claim and one found to be untrue by the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
tribunal. During his testimony at Nuremberg, Frank claimed he submitted resignation requests to Hitler on 14 occasions, but Hitler would not allow him to resign. Frank fled the General Government
General Government
in January 1945 as the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
advanced.

Frank (center, wearing a glove after an unsuccessful suicide attempt shortly after his arrest) at the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trial, with Alfred Jodl
Alfred Jodl
and Alfred Rosenberg

Capture and trial[edit]

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Frank was captured by American troops on 3 May 1945, at Tegernsee
Tegernsee
in southern Bavaria. He attempted suicide twice but failed both times.[13][citation needed] He was indicted for war crimes and tried before the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg
Nuremberg
from 20 November 1945 to 1 October 1946. During the trial he converted, guided by Fr Sixtus O'Connor OFM, to Roman Catholicism, and claimed to have had a series of religious experiences.

Hans Frank
Hans Frank
as a defendant before the International Military Tribunal

Hans Frank's corpse after his hanging

Frank voluntarily surrendered 43 volumes of his personal diaries to the Allies, which were then used against him as evidence of his guilt.[3] Frank confessed to some of the charges and expressed remorse on the witness stand, showing penitence for his crimes. On the witness stand, he said,

after having heard the testimony of the witness Rudolf Höss, my conscience does not allow me to throw the responsibility solely on these minor people. I myself have never installed an extermination camp for Jews, or promoted the existence of such camps; but if Adolf Hitler personally has laid that dreadful responsibility on his people, then it is mine too, for we have fought against Jewry for years; and we have indulged in the most horrible utterances.[3]

He and Albert Speer
Albert Speer
were allegedly the only defendants to show remorse for their war crimes.[14] At the same time he accused the Allies, especially the Soviets, of their own wartime atrocities. The former German Governor-General of Poland
Poland
was found guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity on 1 October 1946, and was sentenced to death by hanging. The death sentence was carried out at Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Prison on 16 October by US Army Master Sergeant John C. Woods. Journalist Joseph Kingsbury-Smith wrote of the execution:

Hans Frank
Hans Frank
was next in the parade of death. He was the only one of the condemned to enter the chamber with a smile on his countenance. And, although nervous and swallowing frequently, this man, who was converted to Roman Catholicism after his arrest, gave the appearance of being relieved at the prospect of atoning for his evil deeds.[15]

He answered to his name quietly and when asked for any last statement, he replied "I am thankful for the kind treatment during my captivity and I ask God to accept me with mercy."[15] His body and those of the other nine executed prisoners and the corpse of Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
were cremated at Ostfriedhof (Munich)
Ostfriedhof (Munich)
and the ashes were scattered in the river Isar.[16][17][18] Memoirs[edit] While awaiting execution, he wrote his memoirs, Im Angesicht des Galgens (In the face of the gallows). In the capacity as his attorney, Frank was privy to personal details of Hitler's life. In his memoirs, written shortly before his execution, Frank made the sensational claim that Hitler had commissioned him to investigate Hitler's family in 1930 after a "blackmail letter" had been received from Hitler's nephew, William Patrick Hitler, who allegedly threatened to reveal embarrassing facts about his uncle's ancestry. Frank said that the investigation uncovered evidence that Maria Schicklgruber, Hitler's paternal grandmother, had been working as a cook in the household of a Jewish man named Leopold Frankenberger before she gave birth to Hitler's father, Alois, out of wedlock. Frank claimed that he had obtained from a relative of Hitler's by marriage a collection of letters between Maria Schicklgruber and a member of the Frankenberger family that discussed a stipend for her after she left the family's employ. According to Frank, Hitler told him that the letters did not prove that the Frankenberger son was his grandfather but rather his grandmother had merely extorted money from Frankenberger by threatening to claim his paternity of her illegitimate child.[19] Frank accepted this explanation, but added that it was still just possible that Hitler had some Jewish ancestry. But he thought it unlikely because, "... from his entire demeanor, the fact that Adolf Hitler had no Jewish blood coursing through his veins seems so clearly evident that nothing more need be said on this."[20] Given that all Jews had been expelled from the province of Styria (which includes Graz) in the 15th century and were not allowed to return until the 1860s, scholars such as Sir Ian Kershaw
Sir Ian Kershaw
and Brigitte Hamann dismiss as baseless the Frankenberger hypothesis, which before had only Frank's speculation to support it.[21] There is no evidence outside of Frank's statements for the existence of a "Leopold Frankenberger" living in Graz in the 1830s, and Frank's story is notably inaccurate on several points such as the claim that Maria Schicklgruber came from "Leonding near Linz", when in fact she came from the hamlet of Strones near the village of Döllersheim.[22] Some suggest that Frank (who turned against National Socialism after 1945 but remained an anti-Semitic fanatic) made the claim that Hitler had Jewish ancestry as way of proving that Hitler was really a "Jew" and not an "Aryan"; and in this way, "proved" that the Third Reich's crimes were the work of the "Jewish" Hitler.[23] The full anti-Semitic implications of Frank's story were borne out in a letter entitled "Was Hitler a Jew?", written to the editor of a Saudi
Saudi
newspaper in 1982 by a German man living in Saudi
Saudi
Arabia.[24] The writer accepted Frank's story as the truth, and added since Hitler was a Jew, "the Jews should pay Germans reparations for the War, because one of theirs caused the destruction of Germany".[25] But Jewish-American author Ron Rosenbaum suggested another reason for Frank's story:

On the other hand, a different version of Frank emerges in the brilliantly vicious, utterly unforgiving portrait of him by his son, Niklas Frank, who (in a memoir called In the Shadow of the Reich) depicts his father as a craven coward and weakling, but one not without a kind of animal cunning, an instinct for lying, insinuation, self-aggrandizement. For this Hans Frank, disgraced and facing death on the gallows for following Hitler, fabricating such a story might be a cunning way of ensuring his place in history as the one man who gave the world the hidden key to the mystery of Hitler's psyche. While at the same time, revenging himself on his former master for having led him to this end by foisting a sordid and humiliating explanation of Hitler on him for all posterity. In any case, it was one Frank knew the victors would find seductive.[26]

Family[edit] On 2 April 1925 Frank married 29-year-old secretary Brigitte Herbst (25 December 1895 – 9 March 1959) from Forst (Lausitz). The wedding took place in Munich
Munich
and the couple honeymooned in Venetia. Hans and Brigitte Frank had five children:

Sigrid Frank (born 13 March 1927, Munich
Munich
– d. in South Africa) Norman Frank (born 3 June 1928, Munich
Munich
– d. 2010) Brigitte Frank (born 13 January 1935, Munich
Munich
– d. 1981) Michael Frank (born 15 February 1937, Munich
Munich
– d. 1990) Niklas Frank (born 9 March 1939, Munich)

Brigitte Frank had a reputation for having a more dominant personality than her husband: after 1939 she called herself "a queen of Poland" ("Königin von Polen"). The marriage was unhappy and became colder from year to year. When Frank sought a divorce in 1942, Brigitte gave everything to save their marriage in order to remain the "First Lady in the General Government". One of her most famous comments was "I'd rather be widowed than divorced from a Reichsminister!" Frank answered: "So you are my deadly enemy!"[27] In 1987, Niklas Frank wrote a book about his father, Der Vater: Eine Abrechnung ("The Father: A Settling of Accounts"), which was published in English in 1991 as In the Shadow of the Reich. The book, which was serialized in the magazine Stern, caused controversy in Germany because of the scathing way in which the younger Frank depicted his father: Niklas referred to him as "a slime-hole of a Hitler fanatic" and questioned his remorse before his execution.[28][29] Niklas is the sole living child of Hans and Brigitte Frank. Sigrid remained a committed Nazi who emigrated to South Africa during the apartheid regime and died there. Brigitte committed suicide in 1981; Michael and Norman died in 1990 and 2010, respectively.[30] Quotations[edit] In an interview published in the 6 June 1940 edition of the Völkischer Beobachter:

In Prague, big red posters were put up on which one could read that seven Czechs
Czechs
had been shot today. I said to myself, 'If I had to put up a poster for every seven Poles shot, the forests of Poland
Poland
would not be sufficient to manufacture the paper.'[31]

A slightly different translation is given by another author. The occasion was a widely distributed proclamation in German–occupied Czechoslovakia announcing the execution of seven Czech students:

If I had to order a distribution of posters announcing such an event every time I order a shooting of seven Poles, there would not be enough trees in the Polish forests to supply the necessary paper.[32]

In the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials:

A thousand years will pass and still Germany's guilt will not have been erased.[33]

There is still one statement of mine which I must rectify. On the witness stand I said that a thousand years would not suffice to erase the guilt brought upon our people because of Hitler's conduct in this war. Every possible guilt incurred by our nation has already been completely wiped out today, not only by the conduct of our war-time enemies towards our nation and its soldiers, which has been carefully kept out of this Trial, but also by the tremendous mass crimes of the most frightful sort which—as I have now learned—have been and still are being committed against Germans by Russians, Poles, and Czechs, especially in East Prussia, Silesia, Pomerania, and Sudetenland. Who shall ever judge these crimes against the German people?"[34]

In popular culture[edit] Hans Frank
Hans Frank
has been portrayed by the following actors in film, television and theater productions.

Lothar Bellag in the 1968 East German television miniseries Wege übers Land. Voja Mirić in the 1971 Yugoslavian television production Nirnberski epilog Jerzy Duszyński
Jerzy Duszyński
in the 1976 Polish film Ocalić miasto John Bailey in the 1978 United States television production Holocaust Robert Austin in the 1984 United States television production Pope John Paul II Frank Moore in the 2000 Canadian/U.S. T.V. production Nuremberg Matt Craven in the 2005 Polish television production Karol, un uomo diventato Papa Andreas Conrad in the 2005 German T.V. miniseries Speer und Er. Harald Posch in the 2005 Italian/U.S./Polish television production Pope John Paul II Will Keen in the 2011 BBC
BBC
production The Man Who Crossed Hitler

Literature

Curzio Malaparte, an Italian writer who during the war also served as a reservist Italian army officer, and unofficial diplomat because of his ties with Germany, wrote extensively in his 1944 book Kaputt! about Frank and the convivial dinners that he held in his mansions outside Warsaw and Cracow for Malaparte and other guests. He also mentions that Frank was a capable piano player.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

German war crimes Glossary of Nazi Germany List of Nazi Party
Nazi Party
leaders and officials The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland Nazi crimes against the Polish nation Command responsibility Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Trials bibliography

References[edit] Notes

^ " Holocaust
Holocaust
Encyclopedia: Hans Frank". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ a b Geiss, Immanuel; Jacobmeyer, Wolfgang, eds. (1980). Deutsche Politik in Polen 1939-1945. Aus dem Diensttagebuch von Hans Frank, Generalgouverneur in Polen (in German). Opladen: Leske + Budrich. p. 11. ISBN 978-3810002969.  ^ a b c d Frank's cross-examination during the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trial in: "One Hundred And Eleventh Day - Thursday, 18 April 1946". Nuremberg Trial Proceedings. 12. Yale Law School/Lillian Goldman Law Library/The Avalon Project. p. 20. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ Evans, Richard J. (2004). The Coming of the Third Reich. Penguin Press, p. 179; ISBN 978-1-59420-004-5. ^ a b Wheeler-Bennett, John (1967). The Nemesis of Power, London: Macmillan, pp. 216-20. ^ Housden, Martyn (2003). Hans Frank, Lebensraum and the Final Solution. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 4. ISBN 978-1403915795.  ^ Quoted in Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. Penguin Press, p. 73. ISBN 978-1-59420-074-8. ^ Anna Rosmus Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, p. 145. ^ Speech by Frank to his senior officials, 16 Dec 1941, repr. in: Office of Chief Counsel for Prosecution of Axis Criminality, OCCPAC, quoted in Polonsky, Antony (2011). The Jews in Poland
Poland
and Russia. III 1914 to 2008. p. 434. ^ Wroński, T. (1974). Kronika okupowanego Krakowa. Wydawnictwo Literackie, p. 320. ^ Dąbrowa-Kostka, S. (1972). W okupowanym Krakowie. Wydawnictwo Ministerstwa Obrony Narodowej, pp. 160–67. ^ Winter, Edward (2013). " Hans Frank
Hans Frank
and Chess". chesshistory.com. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ Posner, Gerald L (1991). Hitler's children : sons and daughters of leaders of the Third Reich talk about their fathers and themselves. New York: Random House. p. 31.  ^ Gilbert, G. M. (1995). Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Diary. De Capo Press, p. 19; ISBN 978-0-306-80661-2. ^ a b Smith, Kingsbury (16 October 1946). "The Execution of Nazi War Criminals". Famous World Trials - Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Trials 1945-1949. Archived from the original on 12 March 2001. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  ^ Thomas Darnstädt (2005), "Ein Glücksfall der Geschichte", Der Spiegel, 13 September (14), p. 128  ^ Manvell 2011, p. 393. ^ Overy 2001, p. 205. ^ Rosenbaum, Ron (1998). Explaining Hitler. New York: Random House. pp. 21–22.  ^ Translated from Frank's memoirs published posthumously: Frank, Hans (1953). Im Angesicht des Galgens. Deutung Hitlers und seiner Zeit aufgrund eigener Erlebnisse und Erkenntnisse. Friedrich Alfred Beck. p. 330 (in German). ^ "Hatte Hitler jüdische Vorfahren?" (in German). Holocaust-Referenz. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  "Was Hitler part Jewish?". The Straight Dope. 9 April 1993.  "Was Hitler Jewish?". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 18 April 2016.  Rosenbaum 1998, pp. 24–5. ^ Rosenbaum 1998, p. 21. ^ Rosenbaum 1998, pp. 21, 30-1. ^ Rosenbaum 1998, p. 30. ^ Rosenbaum 1998, p. 31. ^ Rosenbaum 1998, p. 25. ^ " Hans Frank
Hans Frank
– Pre-war career, Wartime career, Quotation, Fiction and film," in Cambridge Encyclopedia, 32. Retrieved 20 January 2008. ^ Frank, Niklas (1991). In the Shadow of the Reich. Knopf; ISBN 978-0-394-58345-7. ^ Review by Susan Benesch, Washington Monthly, November 1991. ^ Niklas Frank, Hitler's Children (2012 documentary). ^ Cited in Davies, N. (2003). Rising '44. London: Macmillan. p. 84; ISBN 978-0-333-90568-5. ^ Czapski, J. (1987). The Inhuman Land. London: Polish Cultural Foundation. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-85065-164-5. ^ William L. Shirer. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
(foreword). Simon and Schuster, New York, 1960. ^ "Two Hundred And Sixteenth Day - Saturday, 31 August 1946". Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Trial Proceedings. 22. Yale Law School/Lillian Goldman Law Library/The Avalon Project. p. 385. Retrieved 18 April 2016. 

Further reading

Fest, Joachim C. and Bullock, Michael (trans.) " Hans Frank
Hans Frank
- Imitation of a Man of Violence" in The Face of the Third Reich New York: Penguin, 1979 (orig. published in German in 1963), pp. 315–331. ISBN 978-0201407143. Schenk, Dieter (2006). Hans Frank: Hitlers Kronjurist und General-Gouverneur. Frankfurt am Main, S. Fischer Verlag. ISBN 978-3-10-073562-1 (in German).

External links[edit]

"The International Military Tribunal for Germany". Yale Law School
Yale Law School
/ Lillian Goldman Law Library
Lillian Goldman Law Library
/ The Avalon Project.  Testimony of Frank at Nuremberg Hans Frank
Hans Frank
(Character) on IMDb

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v t e

Major defendants at the Nuremberg
Nuremberg
trials

Sentenced to death

Martin Bormann1 Hans Frank Wilhelm Frick Hermann Göring2 Alfred Jodl Ernst Kaltenbrunner Wilhelm Keitel Joachim von Ribbentrop Alfred Rosenberg Fritz Sauckel Arthur Seyss-Inquart Julius Streicher

Imprisoned (terms)

Karl Dönitz (10 years) Walther Funk
Walther Funk
(life) Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
(life) Konstantin von Neurath
Konstantin von Neurath
(15 years) Erich Raeder
Erich Raeder
(life) Baldur von Schirach
Baldur von Schirach
(20 years) Albert Speer
Albert Speer
(20 years)

Acquitted

Hans Fritzsche Franz von Papen Hjalmar Schacht

No decision

Gustav Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach3 Robert Ley4

1 In absentia. Remains discovered in Berlin
Berlin
in 1972 and conclusively identified in 1998; confirmed to have committed suicide on 2 May 1945 2 Committed suicide on 15 October 1946 before sentence could be carried out 3 Found unfit to stand trial 4 Committed suicide on 25 October 1945

v t e

Members of the Hitler Cabinet

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(Chancellor / Führer) Hermann Göring
Hermann Göring
(President of the Reichstag) Ernst Röhm
Ernst Röhm
(Stabschef-SA) Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
(Reichsführer-SS) Rudolf Hess
Rudolf Hess
(Deputy Führer)1 Franz von Papen
Franz von Papen
(Vice-Chancellor)

Acting officeholders shown in italics

Minister of Foreign Affairs

Konstantin von Neurath Joachim von Ribbentrop

Minister of the Interior

Wilhelm Frick Heinrich Himmler

Minister of Finance

Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk

Minister of Justice

Franz Gürtner Franz Schlegelberger Otto Georg Thierack

Minister of the Reichswehr

Werner von Blomberg Wilhelm Keitel

Minister of Economics

Alfred Hugenberg Kurt Schmitt Hjalmar Schacht Hermann Göring Walther Funk

Minister for Food and Agriculture

Alfred Hugenberg Richard Walther Darré Herbert Backe

Minister for Labour

Franz Seldte

Minister for Postal Affairs

Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach Wilhelm Ohnesorge

Minister for Transport

Paul Freiherr von Eltz-Rübenach Julius Dorpmüller

Minister of Aviation

Hermann Göring

Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda

Joseph Goebbels

Minister for Science and Education

Bernhard Rust

Minister for Church Affairs

Hanns Kerrl Hermann Muhs

Minister for Armaments and Ammunition

Fritz Todt Albert Speer

Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories

Alfred Rosenberg

Minister of State for Bohemia and Moravia

Karl Hermann Frank

Minister without portfolio

Hans Frank Otto Meissner Arthur Seyss-Inquart Martin Bormann Hans Lammers Konstantin Hierl

1 Until May 1941.

v t e

The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Poland

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Belgium Croatia Denmark Estonia France Latvia Lithuania Norway Russia Ukraine

v t e

Camps, ghettos and operations

Camps

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Chełmno Majdanek Operation Reinhard
Operation Reinhard
death camps

Bełżec Sobibór Treblinka

Concentration

Kraków-Płaszów Potulice Soldau Stutthof Szebnie Trawniki Warsaw

Mass shootings

AB Action Bronna Góra Erntefest Jedwabne Kielce cemetery Aktion Krakau Lviv
Lviv
pogroms Lwów professors Palmiry Sonderaktion Krakau Tannenberg Tykocin Bydgoszcz Wąsosz Bloody Sunday

Ghettos

List of 277 Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Poland
(1939–1942) Będzin Białystok Brest Częstochowa Grodno Kielce Kraków Lwów Łódź Lubartów Lublin Międzyrzec Podlaski Mizocz Nowy Sącz Pińsk Radom Siedlce Sambor Słonim Sosnowiec Stanisławów Tarnopol Wilno Warsaw

Other atrocities

Action T4 Grossaktion Warsaw Human medical experimentation

v t e

Perpetrators, participants, organizations, and collaborators

Major perpetrators

Organizers

Josef Bühler Eichmann Eicke Ludwig Fischer Hans Frank Globocnik Glücks Greiser Himmler Hermann Höfle Fritz Katzmann Wilhelm Koppe Friedrich-Wilhelm Krüger Kutschera Erwin Lambert Ernst Lerch Oswald Pohl Reinefarth Scherner Seyss-Inquart Sporrenberg Streckenbach Thomalla Otto Wächter Wisliceny

Camp command

Aumeier Baer Boger Braunsteiner Eberl Eupen Kurt Franz Karl Frenzel Karl Fritzsch Göth Grabner Hartjenstein Hering Höss Hössler Josef Kramer Liebehenschel Mandel Matthes Michel Möckel Mulka Johann Niemann Oberhauser Reichleitner Heinrich Schwarz Stangl Gustav Wagner Christian Wirth

Gas chamber executioners

Erich Bauer Bolender Hackenholt Klehr Hans Koch Herbert Lange Theuer

Physicians

von Bodmann Clauberg Gebhardt Fritz Klein Mengele Horst Schumann Trzebinski Eduard Wirths

Ghetto
Ghetto
command

Auerswald Biebow Blösche Bürkl Konrad Palfinger von Sammern-Frankenegg Stroop

Einsatzgruppen

Wolfgang Birkner Blobel Felix Landau Schaper Schöngarth von Woyrsch

Personnel

Camp guards

Juana Bormann Danz Demjanjuk Margot Dreschel Kurt Gerstein Grese Höcker Kaduk Kollmer Muhsfeldt Orlowski Volkenrath

By camp

Sobibór Treblinka

Organizations

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
(SS) Ordnungspolizei
Ordnungspolizei
(Orpo battalions) WVHA RKFDV VoMi General Government Hotel Polski

Collaboration

Belarusian

Belarusian Auxiliary Police BKA battalions Brigade Siegling Black Cats Central Rada

Jewish

Jewish Ghetto
Ghetto
Police Żagiew ("Torch Guard") Group 13 Kapos Judenräte

Russian

Waffen-SS "RONA" Waffen-SS "Russland" Ostlegionen, Bataillone (Cossack Division, Russian "ROA")

Ukrainian

Ukrainian Auxiliary Police SS Galizien Ukrainian Liberation Army Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Battalion 118, Brigade Siegling, 30. Waffen SS Grenadier Division) Trawnikimänner

Other nationalities

Estonian Auxiliary Police Latvian Auxiliary Police
Latvian Auxiliary Police
(Arajs Kommando) Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions
(Schutzmannschaft, Ypatingasis būrys) Pieter Menten
Pieter Menten
(Nederlandsche SS)

v t e

Resistance: Judenrat, victims, documentation and technical

Organizations

AK AOB Bund GL PKB ŻOB ŻZA

Uprisings

Ghetto
Ghetto
uprisings Białystok Częstochowa Sobibór Treblinka Warsaw Ghetto
Ghetto
Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish Ghetto
Ghetto
Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust
Holocaust
train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

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Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust
Holocaust
survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti-Jewish violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz- Birkenau
Birkenau
Memorial and Museum Majdanek State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

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The Holocaust
Holocaust
in Ukraine

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Lithuania Norway Poland Russia

Crimes

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobych Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv
Lviv
pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa Pripyat Swamps

Major perpetrators

Paul Blobel Werner Braune Lothar Fendler Hans Frank Günther Herrmann Friedrich Jeckeln Ernst Kaltenbrunner Fritz Katzmann Erich Koch Felix Landau Gustav Adolf Nosske Otto Ohlendorf Paul Otto Radomski Otto Rasch Walter Schimana Erwin Schulz Heinrich Seetzen Otto Wächter Dieter Wisliceny

Nazi occupation and organizations

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiment South Reichskommissariat Ukraine

Collaborators

Individuals Hryhoriy Vasiura Vladimir Katriuk Petro Voinovsky Petro Zakhvalynsky

Organizations Schutzmannschaft Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Nachtigall Battalion

Ghettos, camps and prisons

Bogdanovka Drohobych Ghetto Syrets concentration camp Vapniarka concentration camp

Resistance and survivors

Priest's Grotto Syrets inmate revolt

Planning, methods, documents and evidence

Planning Generalplan Ost Volksliste

Evidence Graebe affidavit

Concealment and denial

Sonderaktion 1005

Investigations and trials

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Righteous Among the Nations

Klymentiy Sheptytsky Omelyan Kovch Hermann Friedrich Graebe

Memorials

Babi Yar
Babi Yar
memorials List of Babi Yar
Babi Yar
victims

See also History of the Jews in Carpathian Ruthenia Transnistria Governorate

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National Socialist German Workers' Party

Leader

Anton Drexler
Anton Drexler
(1919–1921) Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
(1921–1945) Martin Bormann
Martin Bormann
(1945)

Related articles

Germany and World War I Stab-in-the-back myth Weimar Republic Treaty of Versailles Occupation of the Ruhr Politischer Arbeiter-Zirkel German Workers' Party Thule Society National Socialist Program Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Rally Ranks and insignia Sturmabteilung
Sturmabteilung
(SA) Beer Hall Putsch Brown House, Munich Horst-Wessel-Lied Party songs Adolf Hitler's rise to power Night of the Long Knives Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Enabling Act of 1933 NSDAP/AO Greater German Reich Hitler Youth World War II Operation Werwolf Denazification Article 21 Paragraph 2 (de facto prohibition) National Socialism German Question Jewish Question Anti-Semitism in Germany

Party offices

NSDAP Office of Racial Policy NSDAP Office of Foreign Affairs NSDAP Office of Colonial Policy NSDAP Office of Military Policy Hitler's Chancellery Nazi Party
Nazi Party
Chancellery Amt Rosenberg

Publications

Völkischer Beobachter Das Schwarze Korps Das Reich Innviertler Heimatblatt Arbeitertum Der Angriff

Members

Gottfried Feder Dietrich Eckart Alfred Rosenberg Joseph Goebbels Heinrich Himmler Reinhard Heydrich Hermann Göring Gregor Strasser Otto Strasser Albert Speer Rudolf Hess Ernst Kaltenbrunner Adolf Eichmann Joachim von Ribbentrop Houston Stewart Chamberlain Hans Frank Rudolf Höss Richard Walther Darré Baldur von Schirach Artur Axmann Ernst Röhm Wilhelm Frick Josef Mengele Ernst Hanfstaengl Julius Streicher Hermann Esser

Derivatives

Black Front (Strasserism) / German Social Union Deutsche Rechtspartei (through entryism) / Deutsche Reichspartei / National Democratic Party of Germany Socialist Reich Party

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 5088299 LCCN: n80125577 ISNI: 0000 0001 2275 9622 GND: 118534742 SELIBR: 187320 SUDOC: 050162942 BNF: cb13517915v (data) BIBSYS: 90557546 NDL: 00521754 NKC: mzk2004246411 CiNii: DA03068

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